PHONICS INSTRUCTION
IN THE
UNITS OF STUDY IN PHONICS,
K-2
BY LUCY CALKINS
WITH TEACHERS COLLEGE READING
AND WRITING PROJECT COLLEAGUES
Grades K–1:
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Word Knowledge/Word Solving
Phonics
High-Frequency Words
Grade 2:
Phonological Awareness
Phonics
Word Structure
Word Solving: Decoding
Word Solving: Spelling
Vocabulary
Conventions
High-Frequency Words
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 1
Units of Study in Phonics
A Research-Based Curriculum
The Units of Study in Phonics have grown out of the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project’s decades of research and practice in the
teaching of reading and writing. Given that phonics is important only insofar as it transfers to and informs literacy writ large, we think it is
essential that a phonics curriculum draw on broad, deep, applied knowledge of how students develop as writers and readers, speakers and
listeners.
The sequence of the Units of Study in Phonics follows a pathway that is widely supported by an enormous body of research including the work
of Bear, Beck, Blevins, Cunningham, Fountas, Pinnell, Rasinski, and others. In general, whether children are studying the Units of Study in
Phonics or any one of many other programs, the sequence of topics they study will not be widely different.
Always, children first develop phonemic awareness: learning to segment words into phonemes, to blend phonemes into word parts and words,
and to rhyme and play with language. Simultaneously, children learn the alphabetic principle—learning letter names and sounds and formation.
They also become immersed in concepts of print. Throughout all of this, kids learn high-frequency words.
Researchers have some differences of opinion—should students develop phonemic awareness prior to any involvement with phonics (with
visible letters) or can phonemic awareness develop in synchrony with phonics knowledge? How much emphasis should be given to word
families (rimes) as opposed to letter-by-letter cumulative word solving? These differences of opinion are relatively small, however, compared to
the consensus that emerges among people who know about and study phonics instruction.
Aligning Phonics with Reading and Writing Instruction / Celebrating Approximation
Our commitment to teaching phonics in ways that give kids wings as readers and writers has important implications for the nature of phonics
instruction. It means that the pace and content of instruction need to align to the work children do as readers and writers.
Instead of starting kindergarten by teaching one letter a week, for example, we quicken the pace of that instruction, knowing that children can
cement their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences as they use that knowledge to label their drawings during writing time. The demands
that books pose will also influence the pace of phonics instruction. If you keep in mind that level C books contain contractions and that children
reading level E books will need to draw on a knowledge of long vowels, then it is clear that your phonics curriculum cannot proceed slowly
enough that children master one bit of content before proceeding to another. And if your phonics instruction aims to keep pace with your
children’s reading and writing development, you won’t be able to give equal time to all twenty-six letters, the thirty-seven most common
phonograms, and to each and every blend.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 2
Even something as simple as the sequence in which you teach high-frequency words will be affected by your commitment to teach in ways that
align with your reading and writing instruction. You’ll presumably still draw on Fry’s list of 250 high-frequency words, but you’ll tweak the
sequence in which you teach those words so that when children are writing Small Moment stories, they learn to spell said and went, and when
they are writing How-To books, they learn to spell how and put.
Phonics programs that aim to teach one topic at a time and to teach to mastery tend to postpone instruction of various topics because young
children are not apt to master them early on. We made a different decision. We determined that because many topics are complex, we want
children to have extra time to practice and produce approximations in reading and writing well before we expect them to achieve mastery.
Teaching Phonics to Grow Readers and Writers
It is not just the content of your phonics curriculum that will shift when your teaching is designed to support transfer to reading and writing—the
kind of work you ask of children will shift as well. During a phonics unit on short vowels, your children will still spend time doing the sorting work
that can help them distinguish one short vowel from another, but to help transfer, you’ll also ask children to look over the writing they’ve done
recently, making sure that every syllable of every word contains a vowel. Have they chosen the correct short vowel? You’ll tell them that
checking for this requires careful listening for the small nuanced differences between the short I and the short E, for example.
When teaching with the transfer of phonics skills to reading and writing in mind, the work the children do during and especially near the end of
phonics time is more apt to look like, feel like, and even be reading and writing.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 3
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
!Recognize*that*spoken*words*
are*represented*in*written*
language*by*specific*
sequences*of*letters.
!Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words.
•*Recognize*uppercase*and*
lowercase*letters.
•*Recognize*the*names/sounds*
of*letters,*starting*with*M.
2
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words.
•*Recognize*uppercase*and*
lowercase*letters.
•*Recognize*the*names/sounds*
of*letters,*particularly*M.
3
•*Understand*the*concepts*of*
letter*and*word.
•*Recognize*and*name*all*
upper-*and*lowercase*letters*of*
the*alphabet.
•*Recognize*the*names/sounds*
of*letters,*particularly*M.
•*Use*efficient*and*consistent*
motions*to*form*letters.
•*Make*connections*between*
names*and*other*words.
4
•*Understand*the*concept*of*
first*in*written*language.
•*Recognize*and*name*all*
upper-*and*lowercase*letters*of*
the*alphabet.
•*Recognize*the*name/sound*
of*letters,*paricularly*S$and*T.
•*Understand*that*there*is*a*
relationship*between*sounds*
and*letters.
5
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words*and*make*
connections*to*words.
•*Recognize*and*name*all*
upper-*and*lowercase*letters*of*
the*alphabet.
•*Recognize*the*names/sounds*
of*letters,*particularly*N.
•*Understand*that*there*is*a*
relationship*between*sounds*
and*letters.
6
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words*and*make*
connections*to*words.
•*Make*connections*between*
words*by*recognizing*letters.
•*Recognize*the*names/sounds*
of*letters,*particularly*R$and*L.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Kindergaren+Unit+1,!Making!Friends!with!Letters!
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 4
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
7
•*Understand*left-to-right*
directionality*of*print.
•*Recognize*and*talk*about*the*
sequence*of*letters*in*words.
•*Understand*that*some*letters*
represent*consonant*sounds.
•*Understand*that*some*letters*
represent*vowel*sounds,*
particularly*A.
•*Recognize*the*name/sound*
of*letters.
•*Use*efficient*and*consistent*
motions*to*form*letters.
8
•*Construct*one’s*name*
accurately*with*letter*cards.
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words.
•*Recognize*and*name*all*
upper-*and*lowercase*letters*of*
the*alphabet.
•*Recognize*and*name*letters*
in*words.
9
•*Write*one’s*first*name*with*
all*letters*in*accurate*
sequence.
•*Recognize*some*letters*and*
state*their*names,*especially*
letters*in*children’s*names.
•*Recognize*the*name/sound*
of*letters.
•*Use*efficient*and*consistent*
motions*to*form*letters.*
10
•*Recognize*the*name/sound*
of*letters.
•*Distinguish*between*
uppercase*and*lowercase*
letters.
•*Use*efficient*and*consistent*
motions*to*form*letters.*Learn*
a*Letter:*name*it,*sound*it,*and*
write*it.
•*Recognize*and*use*beginning*
consonant*sounds*and*the*
letters*that*represent*them.
•*Say*a*word*slowly*to*hear*
any*sound.
11
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words*and*to*make*
connections*to*words.
•*Use*the*letters*in*names*to*
read*and*write*other*words.
•*Change*the*beginning*
sound*or*sounds*to*make*and*
solve*a*new*word.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 5
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
12
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words*and*to*make*
connections*to*words.
Recognize*and*name*letters*
in*the*environment.
•*Use*efficient*and*consistent*
motions*to*form*letters.
•*Say*a*word*slowly*to*hear*
any*sound.
13
•*Understand*the*concept*of*a*
word.
•*Recognize*and*talk*about*the*
sequence*of*letters*in*a*word.
•*Locate*and*read*high-
frequency*words*in*text.
•*Develop*strategies*for*
learning*high-frequency*
words.
•*Learn*to*read*and*write*
new*words*(me,*a,*the).
14
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words*and*to*make*
connections*to*words.
•*Recognize*and*find*names.
•*Use*the*letters*in*names*to*
read*and*write*other*words.
15
•*Use*names*to*learn*about*
letters*and*words.
•*Recognize*and*name*all*
upper-*and*lowercase*letters*of*
the*alphabet.
•*Recognize*the*name/sound*
of*letters,*particularly*W,$D,$O,*
and*H.
•*Recognize*and*use*beginning*
consonant*sounds*and*the*
letters*that*represent*them.
•*Use*efficient*and*consistent*
motions*to*form*letters.
16
•*Understand*the*concept*of*a*
word.
•*Recognize*and*talk*about*the*
sequence*of*letters*in*a*word.
•*Use*efficient*and*consistent*
motions*to*form*letters.
•*Develop*strategies*for*
learning*high-frequency*
words.
•*Locate*and*read*high-
frequency*words*in*a*text.
•*Learn*to*read*and*write*
new*words*(I,*like,*my).
17
•*Use*one’s*name*to*learn*
about*words*and*to*make*
connections*to*words*and*to*
other*names.
•*Recognize*and*name*all*
upper-*and*lowercase*letters*of*
the*alphabet.
•*Recognize*the*name/sound*
of*letters.
•*Understand*that*some*letters*
are*consonants*and*some*
letters*are*vowels.
•*Recognize*and*find*names.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 6
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
Identify#and#produce#words
that#begin#with#the#same#sound.
Identify#the#initial#phonemes#of
spoken#words.
Recognize#features#of#letters.
Recognize#and#name#all
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of
the#alphabet.
Recognize#the#order#of#the
alphabet.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondence#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
2
Identify#and#produce#words
that#begin#with#the#same#sound.
Identify#the#initial#phonemes#of
spoken#words.
Match#words#with#the#same
beginning#sounds.
Recognize#and#name#all
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of
the#alphabet.
Recognize#the#order#of#the
alphabet.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondence#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#letter.
3
Count,#pronounce,#blend,#and
segment#syllables#in#spoken
words.
Recognize#and#name#all
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of
the#alphabet.
Recognize#the#order#of#the
alphabet.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondence#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#letter.
Develop#strategies#for
learning#high-frequency
words.
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words#with#
automaticity.
Learn#new#words#(look,#at,
see).
4
Count,#pronounce,#blend,#and
segment#syllables#in#spoken
words.
Identify#and#produce#words
that#begin#with#the#same#sound.
Match#words#with#the#same
beginning#sounds.
Recognize#and#name#all
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of
the#alphabet.
Recognize#the#order#of#the
alphabet.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondence#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#letter.
Associate#the#long#sound
with#the#letter#name#for#the#
five#major#vowels.
5
Identify#and#produce#words
that#begin#with#the#same#sound.
Identify#the#initial#phonemes#of
spoken#words.
Match#words#with#the#same
beginning#sounds.
Recognize#and#name#all
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of
the#alphabet.
Use#proper#letter#formation.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondence#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#letter.
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
6
Identify#the#initial#phonemes#of
spoken#words.
Identify#and#produce#words
that#begin#with#the#same#sound.
Match#words#with#the#same
beginning#sounds.
Recognize#and#name#all
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of
the#alphabet.
Identify#the#order#of#the
alphabet.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondence#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Kindergaren+Unit+2,!Word!Scientists
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 7
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
7
•#Identify#and#produce#words#
that#begin#and#end#with#the#
same#sound.
•#Identify#the#initial#and#final#
phonemes#of#spoken#words.
•#Match#words#with#the#same#
beginning#sounds.
