Name: ______________________________ Class: ________________ Date: _______________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 8: Native Peoples and Explorers
Section 1
Georgia's First People
Use the information from pages 162 - 170 to complete the
1. Human beings have lived in the place we now call ________________ for
____________________ of years.
2. Because the __________________ peoples who lived here in the distant past did not
have a method of __________________, what is known about them and their
____________________ comes from their _________________ - the tools, pottery,
remains of their structures, and other items that are on or underneath Georgia's
3. The location and study of these artifacts is called ______________________.
4. ___________________ refers to the beliefs, traditions, and way of life of a group of
5. Archaeologists generally group the early cultures into ____________ groups.
6. The oldest groups of humans in the __________________ are called _____________-
Indians (paleo means "very old") and date to around 11,000 to 8,000 BC.
7. This was the time of the last _________ age, when many areas of North America were
covered by ____________________.
8. Paleo-Indians lived in small groups of ________________ and were ____________,
which means they moved around from place to place. They were following the big
game animals of that time such as mastodons and _________________, which were
their major _______________ sources.
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9. In addition to sources of ____________ and food, Paleo-Indians and their descendants
also had to have sources of stone nearby for making their ______________. Paleo-
Indians made ______________ points for hunting by flaking pieces off
10. By the end of the Paleo-Indian period, the glaciers had ______________ and the
________________ was warmer. The large animals ___________ out, and smaller
animals, such as deer, became the main _____________ sources.
11. The next period in the development of Native American culture is the ______________
Period. They [native people] lived in small groups that were based around
12. They survived by hunting _____________, bear, __________________, and other
small animals and by gathering fruits and _________________, nuts and ___________.
13. Archaeologists can identify the __________________ Indians by the way they made
their tools, which were different from the ______________ tools. Their cutting tools
were _______________ and finer.
14. By 8000-5000 BC, their tools were _______________ made, but their lives had not
____________________ very much.
15. But between 5000 and 3000 BC, ______________ changes began in these native
16. Some of these people _______________ in the same place for longer periods of time,
often _____________________ settlements near ________________. By then, their
tools included stone ______________ and ______________.
17. During this period, the archaic people had invented _________________-making.
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18. Archaeologists have found pottery pieces, which they call ______________, in several
places in Georgia.
19. In the areas along the ________________ coast, there is evidence of larger and more
complex __________________. People of the late archaic period were still
______________ and gatherers. But they also ate __________________ from the
nearby ocean and some rivers.
20. The Native Americans who lived from around 1000 BC to about AD 1000 are
classified as _____________________ Indians.
21. In the early Woodland Period, the people lived in one place for ______________
periods, although they did have to move around in different _________________ of the
22. By the middle years of this era, their settlements were not only _________________,
but they also had more permanent ___________________, including
__________________ houses.
23. Another significant change was the introduction of ______________________, the
planting and harvesting of their food rather than simply gathering what grew in the wild.
24. This was a major step forward for the ___________________ people because now they
could, for the first time, have some _________________ over their food
25. One food they planted was ________________, although it was not yet the main food.
26. These middle Woodland Period groups _________________ with each other;
sometimes over long ___________________. All their travel was on
_______________, since they had no ________________.
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27. In the middle years of the Woodland Period, Indians built ___________________, some
made of soil and others of rock. (The rock structures are often called
28. In this time [from around AD 600 to 900 or 1000], however, the first settlements with
_____________________ around them appeared. Some villages had
______________ dug around them.
29. Some also had _____________________, which are sharpened poles or logs stuck into
the ground standing up, making a wall.
30. The _____________________ of plants, building of mounds, and _________________
of fortified __________________ were major changes of the Woodland Period.
31. The next period of Native American development is the ________________________
which lasted from about AD 800 AD to 1600.
32. The societies of the Mississippian Indians were more ____________________
(complex) than earlier ones.
33. Their horticulture was more _________________, and they grew many vegetables that
Georgians still eat, such as corn, ____________________, and _______________.
34. Hunting for deer and other animals remained an important task of the __________.
35. The Indians made ___________ and __________________, some with ___________,
which they ____________________ into sheets before making it into an object.
36. The Mississippians lived in _________________ with centers where everyone could
come _________________.
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37. Their __________________ were made of poles in the ground held together with
woven ________________ and covered with _____________, which hardened in the
38. There were definite _____________ in society, with some having more _____________
and ______________ than others. ___________________ developed in which a
chief had power over his village and several others.
