CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) © 2015 IPA
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveola
r
Postalveola
r
Retroflex Palatal Vela
r
Uvula
r
Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive
Nasal
Trill
Tap or Flap
Fricative
Lateral
fricative
Approximant
Lateral
approximant
Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)
Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives
Bilabial
Bilabial
Examples:
Dental
Dental/alveolar
Bilabial
(Post)alveolar
Palatal
Dental/alveolar
Palatoalveolar
Velar
Velar
Alveolar lateral
Uvular
Alveolar fricative
VOWELS
Front Central
Back
Close
Close-mid
Open-mid
Open
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one
to the right represents a rounded vowel.
OTHER SYMBOLS
Voiceless labial-velar fricative
Alveolo-palatal fricatives
Voiced labial-velar approximant
Voiced alveolar lateral flap
Voiced labial-palatal approximant
Simultaneous and
Voiceless epiglottal fricative
Affricates and double articulations
can be represented by two symbols
joined by a tie bar if necessary.
Voiced epiglottal fricative
Epiglottal plosive
SUPRASEGMENTALS
Primary stress
Secondary stress
Long
Half-long
Extr
a
-short
Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
Syllable break
Linking (absence of a break)
DIACRITICS Some diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.
Voiceless
Breathy voiced
Dental
Voiced
Creaky voiced
Apical
Aspirated
Linguolabial
Laminal
More rounded
Labialized
Nasalized
Less rounded
Palatalized
Nasal release
Advanced
Velarized
Lateral release
Retracted
Pharyngealized
No audible release
Centralized
Velarized or pharyngealized
Mid-centralized
Raised
( = voiced alveolar fricative)
Syllabic
Lowered
( = voiced bilabial approximant)
Non-syllabic
Advanced Tongue Root
Rhoticity
Retracted Tongue Root
TONES AND WORD ACCENTS
LEVEL
CONTOU
R
or
Extr
a
or Rising
high
High Falling
Mid
Hi
g
h
rising
Low
Low
rising
Extr
a
Risin
g
-
low
falling
Downstep
Global rise
Upstep
Global fall
THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2015)
Typefaces: Doulos SIL (metatext); Doulos SIL, IPA Kiel, IPA LS Uni (symbols)
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