•#Recognize#and#name#all#
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of#
the#alphabet.
•#Demonstrate#basic#
knowledge#of#letter-sound#
correspondence#by#
producing#the#primary#
sound#for#each#consonant.
•#Identify#and#use#
beginning#and#ending#
sounds#when#writing#
words.
•#Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
8
•#Identify#and#produce#words#
that#begin#with#the#same#sound.
•#Identify#the#initial#phonemes#of#
spoken#words.
•#Recognize#and#name#all#
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of#
the#alphabet.
•#Recognize#the#order#of#the#
alphabet.
•#Use#efficient#motions#to#form#
letters.
•#Demonstrate#basic#
knowledge#of#letter-sound#
correspondence#by#
producing#the#primary#
sound#for#each#consonant.
9
•#Recognize#that#spoken#
words#are#represented#in#
written#language#by#specific#
sequences#of#letters.
•#Identify#the#initial#phonemes#of#
spoken#words.
•#Say#words#slowly#and#identify#
salient#sounds#in#spoken#words.
•#Recognize#and#name#all#
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of#
the#alphabet.
•#Use#proper#letter#formation.
•#Demonstrate#basic#
knowledge#of#letter-sound#
correspondences#by#
producing#the#primary#
sound#for#each#consonant.
•#Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
•#Write#high-frequency#
words.
10
•#Recognize#that#spoken#
words#are#represented#in#
written#language#by#specific#
sequences#of#letters.
•#Understand#that#words#are#
written#left#to#right#across#the#
page.
•#Match#spoken#word#to#
print.
•#Identify#the#initial#and#final#
phonemes#of#spoken#words.
•#Say#words#slowly#and#identify#
salient#sounds#in#spoken#words.
•#Identify#and#use#initial#and#
final#sounds#when#writing#
words.
•#Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
•#Write#high-frequency#
words#in#continuous#text.
11
•#Recognize#that#spoken#
words#are#represented#in#
written#language#by#specific#
sequences#of#letters.
•#Understand#that#words#are#
written#left#to#right#across#the#
page.
•#Understand#that#words#are#
separated#by#spaces#in#print,#
concept#of#word.
•#Match#spoken#word#to#
print.
•#Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
•#Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#a#text.
•#Write#high-frequency#
words#in#continuous#text.
•#Learn#new#words#(here,#is,#
this).
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 8
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
12
Understand#that#words#are
written#left#to#right#across#the#
page.
Understand#that#words#are
separated#by#spaces#in#print,#
concept#of#word.
Match#spoken#word#to
print.
Say#words#slowly#to#identify
salient#sounds#in#words.
Identify#the#initial,#medial,#and
final#phonemes#of#spoken#words.
Identify#and#use#initial#and
final#sounds#when#writing
words.
13
Understand#that#words#are
separated#by#spaces#in#print,
concept#of#word.
Identify#the#initial#and#final
phonemes#of#spoken#words.
Say#words#slowly#to#identify
salient#sounds.
Identify#and#use#initial,
final,#and#salient#sounds
when#writing#words
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
Writing#high-frequency
words#in#a#continuous#text.
14
Recognize#that#spoken
words#are#represented#in
written#language#by#specific
sequences#of#letters.
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
Develop#strategies#for
learning#high-frequency#
words.
Learn#new#words#(it,#in,
an).
15
Recognize#that#spoken
words#are#represented#in
written#language#by#specific
sequences#of#letters.
Say#words#slowly#to#identify
salient#sounds#in#words.
Recognize#and#name#all
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of
the#alphabet.
Identifying#and#using#initial,
middle,#and#final#sounds#in
writing
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
16
Recognize#that#spoken
words#are#represented#in
written#language#by#specific
sequences#of#letters.
Understand#that#words#are
written#left#to#right#across#the#
page.
Make#return#sweep#at#the
end#of#a#line#of#text.
Understand#that#words#are
separated#by#spaces#in#print,
concept#of#word.
Match#spoken#word#to
print.
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
Read#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 9
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
17
Recognize#that#spoken
words#are#represented#in
written#language#by#specific
sequences#of#letters.
Understand#that#words#are
written#left#to#right#across#the#
page.
Understand#that#words#are
separated#by#spaces#in#print,
concept#of#word.
Match#spoken#word#to
print.
Changing#initial#phonemes#to
create#new#words
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#a#text.
Develop#and#use
strategies#for#learning#high-
frequency#words.
Learn#a#new#word#(and).
18
Recognize#that#spoken
words#are#represented#in
written#language#by#specific
sequences#of#letters.
Understand#that#words#are
written#left#to#right#across#the#
page.
Make#return#sweep#at#the
end#of#a#line#of#text.
Understand#that#words#are
separated#by#spaces#in#print,
concept#of#word.
Match#spoken#word#to
print.
Lowercase#letter#formation
Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words.
Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#a#text.
Develop#and#use
strategies#for#learning#high-
frequency#words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 10
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
•#Understand#that#words#are#
written#left#to#right#across#
the#page#(directionality).
•#Understand#that#words#are#
separated#by#spaces#in#print,#
concept#of#word.
•#Match#spoken#word#to#
print.
•#Say#words#slowly#to#hear#
sounds#in#words.
•#Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words#with#
automaticity.
•#Write#high-frequency#
words#in#continuous#text.
•#Learn#a#new#word#(can).
2
•#Identify#and#use#initial,#final,#
and#salient#sounds#when#writing#
words.
•#Say#words#slowly#to#identify#
salient#sounds#in#spoken#words.
•#Recognize#and#name#all#
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of#
the#alphabet.
•#Demonstrate#basic##
knowledge#of#letter-sound#
correspondences#by#producing#
the#primary#or#most#frequent#
sound#for#each#consonant.
•#Use#letter-sound#
knowledge#to#spell.
•#Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#a#text.
•#Write#high-frequency#
words#in#continuous#text.
•#Learn#new#words#(to,#do).
3
•#Say#words#slowly#to#identify#
salient#sounds#in#spoken#words.
•#Identify#and#use#initial,#final,#
and#salient#sounds#when#writing#
words.
•#Recognize#and#name#all#
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of#
the#alphabet.
•#Demonstrate#basic#
knowledge#of#letter-sound#
correspondences#by#producing
the#primary#or#most#frequent#
sound#for#each#consonant.
•#Use#letter-sound#
knowledge#to#spell.
•#Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words#with#
automaticity.
•#Learn#high#frequency#
words#(we,#be,#me).
4
•#Understand#punctuation#
has#a#purpose.
•#Return#sweep#at#the#end#of#
a#line#of#text
•#Say#words#slowly#to#identify#
salient#sounds#in#spoken#words.
•#Identify#and#use#initial,#final,#
and#salient#sounds#when#writing#
words.
•#Recognize#and#name#all#
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of#
the#alphabet.
•#Demonstrate#basic#
knowledge#of#letter-sound#
correspondences#by#producing
the#primary#or#most#frequent#
sound#for#each#consonant.
•#Use#letter-sound#
knowledge#to#spell.
•#Recognize#and#use#high-
frequency#words#with#
automaticity.
•#Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#a#text.
•#Write#high-frequency#
words#in#continuous#text.
5
•#Understand#that#words#are#
written#left#to#right#across#
the#page#(directionality).
•#Understand#that#words#are#
separated#by#spaces#in#print,#
concept#of#word.
•#Match#spoken#word#to#
print.
•#Say#words#slowly#to#identify#
salient#sounds#in#spoken#words.
•#Identify#and#use#initial,#final,#
and#salient#sounds#when#writing#
words.
•#Recognize#and#name#all#
upper-#and#lowercase#letters#of#
the#alphabet.
•#Demonstrate#basic#
knowledge#of#letter-sound#
correspondences#by#producing
the#primary#or#most#frequent#
sound#for#each#consonant.
•#Use#letter-sound#
knowledge#to#spell.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Kindergaren+Unit+3,!Word-Part!Power
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 11
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
6
Recognize#and#produce
rhyming#words.
Blend#and#segment#the#onset
and#rime#of#single-syllable
spoken#words.
Add#or#substitute#individual
sounds#in#simple,#one-syllable
words#to#make#new
words.
Use#various#onsets#to
generate#new#words#with
ending#phonograms#(VC).
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#(at,#in)
to#spell#unfamiliar#words.
Recognize#common
phonograms#(VC)
7
Recognize#and#produce
rhyming#words.
Blend#and#segment#the#onset
and#rime#of#single-syllable
spoken#words.
Add#or#substitute#individual
sounds#in#simple,#one-syllable
words#to#make#new
words.
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#(-at,#-
in,#-it,#-an)#to#spell
unfamiliar#words.
Use#common#word
phonograms#to#generate
new#words#(VC).
8
Recognize#and#produce
rhyming#words.
Blend#and#segment#the#onset
and#rime#of#single-syllable
spoken#words.
Add#or#substitute#individual
sounds#in#simple,#one-syllable
words#to#make#new#words.
Use#common#phonograms
to#read#new#words#(VC).
9
Blend#and#segment#the#onset
and#rime#of#single-syllable
spoken#words.
Add#or#substitute#individual
sounds#in#simple,#one-syllable
words#to#make#new#words.
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#(-at,#-
in,#-it,#-an)#to#read#and
spell#unfamiliar#words.
Use#common
phonograms#to#generate
new#words#(VC).
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
10
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#(-at,#-
in,#-it,#-an)#to#read#and
spell#unfamiliar#words.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Recognize#some#word
parts#are#HF#words#(at,#in,#it)
11
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#(-at,#-
in,#-it,#-an,#-ap,#-ot)#to
read#and#spell#unfamiliar
words.
Segment#onset#and#rime
to#discover#new#word#parts.
Learn#new#words#(got,
went,#was).
12
Manipulate#the#onset#and#rime
of#single-syllable#spoken#words.
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#(-ip,#-
op)#to#read#and#spell
unfamiliar#words.
Segment#onset#and#rime
to#discover#new#word#parts.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 12
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
13
Hearing,#matching,#and
producing#rhyming#words.
Use#familiar#word#parts
(-ug)#including#phonograms
to#read#and#spell#unfamiliar
words.
Segment#onset/rime#to
discover#new#word#parts#(-
ug).
14
Segmenting#and#blending#onset
and#rime.
Hear#word#parts#in#longer
words
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#to
read#and#spell#unfamiliar
words.
Recognize#more#common
phonograms#with#a#VC
pattern.
15
Hear#initial#digraphs
Identify#words#with#the#same
initial#digraph
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#digraphs#(sh,
th).
Learn#new#high-frequency
words#(she,#he,#we,#be).
16
Isolating#initial#digraphs
Use#common#word#endings
(-in,#-ap,#-ot)#to#generate#new#
words#(VC).
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#to
spell#unfamiliar#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#digraphs#(sh,
th,#ch).
17
Demonstrate
understanding#of#the
organization#and#basic
features#of#print.
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#phonograms#(un)#to#
spell#unfamiliar#words.
Identify#and#use#initial,
final,#and#salient#sounds
when#writing#words.
Use#letter-sound
knowledge#to#spell.
Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#a#text.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 13
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
Recognize#that#some#letters
are#consonants#and#some
letters#are#vowels.
Every#word#has#a#vowel
Notice#short#and#long
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them.
Recognize#and#use#Y#as#a
vowel#sound.
2
Segment#and#blend#individual
phonemes#in#words.
Say#words#slowly#to#hear
sounds#in#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#the
initial#sound,#medial#vowel,#and
final#sounds#in#spoken#words.