39. By AD 1100 to 1350, this culture began once again to build ________________.
These structures seem to have been connected to the chiefs and to
Name: ______________________________ Class: ________________ Date: _______________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 8: Native Peoples and Explorers
Section 2
Europe and the Colonization of America
Use the information from pages 172 - 182 to complete the
1. In the three centuries from AD1100 to AD1400, many changes took place in Western
___________________ that put the countries there on the path to the _____________.
2. These changes included a greater desire for _______________ with ____________
and a rebirth of learning and curiosity.
3. By the 1400s, European nations began to ___________________ and later
___________________ other lands. They wanted greater _________________, they
sought greater ________________ and power, and they hoped to spread their
____________________ beliefs to other areas of the world.
4. One way for the countries to gain wealth and empire was to _________________ their
trade with both Asia and __________________.
5. Their main interest was trade with Asia, including areas now known as India,
__________________ and the islands of the ___________ _____________.
6. ________________ like pepper, along with silk, ______________, perfumes,
diamonds, and other goods were to be found in the Middle East and Far East.
7. Originally, traders had to make the long trips across ________________ to the Middle
East and then through the ________________________ region. Western Europeans
wanted to find a _____________ route for this trade.
8. In the mid-1400s, the Portuguese began to trade along the _________________ coast
for slaves.
9. _________________ were people who had few rights and who spent their entire lives in
service to others.
10. West African society had long had _________________, but most enslaved people,
often ________________, had been captured in a ___________, owed a
____________, or were guilty of a crime. This type of slavery was usually not
___________________ and did not extend to the enslaved person's children.
11. In 1488, a few years before Christopher _______________ set sail, the first Portuguese
__________________ sailed around the tip of Africa to India, discovering the water
______________ to Asia.
12. By the late 1400s, trade had led to the growth of towns and a __________________
13. Merchants were the _____________________ who bought and sold the goods, for a
_______________, that others produced.
14. European countries were developing stronger nations with central governments ruled by
___________________ (kings and queens) who could afford to finance
_______________ and who wanted to increase their own ____________________ and
15. ________________ in the Atlantic Ocean ________________ strong ships that could
be steered and had sails to capture the wind.
16. This led to the development of ____________________, small, two - or three-masted
______________ that were sturdy enough for traveling the oceans.
17. Columbus's ____________, ____________, and ____________ ______________
were caravels.
18. Instruments like the _________________ to tell direction and the ________________,
which determined a ship's position at sea by using the ____________, made it
possible to sail out of the _____________ of land.
19. Because of the ____________ voyage of Columbus, the _________________ were the
first Europeans to explore and conquer lands in the Americas.
20. Since the Portuguese were also ____________________ in the Atlantic, the two
countries [Portugal and Spain] agreed to the __________________ of Tordesillas in
1493-1494, which basically ____________________ all "newly discovered" lands
between Spain and Portugal.
21. One of the first effects of Spanish contact with the _______________ of the Americas
was the exchange that began in ________________. _______________ and
________________ began to cross the ocean.
22. Horses, ___________________, cows, ___________, and other animals came from the
Old World to the Americas, as did ______________, rice, and _________________.
23. Corn, ___________________, tomatoes, and _______________________ left the
Americas for Europe.
24. Other biological transfers were the microscopic ______________ and _____________
which the Europeans brought with them.
25. They [Europeans] had built up ____________________, which made their bodies more
able to fight the ____________________.
26. The worst diseases that were transferred were smallpox, __________________, and
27. Historians estimate that as much as ________ percent of the population of
________________ Americans ___________ out within a century or two of the
European arrival ___________ mainly to disease, but also to war and starvation.
28. The ______________ and ________________ in the Americas that the Spanish, and
later other Europeans, found were quite ________________ from their own familiar
29. Since the Europeans saw themselves and their ______________ as civilized, they often
wrote of the native peoples as "__________________."
30. One area of disagreement concerned ___________________. Indians believed that
the entire _______________owned the goods, territory, and produce of the community
31. Europeans believed in _____________________ ownership of goods and property.
32. Europeans and Native Americans also differed in _________________.
33. The exploration of Juan Ponce _____ __________ took place over twenty years after
Columbus's first voyage.
34. The expedition of Juan Ponce de Leon came to _______________ in 1515 and again in
35. An _____________________ is a journey for a specific purpose, such as exploration.
36. The first major exploration of the _________________ area was not until the spring of
1540 when Hernando ____ ___________ left Florida with over six hundred soldiers and
a couple hundred horses in search of ________________.