Recognize#that#some#letters
are#consonants#and#some
letters#are#vowels.
Use#proper#letter#formation.
Checking#for#vowels#to#edit
writing
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them.
Learn#new#words#(how,
you).
Review#strategies#for
learning#words
Using#high-frequency
words#to#write
3
Segment#and#blend#individual
phonemes#in#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Use#proper#letter#formation.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sounds#for#each#consonant.
Learn#new#words#(am,
did).
4
Manipulate#individual
phonemes#to#make#new#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Recognize#which#letters#are
consonants#and#which#letters
are#vowels.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#write#words.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
write#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them#(A,#I).
Read#and#write#high-
frequency#words#in
continuous#text.
5
Demonstrate#one-to-one
match.
Blend#individual#phonemes#in
words.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
read#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#read#words.
Read#high-frequency
words#with#automaticity.
6
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sound,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Recognize#which#letters#are
consonants#and#which#letters
are#vowels.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
write#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#write#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowels#sounds#in#words#and#
the#letters#that#represent
them#(E,#O,#I).
Phonics+Instruction+in+Kindergaren+Unit+4,!Vowel!Power
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 14
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
7
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Segment#and#blend#individual
phonemes#in#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#write#words.
Record#digraphs#to#write
new#words.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them#(E,#O,#I).
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
8
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sound,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#read#and
write#words.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
read#and#write#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them#(E,#O,#U).
9
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sound,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#write#words.
Record#digraphs#to#write
new#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
10
Use#proper#letter#formation.
Recognize#and#use#short
vowel#sounds#at#the
beginning#of#words.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Read#and#write#high-
frequency#words#with
automaticity.
Develop#strategies#for
learning#new#high-
frequency#words.
Learn#four#new#words#(on,
up,#fun,#get).
11
Understand#punctuation#has#a
purpose.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sound,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Use#proper#letter#formation.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#write#words.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
write#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 15
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
12
Manipulate#individual
phonemes#to#make#new#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sound,#medial#vowel,#and#final#
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowel#sounds#to#write#words.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
write#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant
(l,#p,#b,#g,#j).
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them.
13
Hear,#say,#blend,#and#segment
syllables#in#spoken#words.
Recognize#that#some#letters
are#consonants#and#some
letters#are#vowels.
Recognize#that#every
syllable#has#at#least#one
vowel
Recognize#Y#as#a#vowel
sound.
Spell#high-frequency
words#with#automaticity.
14
Understand#punctuation#has#a
purpose.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Hear,#say,#blend,#and#segment
syllables#in#spoken#words.
Recognize#which#letters#are
consonants#and#which#letters
are#vowels.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
write#multisyllabic#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
vowels#to#read#CVC#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#vowel
sounds#in#words#and#the
letters#that#represent#them.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
15
Say#words#slowly#to#hear
sounds#in#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them#(A,#I,#U).
16
Say#words#slowly#to#hear
sounds#in#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Use#proper#letter#formation.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
the#letters#that#represent
them#(A,#O).
Distinguish#between#long
and#short#vowel#sounds.
Read#high-frequency
words#with#automaticity.
Read#high-frequency
words#with#endings.
Learn#three#new#words
(day,#play,#say).
17
Blend#and#segment#the#onset
and#rime#of#single-syllable
spoken#words.
Segment#and#blend#individual
phonemes#in#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Use#knowledge#of#digraphs
to#read#and#write#words.
Use#knowledge#of#vowel
sounds#to#read#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Identify#digraphs#in
words.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel#sounds#in#words#and
letters#that#represent#them
(all#vowels).
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 16
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
18
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Recognize#which#letters#are
consonants#and#which#letters
are#vowels.
Use#proper#letter#formation.
Use#familiar#phonograms.
Record#digraphs#to#write
new#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#short
and#long#vowel#sounds#in#
words#and#in#the#letters#
that#represent#them#(all#
vowels).
Identify#digraphs#in
words.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Learn#a#new#word#(for).
19
Understand#that#words#are
separated#by#spaces#in#print,
concept#of#word.
Understand#punctuation#has#a
purpose.
Hear,#say,#blend,#and#segment
syllables#in#spoken#words.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial
sounds,#medial#vowel,#and#final
sounds#in#spoken#words.
Segment#individual#phonemes
in#words.
Recognize#which#letters#are
consonants#and#which#letters
are#vowels.
Use#familiar#phonograms#to
write#words.
Demonstrate#basic
knowledge#of#letter-sound
correspondences#by
producing#the#primary
sound#for#each#consonant.
Hear#and#identify#short
and#long#vowel#sounds#in
words#and#the#letters#that
represent#them.
Write#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 17
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
Segment#words#to#isolate
phonemes#in#unfamiliar
words
Say#a#word#slowly#to#hear
the#sounds#in#it.
Make#a#first#attempt#to
spell#an#unknown#word.
Recognize#and#use#blends
to#write#sound#effect
words.
Learn#new#words#(come,
are,#too,#love).
Develop#strategies#for
learning#new#words.
2
Hear#both#sounds#in#a
blend.
Say#a#word#slowly#to#hear
the#sounds#in#a#blend.
Use#known#blends#to
generate#other#words#that#
begin#with#that#blend.
Use#knowledge#of#blends#to
read#words.
Recognize#and#use#the
blends#chart#to#learn
consonant#blends.
3
Isolate#initial#blends#in
words.
Use#knowledge#of#blends#to
read#and#write#words.
Recognize#and#use#blends
at#the#beginning#of#words
(tr-#and#ch-).
4
Isolate#initial#blend#sounds
in#words.
Use#knowledge#of#blends#to
read#unknown#words.
Generate#new#words#using
specific#blends.
Read#checking#that#the
blends#we#say#look#right#and
make#sense.
5
Isolate#the#initial#blend#in#a
word.
Use#knowledge#of#blends#to
edit#writing.
Use#blends#to#read#and
write.
Study#the#blend#chart#to
learn#all#of#the#blends.
6
Hear#and#connect#rhyming
words.
Write#words#letter#by
letter,#by#blend,#by#word
part.
Use#a#blend#to#generate
more#words#that#begin#with
the#same#blend.
Blend#consonant#sounds
to#make#a#consonant
cluster.
7
Hear,#say,#and#clap
syllables.
Hear#the#ending#phoneme
in#a#syllable.
Use#phonograms#to#help
spell#words.
Use#known#words#to#spell
unknown#words.
Recognize#and#use#VC#and
CVC#phonograms.
Use#high-frequency#words
to#write
8
Hear#and#divide#onsets#and
rimes.
Use#phonograms#in#snap
words#to#write#new#words.
Recognize#and#use#VC#and
CVC#phonograms.
Learn#new#words#(all,#ball,
had,#will).
Develop#strategies#for
learning#new#high-
frequency#words.
Read#high-frequency
words#in#continuous#text.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Kindergaren+Unit+5,!Playing!with!Phonics
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 18
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
9
Use#known#word#parts#to
solve#unknown#larger#words.
Use#known#word#to#spell
unknown#words.
Recognize#and#use#CVC
and#VC#phonograms.
Recognize#and#use#blends
at#the#beginning#of#words.
Recognize#that#words
have#phonograms#that
appear#in#many#words,
including
high-frequency#words.
10
Hear#and#generate#rhyming
words.
Hear#and#divide#onsets#and
rimes.
Use#phonograms#to#spell
words.
Develop#strategies#for
learning#high-frequency
words.
Learn#new#words#(go,#so,
no,#by).
11
Hear#and#generate#rhyming
words.
Segment#onsets#and#rimes.
Use#phonograms#to#help
spell#a#word.
Change#the#beginning
blends#in#words#to#make#new
words.
Recognize#and#use
common#phonograms#(-ick,#-
ell,#-uck,#-ow,#-og).
Study#high-frequency
words#by#finding#rhymes#for
them.
12
Hear#and#generate#rhyming
words.
Segment#onsets#and#rimes.
Change#the#beginning
blends#and#digraphs#in#words
to#make#new#words.
Recognize#and#use
common#phonograms#(-ick,#-
ell,#-uck,#-ow,#-og).
Recognize#and#use#blends
and#digraphs.
13
Segment#onsets#and#rimes.
Generate#words#with#the
same#initial#sound#or#blend.
Use#onsets#in#known#words
to#generate#other#words#with
the#same#onset.
Use#known#words#to#write
unknown#words.
Recognize#and#use#initial
blends.
Review#high-frequency
words.
14
Hear#and#generate#rhymes.
Segment#onsets#and#rimes.
Use#phonograms#and
blends#and#digraphs#to#help
spell#a#word.
Recognize#and#use#blends
and#digraphs.
Recognize#and#use#VC#and
CVC#phonograms.
15
Use#a#predictable#process
of
collecting#and#sorting#to
learn#more
about#letters#and#sounds.
Discover#different#vowel
sounds#for#the#letter#I.
Learn#new#words#(has,#as,
her,#him).
Develop#strategies#for
learning#new#high-
frequency#words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 19
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
16
Sequence#letters#that
maek#up#words
Hear#the#difference
between#the#short#E#sound
and#the#short#I#sound#in
words.
Use#a#predictable#process
of#playing#with#words#to
learn#more#about#letters#and
sounds.
Use#short#I#phonograms#(it,
ip)#and#blends#and#digraphs
to#make#new#words.
Contrast#short#and#long
vowel#sounds#in#words.
17
Hear#the#difference
between#the#short#I#sound
and#the#long#I#sound#in
words.
Use#a#predictable#process
of#using#what#you#have
learned#when#you#are#trying
to#learn#more#about#letters
and#sounds.
Use#different#sounds#for
the#same#vowel#to#read
words.
Contrast#short#and#long
vowel#sounds#in#words.
Review#high-frequency
words.
18
Hear#the#difference
between#the#short#A,#E,#O,
and#U#sounds#and#the#long#A,#
E,#O,#and#U#sounds#in#words.
Use#a#predictable#process
of#adding#to#your#letter#I
project#to#learn#more#about
letters#and#sounds.
Use#a#predictable#process
to#learn#more#about#all#of#the#
vowels#(O,#E,#A).
Recognize#the#difference
between#the#long#U#sound
and#the#short#U#sound#in
words.
Study#the#word#wall#to
learn#more#about#long#and
short#vowels.
19
Use#a#predictable#process
of#teaching#what#you#have
learned#to#solidify#all#learning#
about#letters#and#sounds
(short/long#vowel#sounds).
Use#knowledge#of#short
and#long#vowel#sounds#to
plan#for#teaching.
20
Remembering#and#teaching
every#phonics#principle#from
kindergarten#(letter
names/sounds,#letter
formation,#word-part#power,
short-vowel#power,#blends,
digraphs,#snap#words,#and
making#poems).
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 20
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
Sequence#letters#that#make#up
words
Hear,#say,#and#clap#syllables.
Name#the#letters#to#spell
words.
Recognize#and#name#letters
in#the#environment.
Recognize#and#talk#about#the
sequence#of#letters#in#words.
Use#known#words#to#help
spell#an#unknown#word.
Identify#letter-sound,
especially#at
the#beginning#of#words.
Use#the#first#letter#to
generate#a#list#of#other
words.
2
Use#names#to#learn#about
words#and#to#make#connections
to#words.
Hear,#say,#and#clap#syllables.
Review#letter-sound
identification.
Name#the#letters#to#spell
words.
Use#known#words#to#spell
unknown#words.
Recognize#and#use
phonograms#with#a#double
vowel#(-eed).
3
Use#one’s#name#to#learn#about
words#and#to#make#connections
to#other#words.
Use#efficient#and#consistent
motions#to#form#letters.
Recognize#and#talk#about#the
fact#that#letters#can#be
consonants#or#vowels.
Draw#on#letter-sound
knowledge#to#write#names
4
Hear#and#generate#rhyming
words.
Change#the#beginning
phoneme#to#make#a#new#word.
Notice#upper-#and#lowercase
letters.
Use#efficient#and#consistent
motions#to#form#letters.
write#sentences#using
knowledge#or#phonics
principles#and#conventions
Identify#vowels#and
consonants#in#a#name.
Identify#digraphs#and
blends#in#a#name.
Identify#common
phonograms#in#a#name.
5
Hear,#say,#and#clap#syllables.
Segment#and#blend#phonemes
in#words.
Isolate#the#initial#and#medial
phoneme#in#words.
Use#one’s#name#to#learn
about#words#and#make
connections#to#other#words.
Hear,#say,#and#identify
vowels,#especially#short
vowels.
Recognize#and#use#short
vowel#sounds#in#the
beginning#and#middle#of
words.
6
Hear#and#divide#onsets#and
rimes.
Change#the#consonant#cluster
onset#and#replace#it#with#a#
different#consonant#cluster#onset#
to#form#a#new#word.
Use#blends#and#digraphs#to
read#and#write#words.
Hear,#say,#and#identify
blends#and#digraphs#in
familiar#names.
7
Segment#and#blend#onsets#and
rimes.
Identify#the#letters#in#blends
and#digraphs#(sh,#ch,#th,#wh).
Use#digraphs#to#help#read
and#write#words#(sh,#ch,#th,
wh).
Recognize#and#use
digraphs#at#the#beginning,
middle,#and#end#of#a#word
(sh,#ch,#th,#wh).
8
Use#the#letters#in#names#to
make#connections#to#other
words.
Use#known#words#to#help
read#and#write#unknown#
words.
Recognize#and#use
consonant#letters#that
represent#two#or#more
different#sounds#at#the
beginning#of#a#word.
Recognize#and#use
phonograms#with#a#double
vowel.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Grade+1+Unit+1,!Talking!and!Thinking!About!Letters
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 21
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
9
Hear,#say,#and#clap#syllables.
Use#known#words#to#help
read#and#write#unknown
words.
Notice#blends,#digraphs,
and#vowels#in#high-
frequency#words.
High-frequency#words:#say
them,#spell#them,#learn
about#letters#and#sounds.
Review#19#high-frequency
words#from#kindergarten:#
my,#by,#see,#like,#look,#fun,#
here,#is,#in,#on,#it,#at,#an,#
and,#can,#this,#got,#went,#
will.
10
Hear,#say,#and#clap#syllables.
Notice#blends,#digraphs,
and#vowels#in#high-
frequency#words.
Hear#and#identify#short
vowel
sounds#and#the#letters#that
represent#them.
High-frequency#words:#say
them,#spell#them,#learn
about#letters#and#sounds.
Review#Set#1:#Nineteen
high-frequency#words#from
kindergarten#introduced#in
Session#9,#Set#1:#my,#by,#see,#
like,#look,#fun,#here,#is,#in,
on,#it,#at,#an,#and,#can,#this,
got,#went,#will.
Review#a#second#set#of
high-frequency#words
taught#in
kindergarten,#Set#2:#up,#so,
go,#no,#has,#had,#come,#as,
play,#ball,#all,#did,#get,#she,
for,#you,#to,#do,#we.
Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in
continuous#text.
11
Use#similarities#between
high-frequency#words#to
learn#more#about#how#words
work.
Notice#blends,#digraphs,
and#vowels#in#the#high-
frequency#words,#especially
the#different#sounds#for#the
vowel#O.
High-frequency#words:#say
them,#spell#them,#learn
about#letters#and#sounds.
Continue#to#review
kindergarten#high-frequency#
words,#highlighting#and
learning#from#words#that
contain#the#vowel#O:#to,#so,
go,#do,#no,#got,#you,#look,
for.
Review#both#Set#1#and#Set
2#of#the#high-frequency
words#from#kindergarten.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
12
•#Develop#strategies#for#
learning#high-frequency#
words.
•#Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#
continuous#text.
•#Learn#new#words#(his,#
said,#saw,#say,#then,#they).
•#Review#both#Set#1#and#Set#
2#of#the#high-frequency#
words#from#kindergarten.
13
•#Spell#known#words#quickly.
•#Hear#and#identify#short#
vowel#sounds#in#words#and#
the#letters#that#represent#
them.
•#Notice#and#use#knowledge#
of#high-frequency#words#
before,#during,#and#after#
writing#a#text.
•#Review#kindergarten#high-
frequency#words#Set#1#and#
Set#2.
•#Review#high-frequency#
words#taught#in#Session#12:#
his,#said,#saw,#say,#then,#
they.
•#Learn#new#words#(but,#let,#
run,#us,#yes).
14
•#Use#knowledge#of#blends,#
digraphs,#short#vowels,#and#
high-frequency#words#to#
write#and#read.
•#Use#known#words#to#help#
spell#an#unknown#word.
•#Use#knowledge#of#blends,#
digraphs,#short#vowels,#and#
HF#words#to#write#and#read
•#Review#high-frequency#
words#from#kindergarten#
(did,#see,#no,#and)#and#from#
Session#12#(said,#then).
•#Write#known#words#
quickly.
15
•#Segment#and#blend#onsets#and#
rimes.
•#Delete#and#change#the#onset#to#
make#new#words#with#the#same#
rime.
•#Use#phonograms#to#help#
read#and#write#words#(-up,######
-at,#-an,#-it).
•#Recognize#and#use#
phonograms#in#high-
frequency#words.
•#Use#word#wall#words#(VC,#
CVC)#to#make#and#learn#new#
words.#We#use:#up,#at,#can.
16
•#Hear#and#connect#rhyming#
words.
•#Use#known#words#to#
monitor#word-solving#
accuracy.
•#Recognize#that#words#
have#phonograms#that#can#
appear#in#many#words.
•#Use#high-frequency#words#
(VC,#CVC)#to#make#and#learn#
new#words.#We#use:#will.
•#Review#high-frequency#
words.
17
•#Use#phonograms#to#help#
spell#and#read#a#word.
•#Recognize#and#use#blends#
and#digraphs.
•#Use#blends#and#digraphs#
and#high-frequency#words#
to#make#new#words#(at,#in,#
look,#will,#and,#up,#play,#got,#
all).
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 23
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
18
•#Use#efficient#and#consistent#
motions#to#form#letters.
•#Use#knowledge#of#blends,#
digraphs,#word#parts,#and#
short#vowels#to#fix#up#
spelling.
•#Develop#strategies#for#
learning#high-frequency#
words.
•#Use#the#word#wall#to#write#
high-frequency#words#
correctly.
•#Use#high-frequency#words#
to#read#and#write#new,#
longer#words.
19
•#Use#known#word#parts#to#
solve#unknown#larger#words.
•#Use#blends,#digraphs,#short#
vowels,#snap#words,#and#
word#parts#to#figure#out
hard#words.
•#Use#known#words#to#read#
unknown#words.
•#Recognize#and#use#VC#and#
CVC#phonograms.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 24
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
Review#long#and#short#vowel
sounds.
Identify#vowels#in#single-
syllable#words.
Know#final#-e#conventions
for
representing#a#long#vowel
sound.
Decode#unknown#words
that#follow#a#CVC#and#CVCe
pattern.
Use#CVCe#pattern#with
the#vowel#A#to#be#able#to
write#words.
Learn#five#new#high-
frequency#words:#eat,#make,#
take,#out,#big#(see#Extension
3).
2
Distinguish#the#long#and#short
vowel#sound#in#a#spoken#word.
Generate#words#with#the#vowel
A#(see#Extension#1).
Use#the#CVC#patterns#to
read#a#printed#word.
Use#the#CVCe#pattern#to
read#a#printed#word.
Hear,#say,#and#identify
long#and#short#A,#noticing
the#silent#E#where
applicable.
Learn#one#new#high-
frequency#word:#have#(see
Extension#1).
3
Use#proper#language
conventions#to#write#a#sentence,
including#capitals#and#end
punctuation.
Identify#letter-sound
combinations#to#be#able#to
write#new#words.
Use#knowledge#of#short
and#long#vowels#and#the#
CVCe#pattern#to#edit#
writing.
Review#and#use#high-
frequency#words#to#write#in
context.
Spell#high-frequency
words#with#automaticity.
Review#and#recognize
snap#words#with
automaticity#(See#Extension
3).
4
Use#proper#language
conventions#to#write#a#sentence,
including#capitals#and#end
punctuation#(see#Extension#1).
Segment#single-syllable#words.
Change#the#beginning,#ending,
or#middle#phoneme#to#make#a
new#word.
Identify#vowels#and
consonants#in#a#single-
syllable#word#to#write#it.
Identify#and#record#blends
at#the#beginning#of#a#word.
Use#knowledge#of#the
CVCe#pattern#to#decode
and#write#new#words.
Identify#common
phonograms#with#long#A.
Use#knowledge#of
phonograms#to#generate
and#write#words#with#the
long#A
sound.
Learn#two#new#high-
frequency#words:#came,
same#(see#Extension#2).
Phonics+Instruction+in+Grade+1+Unit+2,!The!Mystery!of!the!Silent!e
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 25
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
5
•#Distinguish#between#short#and#
long#vowel#sounds.
•#Hear#syllables#in#high-
frequency#words#(see#Extension#
2).
•#Use#knowledge#of#CVC#
and#CVCe#patterns#to#
decode#new#words#in#text.
•#Recognize#the#common#
effect#of#silent#E#on#words#
with#any#vowel.
•#Read#high-frequency#
words#in#continuous#text.
•#Read#and#write#high-
frequency#words#in#isolation#
(see#Extension#2).
6
•#Hear#medial#phonemes#in#
words.
•#Distinguish#between#long#and#
short
vowel#sounds,#especially#A#and#
O.
•#Use#knowledge#of#CVCe#
pattern#to#decode#and#
write#new#words.
•#Identify#the#letters#in#a#
blend#to#write#words.
•#Identify#common#
phonograms#with#long#O.
•#Learn#five#new#high-
frequency
words:#put,#not,#your,#more,#
home,#of#(see#Extension#2).
7
•#Hear#medial#phonemes#in#
words.
•#Distinguish#between#the#long#
and#short#vowel#sounds#of#I.
•#Compare#CVC#and#CVCe#
words#with#the#vowel#I.
•#Consolidate#learning#by#
reading#CVCe#words#with#
the#vowels#A,#O,#and#I.
•#Notice#the#irregular#
spelling#of#words#that#end#
with#-ve#and#use#this#
pattern#to#write#similar#
words#(see#Extension#1).
•#Review#high-frequency#
words,#using#knowledge#of#
letters,#sounds,#and#similar#
words#(see#Extension#2).
8
•#Hear#medial#phonemes#in#
words.
•#Distinguish#between#the#long#
and#short#vowel#sounds#of#A,#I,#O#
and#U.
•#Distinguish#between#the#
sounds#of#words#with#long#U#(see#
Extension#1).