37. De Soto found no _______________ or __________________ in Georgia.
38. The Spanish were not the only Europeans to ________________ and attempt to settle
____________________ in North America in the 1500s.
39. A ___________________ is a geographical area controlled by a distant country.
40. The __________________ tried to plant a colony in South __________________.
41. The Spanish had not founded colonies in the area yet, but they did not want the
________________ there.
42. So they sent Pedro Menéndez _______ _____________ to destroy the French colony.
Menendez then established the first _____________________ Spanish settlement in
America _____ ______________________, in 1565.
43. After founding St. Augustine, Pedro Menéndez went _______________, exploring the
44. He met an Indian chief named ________________ (pronounced Wah-lee) on one of the
sea islands off Georgia's coast. He named the whole area for that chief, so Georgia
under ________________ control was known as Guale.
45. The Spanish decided that this ______________ would be the northern part of their
_________________ colony.
46. In the 1560s, they began to set up ____________________, where ____________
could live and work in major Indian towns. The priests came to __________________
the Indians to the ___________________ religion as it was practiced by
_________________ and to teach them Spanish __________________.
47. The Spanish mission era began to ___________________ by the middle and late
1600s, in part because the Indian ________________________ continued to decrease
due to disease.
48. Another __________________ for the Spanish, however, was the _______________
settlement in what is now South Carolina in 1670. Indians in South Carolina
_____________ villages in Georgia to _______________ Indians to ____________ to
the English as slaves.
49. With ____________________ getting wealthy from its empire, the other European
nations wanted to acquire ______________ and ________________ in the Americas
as well.
50. In the 1520s, a _________________ expedition explored the North American coast
from North Carolina to ___________________.
51. A few years later, the French sent expeditions further north, thinking there might be a
water route through North America to the _______________ _______________.
52. Unfortunately, there was no "________________________ ___________________."
53. However, their voyages later led the French to claim ________________ and the
__________________ ________________ area.
54. The first permanent French settlement was ___________________ on the _____
_______________________ River (founded in 1608), followed years later by Montreal
in 1642.
55. Further exploration in the 1600s took the French to the head of the
_______________________ River and then down that river to the Gulf of
56. In 1718, they established the city of ____________ __________________.
57. While the French did not find _______________ in Canada or the Mississippi Valley,
they established a very profitable ___________-__________________ business with
the Native Americans.
58. This resulted in French _________________ with the Indians of the lower Mississippi
River area, especially the ____________________.
59. In 1558, ______________________ became queen of England.
60. Under Elizabeth, England became more _____________________ and stable. She
built a larger _______________ and gave permission to found ________________.
61. In the 1580s, ___________ colonies were established by one of Elizabeth's favorite
nobles, Sir _________________ _______________________. He tried to settle in
what is now _______________ ____________________.
62. The first colonists returned ________________. The second colony had
________________________ by the time anyone came back to check on it. It has
become known as the "______________ ____________________."
63. A ___________ with Spain interrupted further colonization until the early 1600s.
64. In 1607, England established its first permanent colony in America in
______________________, ____________________.
65. The __________________ settled the area in the Hudson River Valley, calling it New
Netherlands and establishing a thriving ____________ that they called ____________
___________________________ at the mouth of the river.
66. In the 1640s, England suffered through a _____________ war that resulted in the end
of the _______________________ from 1649 to 1660. In 1660, King Charles II
____________________ the monarchy with the help of several English nobles.
67. He [King Charles II] began to ___________________ supporters by granting them
__________________ in America.
68. After taking the territory of New Netherlands from the Dutch, he [King Charles II]
______________ it to his brother, the _____________ of York. The area was renamed
_____________ _________________ and its busy port became New York City.
69. In the 1660s, a very large land _______________ south of Virginia went to
_____________ English gentlemen. They named the colony - from its boundary with
Virginia in the north to its southern boundary right above Florida -
70. In 1670, these men founded a ____________________ where two rivers came
together, and they named it _______________ _______________.
71. Settlers moved to the portion of Carolina that is now South Carolina and established
_________________________ (large farms).
72. They hoped to grow ___________________.
73. The Carolina ___________________ brought slaves with them to do the ___________.
74. Traders moved into the _________________________ (the land away from the coast)
of the South Carolina colony and became involved in the ___________ trade with the
Indians who lived in Carolina south of the ____________________ River.
75. In 1692, the Carolinians established a trading __________ called
______________________ Town on the north side of the river [Savannah].