•#Identify#the#vowel#sound#
in#a#word#to#edit#spelling.
•#Use#knowledge#of#CVCe#
pattern#to#decode#and#edit#
words.
•#Use#knowledge#of#CVCe#
patterns#to#decode#
unfamiliar#words#with#long#
U.
9
•#Hear#and#say#the#phonemes#in#
a#word#with#attention#to#the#
vowel#sounds.
•#Hear#and#identify#the#long#
E#sound#in#words,#locating#
the#letters#that#represent#
the#sound#(noticing#CVCe#
pattern#and#the#more#
frequently#used#vowel#
teams#EE#and#EA).
•#Locate#and#decode#words#
with#vowel#teams#EE#and#
EA#in#books.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 26
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
10
•#Hear#and#identify#the#
vowel#sound#in#words,#
locating#the#letters#that#
represent#the#sound#(see#
optional#Extension#2).
•#Review#cumulative#list#of#
high-frequency#words.
•#Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#text.
•#Write#high-frequency#
words#with#automaticity.
11
•#Notice#blends,#digraphs,#
and#vowels#in#words.
•#Learn#five#new#high-
frequency#words:#into,#little,#
I’m,#three,#now.
•#Review#cumulative#list#of#
high-frequency#words#by#
attending#to#common#
features#and#word#meaning#
(see#Extensions#1#and#2).
12
•#Hear#and#clap#syllables#in#
twosyllable
words.
•#Identify#vowels#and#
consonants#in#a#word.
•#Notice#double#consonants#
in#words#and#use#them#to#
divide#words#into#two#
syllables#when#decoding#
new#words.
13
•#Hear#and#say#the#beginning#
phonemes#in#a#word.
•#Blend#three#or#more#phonemes#
in#a#word.
•#Identify#vowels#and#
consonants#in#a#word.
•#Identify#3-letter#blends#
and#digraphs.
•#Identify#short-#and#long-
vowel#phonograms.
•#Record#initial#blends#and#
digraphs#to#write#new#
words.
•#Record#long-vowel#
phonograms#to#write#new#
words.
•#Learn#two#new#high-
frequency#words:#if,#or#(see#
Extension#2).
14
•#Understand#the#concept#of#
a#contraction.
•#Recognize#and#read#simple#
contractions#(formed#with#
am,#are,#is).
•#Review#high-frequency#
words#students#have#
previously#learned:#I,#am,#
we,#you,#she,#he,#are,#is,#it,#
I’m.
15
•#Read#and#take#apart#simple#
compound#words.
•#Hear#and#record#known#
words#to#spell#simple#
compound#words.
•#Review#high-frequency#
words#students#have#
previously#learned:#in,#to,#
out,#day,#into.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
16
Hear#familiar#blends#and
digraphs#in#spoken#words.
Hear#familiar#ending
phonograms#in#spoken#words.
Identify#blends#and
digraphs#in#a#word.
Identify#familiar#onsets
and#rimes#in#unknown
words.
Identify#words#that#start
or#end#the#same,#using
these#similarities#to#solve
unknown#words.
Use#known#words#to#read
and#write#unknown#words.
Review#students’#entire
bank#of#high-frequency
words.
Learn#one#new#high-
frequency#word:#read#(see
Extension#2).
17
Read#and#take#apart#simple
compound#words.
Recognize#and#read#simple
contractions#(words#formed
with#am,#are#and#is).
Know#final#-e#conventions
for#representing#a#long-
vowel#sound.
Decode#unknown#words
that#follow#a#CVC#and#CVCe
pattern.
Identify#3-letter#blends
and#digraphs.
Notice#double#consonants#
in#words#and#use#them#to
divide#words#into#two
syllables.
Identify#blends#and
digraphs#in#a#word.
Identify#familiar#onsets
and#rimes#in#unknown
words.
Identify#words#that#start
or#end#the#same,#using
these#similarities#to#solve
unknown#words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 28
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
•#Use#knowledge#of#letter-
sound#relationships#to#
monitor#word-solving#
accuracy.
•#Use#known#word#parts#to#
solve#unknown#larger#words.
•#Learn#five#new#high-
frequency#words:#jump,#
where,#there,#never,#going#
(see#Extension#3).
2
•#Use#common#word#endings#
such#as#-ing,#-ed,#-s,#-es,#-er#
to#generate#new#words.
•#Read#and#use#words#with#
inflectional#endings#-ing,#-ed,#-
s,#-es,#-er.
•#Learn#conventions#for#
adding#the#ending#-ing#to#
CVCe#words#(see#Extension#
3).
•#Use#and#review#high-
frequency#words.
3
•#Read#and#use#words#with#
inflectional#endings#-ing,#-ed,#-
s,#-es,#-er.
•#Recognize#and#use#plurals#-
s#and#-es#at#the#end#of#words.
•#Identify#and#sort#different#
ending#sounds#in#words#with#
the#same#ending#(-ed
and#-es).
4
•#Recognize#and#use#words#
with#inflectional#endings#(see#
Extension#2).
•#Recognize#and#use#Y#as#a#
vowel#at#the#end#of#a#word.
•#Identify#the#long#vowel#
sounds#Y#can#make#at#the#
end#of#a#word.
•#Recognize#and#use#the#-ay#
and#-ey#phonograms.
•#Learn#new#high-frequency#
words#any,#very,#today.
5
•#Identify#blends#and#
digraphs#at#the#end#of#
words.
•#Use#phonograms#with#
ending#blends#to#generate#
new#words.
6
•#Use#inflectional#endings#
including#-ing,#-ed,#-s,#-es,#-er,#
to#edit#words.
•#Use#phonics#knowledge,#
including#blends,#digraphs,#
and#vowels#to#edit#words.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Grade+1+Unit+3,!From!Tip!to!Tail:!Reading!Across!Words
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
7
Use#phonogram#patterns
containing#ending#blends#to
generate#new#words.
Use#onsets#and#rimes#in
known#words#to#read
unknown#words.
Identify#phonograms#with
ending#blends#(-ank,#-est,#-
ing,#-ink,#-ump,#-unk).
Learn#five#new#high-
frequency#words:#just,#back,
best,#think,#with#(see
Extension#3).
8
Use#phonogram#patterns
containing#ending#blends#and
digraphs#to#generate#new
words.
Use#onsets#and#rimes#in
known#words#to#read
unknown#words.
Identify#phonograms#with
ending#digraphs#(-ack,#-ash,#-
ish,#-ick,#-ock,#-uck,#-ell,#-ill).
Use#phonics#knowledge#to
study#familiar#high-
frequency#words#(see
Extension#2).
9
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#blends,#diagraphs,
phonograms,#and#inflectional
endings#to#read#one-#and#two-
syllable#words.
Review#previously#taught
high-frequency#words#(see
Extensions#2#and#3).
Learn#new#high-frequency
words#than,#that,#when#(see#
Extension#3).
Develop#and#use
strategies#for#learning#high-
frequency#words.
10
Segment#words#into#syllables.
Segment#syllables#into#onset
and#rime#or#individual
phonemes.
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#blends,#digraphs,
phonograms,#and
inflectional#endings#to#spell
multisyllabic#words.
Use#parts#of#familiar#words
to#spell#unfamiliar#words.
11
Use#knowledge#of#vowels
to#read#and#spell
multisyllabic#words.
Use#parts#of#familiar#words
to#read#and#spell#unfamiliar
words.
12
Use#familiar#word#parts
including#blends,#digraphs,
phonograms,#and
inflectional#endings#to
decode#multisyllabic#words.
Use#parts#of#familiar#words
to#read#unfamiliar#words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
13
Review#previously#taught
high-frequency#words#with#a#
familiar#routine.
Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#text.
Edit#high-frequency#words
in#writing.
Develop#strategies#for
learning#high-frequency
words.
14
Use#parts#of#known#words
to#read#and#write#unknown
words.
Use#knowledge#of#phonics
features#to#study#new#high-
frequency#words.
Recognize#phonogram
patterns.
Learn#new#snap#words:
could,#should,#would,
mother,#from.
15
Use#known#word#parts#to
read#unknown#words.
Review#previously#taught
high-frequency#words.
Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#text.
Develop#strategies#for
learning#high-frequency
words.
16
Understand#the#concept#of
a#contraction.
Recognize#and#read#simple
contractions#(formed#with
am,#are,#is,#not).
Break#down#simple
contractions#into#the#words
that#comprise#them.
Use#knowledge#of#phonics
features#(phonograms,
blends,#digraphs,#inflectional
endings,#long#vowel#patterns
EA#and#CVCe)#to#read
continuous#text#(see
Extension#2).
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
17
•#Understand#the#concept#of#
a#contraction.
•#Recognize#and#read#simple#
contractions#(formed#with#
am,#are,#is,#not).
•#Break#down#simple#
contractions#into#the#words#
that#comprise#them.
•#Use#known#words#parts#to#
read#unknown#words#(see#
Extension#1).
•#Review#familiar#high-
frequency#words.
18
•#Use#accumulated#phonics#
and#word#knowledge#to#play#
a#variety#of#word
games.
•#Use#accumulated#phonics#
and#word#knowledge#to#play#
a#variety#of#word
games.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
Segment#single-syllable#words.
Change#the#beginning,#ending,
or#middle#phoneme#to#make#a
new#word.
Use#known#parts,#including
blends,#digraphs,#common
phonograms,#and#endings,#to
build#single-#and#multisyllabic#
words.
Read#words#with
inflectional#endings#(-s,#-ed,#-
ing).
Decode#unknown#words
using#parts.
Identify#blends,#digraphs,
common#endings,#and
phonograms.
Learn#four#new#high-
frequency#words:#easy,#wait,#
away,#each.
2
Distinguish#the#long-#and#short
vowel#sounds#in#a#spoken#word.
Use#common#long-vowel
patterns#EE#and#EA#as#well#as
digraphs#and#inflected
endings#to#build#new#single-#
and#multisyllabic#words.
Decode#single-#and
multisyllabic
words#using#common#long-
vowel
patterns#EE#and#EA,#digraphs,#
and
inflected#endings.
Distinguish#between#two
common#long-vowel
patterns,#EE#and#EA,#for#the
long#E#sound.
Contrast#short-#and#long-
vowel
sounds#in#words#using
common
CVVC#and#CVC#patterns.
Review#and#recognize
snap#words#with
automaticity.
3
Decode#single-#and
multisyllabic#words#using
common#long-vowel#patterns#
(EE,#EA,#AI,#and#OA)#as#well#as#
digraphs,#blends,#and
inflected#endings.
Use#knowledge#of#CVVC
patterns#to#decode#new#
words.
Read#words#with#inflected
endings.
Use#blends,#digraphs,#and
phonograms#to#write#new
words.
Identify#common#long-
vowel#patterns#EE,#EA,#AI,
and#OA.
Review#and#use#snap
words#to#build#new#words.
4
Use#proper#language
conventions#to#write#a
sentence,#including#capitals
and#end#punctuation.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial,
medial#vowel,#and#ending#sounds#
in#spoken#single-syllable#words.
Use#knowledge#of#common
longvowel#patterns#(EE,#EA,
AI,#and#OA)#as#well#as
digraphs,#blends,#and
inflected#endings#to#build
single#and#multisyllabic
words.
Use#knowledge#of#CVVC
patterns#to#decode#new
words.
Identify#common#long-
vowel
patterns#EE,#EA,#AI,#and#OA.
Distinguish#between#two
vowel#patterns#that#make
the#same#sound:#AI#and#AY.
Recognize#and#use#some
phonograms#with#vowel
combinations#(-ail,#-ain).
Learn#new#words:#near,
need,#next,#and#last.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Grade+1+Unit+4,!Word!Builders:!Using!Vowel!Teams!to!Build!Big!Words
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
5
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial,
medial#vowel,#and#ending#sounds#
in#spoken#single-syllable#words.
Identify#and#read#words#with
inconsistent#but#common
spelling-sound
correspondences.
Use#knowledge#of#long-vowel
CVVC#patterns#to#decode#new
words.
Use#knowledge#of#common
long-vowel#patterns#(EE,#EA,#AI,#
and#OA),#as#well#as#digraphs,
blends,#and#inflected#endings
to#write#words.
Identify#common#long-
vowel#patterns#EE,#EA,#AI,
AY,#and#OA.
Distinguish#between#two
vowel#patterns#that#make
the#same#sound:#EE#and#EA.
Learn#one#new#word:
been.
Spell#snap#words#with
automaticity.
6
Use#knowledge#of#long-
vowel#CVVC#patterns#to
decode#new#words.
Use#knowledge#of#common
long-vowel#patterns#to#edit
writing.
Recognize#the#spelling-
sound#correspondence#for
common#long-vowel
patterns#(EE,#EA,#AI,#AY,#and#
OA).
Review#and#recognize
snap#words#with
automaticity.
7
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial,
medial#vowel,#and#ending#sounds#
in#spoken
single-syllable#words.
Change#the#beginning,#ending,
or#middle#phoneme#to#make#a
new#word.
Use#knowledge#of
phonograms#as#well#as
digraphs,#blends,#and
inflected#endings#to#build
words.
Hear#and#identify#the
vowel#sound#in#words,
locating#the#letters#that
represent#the#sound.
Recognize#and#use#letter
combinations#that
represent#unique#vowel
sounds#to#decode#words
with#a#CVVC#pattern#(OU).
Recognize#and#use
phonograms#with#a#unique
vowel#sound#to#build#and
read#new#words#(-oud,
-ound,#-ouch).
8
Change#the#beginning,#ending,
or#middle#phoneme#to#make#a
new#word.
Use#knowledge#of#vowel
patterns#and#digraphs,
blends,#and#inflected#endings
to#build#words.
Distinguish#between#two
vowel#patterns#that#make
the#same#sound:#OW#and
OU.
Recognize#and#use
phonograms#with#a#unique
vowel#sound#to#build#and
read#new#words#(-out,#-
own).
Learn#four#new#words:
house,#about,#down,#our.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
9
Distinguish#between#the
two#sounds#one#vowel
pattern#makes#for#the
vowel#pattern#OW.
Hear#and#identify#the
vowel#sound#in#words,
locating#the#letters#that
represent#the#sound.
Recognize#and#use#letter
combinations#that
represent#unique#vowel
sounds#to#decode#words
with#a#CVVC#pattern.
Distinguish#between#the
many#sounds#one#vowel
pattern#makes#for#the
vowel#pattern#OU.
Learn#one#new#high-
frequency#word:#know.
10
Isolate#and#hear#different
medial#vowel#sounds#in#spoken
single-syllable#words.
Distinguish#between#the
two#sounds#one#vowel
pattern#makes#for#the
vowel#pattern#OO.
Hear#and#identify#the
vowel#sound#in#words,
locating#the#letters#that
represent#the#sound.
Recognize#and#use#letter
combinations#that#
represent#unique#vowel#
sounds#to#decode#words#
with#a#CVVC#pattern.
Recognize#and#use
phonograms#with#a#unique
vowel#sound#to#read#and
build
new#words#(-oop,#-ool,
-oom,#-oon,#-ood,#-ook).
Learn#one#new#word:
school.
11
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial,
medial#vowel,#and#ending#sounds#
in#spoken
single-syllable#words.
Consolidate#learning#by
writing#CVVC#words#with
the#vowel#teams#OU,#OW,
and#OO,#as#well#as#digraphs,#
blends,#and#endings.
Use#knowledge#of#long
and#unique#vowel#CVVC
patterns#to#edit#words.
Review#and#recognize
snap#words#with
automaticity.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
12
Hear#and#connect#rhyming
words.
Use#knowledge#of#vowel
patterns#as#well#as#digraphs,
blends,#and#inflected
endings#to#write#words.
Use#knowledge#of#long#and
unique#vowel#CVVC#patterns
to#edit#words.
Distinguish#between#two
vowel#patterns#that#make
the#same#sound:#OI#and#OY.
Recognize#and#use#Y#as#a
vowel#sound#(OY,#AY,#EY).
Learn#four#new#words:
much,#such,#two,#who.
13
Segment#onsets#and#rimes.
Hear#and#identify#the
vowel#sound#in#words,
locating#the#letters#that
represent#the#sound.
Distinguish#between#two
vowel#patterns#that#make
the#same#sound:#EW#and
UE.
Recognize#and#use#letter
combinations#that
represent#unique#vowel
sounds#to
decode#words#with#a#CVVC
pattern.
Learn#one#new#word:#few.
Review#and#recognize
snap#words#with
automaticity.
14
Use#knowledge#of#long#and
unique#vowel#CVVC#patterns
to#edit#words.
Consolidate#learning#by
writing#CVVC#words#with
the#vowel#teams#OI/OY,
EW/
UE,#OU/OW,#AY/AI,#EA/EE.
Hear#and#identify#the
vowel#sound#in#words,#
locating#the#letters#that#
represent#the#sound.
Distinguish#between#two
vowel#patterns#that#make
the#same#sound.
Review#and#recognize
snap#words#with
automaticity.
15
Use#language#conventions#to
write#a#sentence,#including
capitals#and#end#punctuation.
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial,
medial#vowel,#and#ending#sounds#
in#spoken#single-syllable#words.
Change#the#beginning,#ending,
or#middle#phoneme#to#make#a
new#word.
Hear#and#identify#the
vowel#sound#in#words,
locating#the#letters#that
represent#the#sound.
Distinguish#between#two
vowel#patterns#that#make
the#same#sound:#AW#and
AU.
Recognize#and#use#letter
combinations#that
represent#unique#vowel
sounds#to#build#and#decode
words#with#a#CVVC#pattern.
Learn#one#new#high-
frequency#word:#because.
Spell#high-frequency
words#with#automaticity.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 36
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
16
Change#the#beginning,#ending,
or#middle#phoneme#to#make#a
new#word.
Hear,#say,#clap,#and#identify
syllables.
Use#knowledge#of#vowel
patterns#as#well#as#digraphs,
blends,#and#inflected
endings#to#write#words.
Recognize#and#use#letter
combinations#that
represent#unique#vowel
sounds#to
build#and#decode#words
with#an#IGH#pattern.
Learn#two#new#words:
high,#might.
17
Isolate#and#pronounce#initial,
medial#vowel,#and#ending#sounds#
in#spoken
single-syllable#and#multisyllabic
words.
Use#knowledge#of#vowel
patterns#as#well#as#digraphs,
blends,#and#inflected#endings
to#decode#and#write#words.
Read#and#take#apart#simple
compound#words.
Recognize#and#use#letter
combinations#that
represent#unique#vowel
sounds#to
build#and#decode#words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 37
Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
1
•#Edit#writing,#looking#for#R-
controlled#vowels#and#vowel-
less#word#bloopers.
•#Make#first#attempt#to#spell#
a#word.
•#Identify#and#use#vowel#
sounds#with#R.
•#Learn#five#new#words#
(under,#over,#were,#want,#
their).
•#Develop#and#use#
strategies#for#learning#high-
frequency#words.
2
•#Use#sound#and#letter#
sequence#to#help#spell#a#
word.
•#Say#a#word#slowly#to#spell#
it.
•#Edit#writing#for#R-controlled#
vowel#bloopers.
•#Recognize#and#use#
phonograms##(-ar,#-er,#-or)#
with#vowels#and#R#in#single#
syllable#words.
3
•#Edit#words#by#checking#to#
see#if#they#look#right.
•#Use#phonogram#patterns#
and#letter#patterns#to#help#
spell#a#word.
•#Recognize#and#use#phonics#
patterns#with#vowels#and#R#or#
single#syllable#words.
•#Learn#different#spelling#
patterns#for#the#/ər/#sound#(-
ir,#-er,#-ur,#-or).
4
•#Use#phonogram#patterns#
(IR,#UR)#to#represent#the#/ər/#
sound#especially#in#the#
middle#of#words.
•#Write#a#word#a#few#ways#to#
check#which#way#looks#right.
•#Use#different#spelling#
patterns#for#the#/ər/#sound#to#
write#words#(-er,#-ir,#-ur,#-or,#-
ar).
•#Recognize#and#use#phonics#
patterns#with#vowels#and#R#in#
single-syllable#words.
5
•#Recognize#the#sequence#of#
letters#and#the#sequence#of#
sounds#to#read#a#word#or#
word#part.
•#Use#phonogram#patterns#
with#vowels#and#R#to#read#
words.
•#Recognize#and#talk#about#
the#fact#that#words#can#be#
related#in#many#ways#(sound,#
spelling,#category).
•#Learn#the#many#sounds#that#-
EAR#makes.
•#Learn#about#how#R#changes#
vowel#sounds.
Phonics+Instruction+in+Grade+1+Unit+5,!Marvelous!Bloopers:!Learning!Through!Wise!Mistakes
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
6
•#Edit#writing#by#spelling#a#
word#a#few#ways#to#check#
which#one#looks#right.
•#Use#onsets#and#rimes#in#
known#words#to#read#and#
write#other#words#with#the#
same#parts.
•#Use#phonogram#patterns#
with#vowels#and#R#to#read#
words.
•#Learn#the#many#spelling#
patterns#for#the#/air/#sound#(-
air,#-are,#-ear,#-ere).
7
•#Use#known#words#to#
monitor#word-solving#
accuracy.
•#Use#knowledge#of#letter-
sound#relationships#(R-
controlled#vowels)#to#
monitor#word-solving#
accuracy.
•#Use#knowledge#of#R-
controlled#vowels#to#correct#
reading#bloopers.
8
•#Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#
continuous#texts.
•#Use#a#mnemonic#device#to#
help#spell#a#word.
•#Develop#strategies#for#
learning#high-frequency#
words.
9
•#Learn#two#new#words#
(find,#kind).
•#Develop#and#use#
strategies#for#learning#high-
frequency#words.
•#Study#high-frequency#
words#by#noticing#the#tricky#
parts.
•#Use#a#mnemonic#device#to#
help#spell#a#word.
10
•#Make,#recognize,#and#use#
common#compound#words.
•#Use#known#word#parts#
(some#are#words)#to#solve#
unknown#larger#words.
•#Learn#new#words#(ask,#
walk,#them,#what,#things).
•#Develop#and#use#
strategies#for#learning#high-
frequency#words.
•#Locate#and#read#high-
frequency#words#in#
continuous#text.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session Concepts+About+Print Phonological+Awareness Letter+Knowledge
Word+Knowledge/Word+
Solving
Phonics High-Frequency+Words
11
•#Use#a#spelling#routine#to#
help#spell#a#word.
•#Read#and#write#
approximately#100#high-
frequency#words.
•#Develop#and#use#
strategies#for#learning#high-
frequency#words.
•#Use#a#mnemonic#device#to#
help#spell#a#word.
12
•#Use#consistent#and#efficient#
motions#to#form#letters.
•#Use#capital#letters#at#the#
start#of#sentences,#for#the#
word#I,#for#dates,#and#for#the#
names#of#people#and#places.
•#Demonstrate#knowledge#of#
the#use#of#upper-#and#
lowercase#letters#of#the
alphabet.
•#Learn#three#new#words#
(everything,#everyone,#
myself).
13
•#Use#capital#letters#at#the#start#
of#sentences,#for#the#word#I,#for#
dates,#and#for#the#names#of#
people#and#places.
•#Demonstrate#knowledge#of#the#
use#of#upper-#and#lowercase#
letters#of#the#alphabet.
•#Edit#for#capitalization.
14
•#Use#capitalization#rule#to#
write#and#editing#writing
•#Learn#new#words#
(everything,#everyone,#and#
myself#).
15
•#Use#capital#letters#at#the#
start#of#sentences,#for#the#
word#I,#for#dates,#and#for#the#
names#of#people#and#places.
•#Demonstrate#knowledge#of#
the#use#of#upper-#and#
lowercase#letters#of#the#
alphabet.
•#Edit#for#capitalization.
•#Learn#new#words#(after,#
always,#soon).
16
•#Use#capital#letters#
correctly.
•#Use#all#of#the#phonics#
principles#learned#during#
kindergarten#and#first#grade#
to#write#(long#vowel#spelling#
patterns,#endings,#R-
controlled#vowels,#and#high-
frequency#words).
17
•#Use#capitalization#
knowledge#to#teach#others#
about#words
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
1
• Hear, say, and clap
syllables.
• Use names to
review previously-
learned concepts
(consonants,
vowels—short and
long, blends, digraphs,
silent E, vowel teams,
R-controlled vowels,
and phonograms).
• Use known words to
help spell unknown
words.
2
• Isolate and hear
different medial
vowel sounds.
• Distinguish long and
short vowel sounds.
• Identify CVC, CCVC,
and CVCe patterns.
• Recognize and use
Y as a vowel sound.
• Use knowledge of
CVC, CCVC, and CVCe
patterns to spell.
3
• Study long vowel
sounds, especially
silent E, vowel teams,
and dipthongs.
• Notice long vowel
exceptions (e.g.
clothes, he, again,
and took).
• Recognize and use
blends, digraphs, and
trigraphs at the
beginning and end
of words.
• Use knowledge of
long-vowel patterns
in reading.
4
• Notice previously-
learned concepts in
high-frequency words
(consonants,
vowels—short and
long, blends, digraphs,
silent E, vowel teams,
R-controlled vowels,
and phonograms).
• Review high-
frequency words from
kindergarten and first
grade.
• Review and use
strategies for
learning high-
frequency words.
Phonics Instruction in Grade 2 Unit 1, Growing into Second-Grade Phonics
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
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Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
5
• Distinguish the -er, -
or, and -ar
sounds in spoken
words.
• Manipulate the
sounds in words to
make short vowel and
R-controlled
vowel sounds.
Identify R-
controlled vowel
sounds.
Recognize and use
phonograms with R-
controlled vowels in
single-syllable words
(-ar, -er, -or).
• Discover and use R-
controlled vowels in
reading.
• Edit writing, looking
for errors with R-
controlled vowels.
6
• Discover and use
the different spelling
patterns for ther/
sound.
• Learn different
spelling patterns for
the /ər/ sound (-ir, -
er, -ur, -or, -ear, -ar).
• Identify spelling
patterns for the /air/
sound.
• Identify spelling
patterns for the /ear/
sound.
• Review high-
frequency words with
R-controlled vowels.
7
• Review, plan, and
teach silent
E, vowel teams and
dipthongs,
R-controlled vowels,
blends, and
digraphs.
• Review, plan, and
teach highfrequency
words from
kindergarten and first
grade.
8
• Develop strategies
for remembering how
to spell commonly
misspelled high-
frequency words.
• Review frequently
misspelled high-
frequency words:
said, they, where,
first, friend, girl,
when, went, and your.
• Study high-
frequency words by
noticing tricky parts.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 42
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
9
• Review frequently
misspelled high-
frequency words:
said, they, where,
first, friend, girl,
when, went, and your.
• Study high-
frequency words by
noticing tricky parts.
10
• Review uses of
capitals (at the start
of sentences, for the
word I, for dates, and
for the names of
people, places, and
product names).
• Edit writing for
capitals.
11
• Develop strategies
to correctly spell
homophones.
• Learn strategies for
determining meaning
of homophones using
sentence-level
context.
• New homophone
high-frequency
words: hear, here.
12
• Develop strategies
to correctly spell
homophones.
• Learn strategies for
remembering the
different meanings of
common
homophones.
• Editing writing for
commonly misspelled
homophones.
• New homophone
high-frequency
words: too, to, two,
their, there, theyre,
your, you’re.
13
• Practice strategies
for remembering how
to spell commonly
misspelled words.
Review of
commonly
misspelled high-
frequency words:
about, school, with,
was, could, what,
and very.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 43
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
14
• Notice, use, and
collect spelling
patterns while
reading.
Learn and use a
process for
discovering and
testing
phonograms for
their usefulness.
Spell words in
bigger chunks using
spelling patterns
(phonograms).
15
• Discover
phonograms while
reading.
Practice using a
process for discovering
and testing
phonograms for their
usefulness.
Use a tool to
review the thirty-
seven most common
phonograms.
Use known words
to spell unknown
words.
• Discover powerful
patterns
(phonograms) in the
high-frequency words
from mkindergarten
and first grade.
16
• Hear and produce
rhymes.
• Read using word
patterns.
• Discover, collect,
and use patterns with
different spellings and
the same rhyme.
• Learn to use
knowledge of
phonograms to make
an attempt at an
unknown word.
• Develop
understanding of
homographs.
17
• Use patterns,
including patterns
with different
spellings and the
same rhyme to solve
tricky words and to
read more fluently.
• Discover, collect,
and use patterns
(phonograms).
• Check and practice
writing commonly-
misspelled high-
frequency words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 44
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
18
• Practice hearing
and producing
rhymes.
• Use phonograms to
create rhyming texts.
• Learn to use a sense
of what looks right to
edit patterns in
writing.
• Study the thirty-
seven most common
phonograms and
practice using them
to make rhymes.
• Use knowledge of
conventions in writing
(end punctuation,
purposeful capitals,
and correctly spelled
high-frequency
words).
19
• Use knowledge of
phonograms to read
with fluency.
• Use known
phonograms to write
poems.
• Use knowledge of
phonograms to edit
rhymes.
• Use knowledge of
conventions in writing
(end punctuation,
purposeful capitals,
and correctly-spelled
high-frequency
words).
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 45
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
1
• Use strategies to
solve unknown words.
• Use spelling
strategies to help
spell words.
2
• Understand the
concept of a syllable.
• Break words into
syllables to decode
them.
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
3
• Understand the
concept of a syllable.
• Identify common
endings.
• Decode
multisyllabic words by
using knowledge of
two consonants in the
middle.
• Use known endings
to help decode
multisyllabic words.
4
• Recognize and use
vowel sounds in open
and closed syllables.
• Understand why
some words have a
double consonant.
• Recognize and use
syllables in words
with double
consonants.
• Decode
multisyllabic words by
using knowledge of
double consonants.
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
• Edit writing using
knowledge of
double consonants in
multisyllabic words.
• New high-frequency
words: better, follow,
happen, and different.
• Develop and use
strategies for
acquiring a large
bank of high-
frequency words.
5
• Recognize and use
vowel sounds in open
and closed syllables.
• Identify common
endings.
• Recognize and use
syllables that
contain a consonant
followed by the
letters le.
• Remove endings to
help decode
multisyllabic words.
• Decode
multisyllabic words by
using knowledge of
the consonant le
syllable.
• Use knowledge of
syllables that
contain a consonant
followed by the
letters le to help spell
a word.
• New high-frequency
words: people,
trouble, and terrible.
• Develop and use
strategies for
acquiring a large
bank of high-
frequency words.
Phonics Instruction in Grade 2 Unit 2, Big Words Take Big Resolve: Tackling Multisyllabic Words
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 46
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
6
• Decode
multisyllabic words by
breaking them into
syllables.
• Use strategies to
solve unknown words.
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
7
Recognize and
use consonant
combinations where
one consonant is
silent (kn, wr, gn, rh,
and qu).
• Demonstrate
flexibility when
solving words.
• New high-frequency
word: answer.
• Develop and use
strategies for
acquiring a large
bank of high-
frequency words.
8
• Recognize and use
consonants that can
represent different
sounds (hard and soft
sounds of C and G).
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
• New high-frequency
word: special.
• Develop and use
strategies for
acquiring a large
bank of high-
frequency words.
9
• Recognize and use
consonants that can
represent different
sounds (hard and soft
sounds of C and G).
• Recognize and use
letter combinations
that represent unique
sounds (ce and se at
the ends of words).
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 47
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
10
• Recognize and use
letter combinations
that represent unique
sounds (ge and dge).
• Recognize and use
phonograms (age).
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
• Consolidate
learning by reading
words with
phonograms.
• Use known letter
combinations to spell
words (ic and ick at
ends of words).
• Consolidate
learning by writing
words with
phonograms.
11
• Recognize and use
letter combinations
that represent
multiple sounds (gh).
• Recognize and use
digraphs (gh and ph).
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
• Consolidate
learning by using
know parts to write
words.
• New high-frequency
words: enough and
through.
• Develop and use
strategies for
acquiring a large
bank of high-
frequency words.
• Review high-
frequency words to
support automaticity.
• Spell high-frequency
words with
automaticity.
12
• Recognize and use
letter combinations
that represent unique
sounds (tricky
consonant
combinations such as
kn, wr, and gn).
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
• Use strategies to
solve unknown words.
• Use known letter
combinations to spell
words.
13
• Form new words
with inflectional
endings: Drop final E
when adding
endings that start
with a vowel (-ing
and -ed).
• Read words with
inflectional endings
(sounds of -ed: /id/,
/d/, and /t/).
• Demonstrate
flexibility with sounds
when solving words.
• Explore irregular
past tense verbs
(wrote, gave, and
froze).
• Edit writing using
knowledge of
inflectional endings.
• New high-frequency
words: does and goes.
• Develop and use
strategies for
acquiring a large
bank of high-
frequency words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 48
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
14
• Form new words
with common
endings: Double the
consonant in CVC
base words when
adding endings that
start with a vowel.
• Use strategies to
solve unknown words.
• Use knowledge of
when to double the
final consonant when
adding a common
ending.
• Consolidate
learning by using
known parts to write
words.
• Edit writing using
knowledge of the
double consonant
generalization.
15
• Recognize and use
plurals that add -s
and -es.
• Read words with
inflectional endings
(-s and -es).
• Write words with
inflectional endings
(-s and -es).
• Edit writing using
knowledge of
inflectional endings,
words parts, and high-
frequency words.
16
• Form new words
with common
endings: Change a
final Y to I before
adding -es or -ed.
• Edit writing using
knowledge of
inflectional endings.
• Edit writing using
knowledge of high-
frequency words.
17
Recognize and
use a word part
(-tion).
Recognize and
use a word part
(-tion).
Recognize and
use the ending -ly.
• Use known word
parts to read words.
• Use known word
parts to read words.
• New high-frequency
words: question,
slowly, suddenly, and
probably.
• Develop and use
strategies for
acquiring a large
bank of high-
frequency words.
18
• Use strategies to
solve unknown words.
• Consolidate
learning by using
known parts to write
words.
• Spell high-frequency
words with
automaticity.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 49
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
1
• Use known words
and word parts to
decode unknown
words.
• Use known words
and word parts to
spell multisyllabic
words.
• Use letter-sound
relationships to spell
an unknown word.
• New high-frequency
words: themselves,
maybe, and really.
2
• Hear and count the
syllables in a word.
• Use syllables to help
spell a multisyllabic
word part by part.
• Use letter-sound
relationships to spell
an unknown word.
3
• Hear and count the
syllables in a word.
• Use syllables to help
spell a multisyllabic
word part by part.
• Recognize that
there is at least one
vowel in every
syllable to help spell
multisyllabic words
with more accuracy.
• New high-frequency
words: favorite,
together, and several.
4
• Identify words that
sound the same
(rhyming words,
words with same
onset, rime, or word
part).
• Use known words to
help decode
multisyllabic words in
text.
• Use known words to
spell unknown
multisyllabic words.
5
• Consult a reference
or ask for help after
all spelling strategies
have been tried.
• Use a reference
tool to correct and
confirm some
spellings.
• Use alphabetical
order to locate words
in a dictionary.
Phonics Instruction in Grade 2 Unit 3, Word Builders: Construction, Demolition, and Vowel Power
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 50
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
6
• Apply all known
spelling strategies to
learn to spell words of
personal significance.
7
• Understand that
the same vowel
sound can be
represented in
different ways (long
A, long O).
• Identify and use
letter combinations
that represent long
vowel sounds.
• Attempt to spell a
word in more than
one way, selecting
the spelling that
“looks right.”
• Develop an
understanding of
homophones.
• New high-frequency
words: begin, before,
and great.
8
• Identify and use
letters that represent
the long vowel A
sound (ai, a_e, ay,
open syllable a).
• Use known words to
spell unknown
multisyllabic words.
9
• Identify and use
letters that represent
the long vowel A
sound (ai, a_e, ay,
open syllable a).
• Identify and use
common phonogram
patterns with the
long A sound (ain,
ake, and ail).
• Study words with
similar spellings to
determine spelling
generalizations.
10
• Identify and use
letters that represent
the long vowel E
sound (ee, ea, e_e,
open syllable e, y).
• Understand that ie
and ey are unusual
ways to represent the
long E sound.
• Study words with
similar spellings to
determine spelling
generalizations.
• Use known words to
spell unknown words.
• New high-frequency
word: either.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 51
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
11
• Identify and use
letters that represent
the long vowel I
sound (i_e, igh, open
syllable i, y).
• Identify and use
some common
phonogram patterns
with the long I sound
(ice, ide, ine, and ight).
• Understand that ie
is an unusual way to
represent the long I
sound.
• Form new words
with common
endings: Change a
final y to i before
adding -es or -ed.
Study words with
similar spellings to
determine spelling
generalizations.
Use common long
vowel phonograms to
spell unknown words (-
ine, ight, -ide, -ail, -
ain, -ake, -eed, and
-eat).
12
• Form new words
with inflectional
endings: Usually drop
final E when adding
endings that start
with a vowel.
• New high-frequency
words: excited and
while.
13
• Identify and use
letters that represent
the long O vowel
sound (o_e, oa, open
syllable o, ow).
• Study words with
similar spellings to
determine spelling
generalizations.
• New high-frequency
word: old.
14
• Identify and use
letters that represent
the long U vowel
sound (u_e, oo, ew,
ue, open syllable u).
• Identify and use
some common
phonogram patterns
with the long U sound
(-oon, -use).
• Understand the ui is
an unusual way to
represent the long U
sound.
• Study words with
similar spellings to
determine spelling
generalizations.
• New high-frequency
word: usually.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 52
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
15
• Identify and use
phonogram patterns
with long vowel
sounds in multisyllabic
words.
• Use known word
parts to decode an
unknown word.
• New high-frequency
words: again, against,
and being.
16
• Identify and use
vowel teams in
multisyllabic words.
• Use known word
parts to decode an
unknown word.
• Demonstrate
flexibility when
decoding words with
vowel teams.
• New high-frequency
word: ready.
17
• Identify and use R-
controlled vowels in
multisyllabic words.
• Identify and use
some common
phonogram patterns
with R-controlled
vowels.
• Recognize that W
can change the sound
of some R-controlled
vowels.
• Use known word
parts to decode an
unknown word.
18
• Identify and use the
word part -ture in
multisyllabic words.
• Recognize that -er, -
or, and -ar can all be
used to represent the
r/ sound in the last
syllable of a word.
• Use known word
parts to decode an
unknown word.
• Use known word
parts to spell
unknown words.
19
• Understand that all
vowels can
sometimes make the
schwa sound /uh/ in
words.
• Demonstrate
flexibility with vowel
sounds when
decoding unknown
words.
• Review high-
frequency words to
support automaticity.
• Edit writing using
knowledge of high-
frequency words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 53
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
20
• Use a repertoire of
strategies to decode
multisyllabic words.
• Use a repertoire of
strategies to spell
multisyllabic words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 54
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
1
• Use knowledge of
word parts to spell.
• Determine meaning
of unknown words
using context (in a
conversation).
• Use words acquired
through conversation
in different contexts.
2
• Use knowledge of
word parts and
syllables to spell.
• Determine meaning
of unknown words
using context (in a
text).
• Generate synonyms
and antonyms to
understand word
meanings.
• Use words acquired
through reading in
different contexts.
3
• Use newly acquired
words in different
contexts.
• Use words acquired
through conversation
and reading in
different contexts.
4
• Sort words by
function, by meaning,
and by emotional
charge.
• Recognize words
with multiple
meanings (i.e., fly,
fire, spat).
• Choose precise
vocabulary to
describe, name, and
show action in
writing.
Phonics Instruction in Grade 2 Unit 4, Word Collectors
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 55
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
5
• Distinguish shades
of meaning among
closely related verbs
and adjectives.
• Recognize and use
synonyms.
• Choose precise
vocabulary to
describe, name, and
show action in
writing.
6
• Generate synonyms
and antonyms to
understand word
meanings.
• Demonstrate
understanding of
word relationships
and nuances in
word meanings.
7
• Understand that
individual words can
be combined to form
compound words.
• Use individual
words to spell
compound words.
• Use a spelling
routine to spell
compound words.
• Use knowledge of
the meaning of
individual words to
predict the meaning
of compound words
(firestorm, snowman,
baseball, workplace,
superstar, and
stuntwoman).
• Deepen
understanding of
compound words
using context in
reading.
• Use patterns and
rhythm to remember
the spelling of high-
frequency words.
8
• Identify word parts
that hold
meaning.
• Use individual
words to decode
compound words.
• Use individual
words to spell
compound words.
• Use a spelling
routine to spell
compound words.
• Combine words to
make new
compound words
based on meaning of
individual words.
• New high-frequency
words:
sometimes,
everybody, and
understand.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 56
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
9
• Understand that
individual words can
be combined to form
compound words.
• Identify word parts
that hold meaning.
• Use individual
words to decode
compound words.
• Use individual
words to spell
compound words.
• Use a spelling
routine to spell
compound words.
• Use knowledge of
the meaning of
individual words to
predict the meaning
of compound words
(raindrop, birthday,
skateboard, sunlight,
nighttime, and
playground).
• Deepen
understanding of
compound words
using context in
reading.
• Review high-
frequency word:
because.
10
• Understand that
individual words can
be combined to form
compound words.
• Identify word parts
that hold meaning.
• Use individual
words to decode
compound words.
• Distinguish
between compound
words and word parts
(ie. panicking).
• Use individual
words to spell
compound words.
• Use a spelling
routine to spell
compound words.
• Combine words to
make new compound
words.
• Classify compound
words from nonsense
words using context.
11
• Understand that
individual words
can be combined to
form compound
words.
• Identify word parts
that hold
meaning.
• Use individual
words to decode
compound words.
• Use individual
words to spell
compound words.
• Use a spelling
routine to spell
compound words.
• Use knowledge of
the meaning
of individual words to
predict the
meaning of
compound words
(somewhere, anyone,
everything,
nobody, outside).
• Deepen
understanding of
compound words
using context in
reading.
• Combine words to
make new compound
words.
• Review high-
frequency words.
• Use high-frequency
words to make
compound words.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 57
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
12
• Use knowledge of
individual base words
to generate new
compound words.
• Use sentence-level
context to determine
the meaning of a
word.
• Determine the
meaning of invented
compound words by
using meaning of
individual words.
13
• Recognize prefixes
as word parts that
affect the meaning of
base words.
• Decode base words
and prefixes.
• Recognize prefixes
are word parts that
carry meaning (un-,
non-).
• Use the base word
to determine the
meaning of a word
with a prefix.
• Use sentence-level
context to determine
the meaning of words
with a prefix.
• Generate words
with familiar base
words and prefixes.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 58
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
14
• Recognize prefixes
as word parts that
affect the meaning of
base words.
• Use prefix and base
word parts to spell.
• Recognize prefixes
are word parts that
carry meaning (pre-,
re-, in-).
• Use sentence-level
context to determine
the meaning of words
with a prefix.
• Determine meaning
of new words formed
when a prefix is
added.
• Distinguish
between prefixes
with similar meanings.
15
• Recognize prefixes
as word parts that
affect the meaning of
base words.
• Use word parts,
including prefixes, to
solve multisyllabic
words in reading.
• Use sentence-level
context to determine
the meaning of words
with a prefix.
• Determine meaning
of unfamiliar base
words using meaning
of familiar prefixes.
16
• Determine if a
group of letters is
functioning as a
prefix.
• Recognize prefixes
are word parts that
carry meaning (im-,
uni-, bi-, quad-, oct-).
• Use a base word to
determine the
meaning of a word
with a prefix.
• Use sentence-level
context to determine
the meaning of words
with a prefix.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 59
Session
Phonological
Awareness
Phonics Word Structure
Word Solving:
Decoding
Word Solving:
Spelling
Vocabulary Conventions
High-Frequency
Words
17
• Recognize suffixes
as word parts that
affect the meaning of
base words.
• Form comparatives
and superlatives by
adding suffixes.
• Change verbs to
nouns with the suffix
-er.
• Apply previously
learned spelling
strategies for adding
endings (suffixes):
when to drop silent E,
when to double the
consonant, when to
change Y to I.
• Recognize suffixes
are word parts that
carry meaning (-ing, -
ly, -ed,
-est).
• Use sentence-level
context to determine
the meaning of words
with a suffix.
18
• Form words that
are related (word
families) by attaching
suffixes and prefixes
to a base word.
• Recognize suffixes
are word parts that
carry meaning (-ful, -
less).
• Use sentence-level
context to determine
the meaning of words
with a suffix.
• New high-frequency
words: beautiful and
cousin.
19
• Form words using
prefixes and suffixes.
• Review meaning of
previously-learned
prefixes and suffixes.
• Use knowledge of
prefixes and suffixes
to aim for greater
precision in writing.
Phonics Instruction in the Units of Study in Phonics, K-2
UnitsofStudy.com/Phonics
© 2019 by Lucy Calkins, all rights reserved 60
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