!"#$%&'()*+,-.*(&/0(01&2.*31-4*05&6(40&7(5&8))&9*:;04&9141- 31< =&&Any!unauthorized!reprint!or!use!of!this!document!is!prohibited!under!federal!law.!!!"#$%&'()%*'(+%,(-./0&was!
supported!by!a!grant!to!the!California!State!University!East!Bay!by!the!National!Science!Foundation!D isco v er y !R es ea rc h !K 1 2 ,!Award!No.!DRL-1418440.!PI:!
michele.korb@csueastbay.edu!or!contact!corinne.lardy@csus.edu,!michelle .s in a puelas@cs u e a s t b a y .e d u !!
Last!Updated!8/26/2020!
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6.:(:*.:&*.&8-:EF1.0&+-,F&63*<1.?1D&Argumentation!is!the!process!by!which!evidence-based!conclusions!and!solutions!are!reached.!In!science!and!
engineering,!reasoning!and!argument!based!on!evidence!are!essential!to!identifying!the!best!explanation!for!a!natural!phenomenon!or!the!best!solution!to!a!
design!problem.!!Scientists!and!engineers!use!argumentation!to!listen!to,!compare,!and!evaluate!competing !ideas!and!m ethod s.!!Scientists!and!engineers!
engage!in!argumentation!when!investigating!a!phenomenon,!testing!a!design!solution,!resolving!questions!about!measurements,!building!models,!and!
evaluating!claims.
!!
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1) ',FM(-1N&(.<&?-*0*WE1&two&arguments
based!on!the!supporting!evidence
2) 6.:(:1&*.&<*4?,E-41&around!a!scientific
argument!with!peers
3) ',.40-E?0&(.<K,-&-1+*.1&an!argument
using!evidence!and!reasoning!to!support!a
claim
4) !"#$%#&&'%# $(&O(P1N&<1+1.<N&(.<K,-
13()E(01&(&?)(*F&(X,E0&0;
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<14*:.&4,)E0*,.!using!evidence
G,014&,.&',.01S0K/M1?*()&',.4*<1-(0*,.4&(part!of!school!year,!differentiation,!student!developmental!considera tions ,!etc.):!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !
!"#$%&'()*+,-.*(&/0(01&2.*31-4*05&6(40&7(5&8))&9*:;04&9141-31<=&&Any!unauthorized!reprint!or!use!of!this!document!is!prohibited!under!federal!law.!!!"#$%&'()%*'(+%,(-./0&was!
supported!by!a!grant!to!the!California!State!University!East!Bay!by!the!National!Science!Foundation!Discovery!Research !K12 ,!A ward!No.!DRL-1418440.!PI:!
michele.korb@csueastbay.edu!or!contact!corinne.lardy@csus.edu,!michelle .s in a puelas@cs u e a s t b a y .e d u !!
Last!Updated!8/26/2020!
8/6>&Z-(<1&7(.<&'-*01-*(&4+"53%(65,317(89:;(<9=>?!
!!!!!!
!
[\]&Z-(<1&7(.<&
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1) ',FM(-1N&(.<&
?-*0*WE1&two&
arguments!based!
on!the!
supporting!
evidence!!
!
!!!!!!
Using!two!arguments!on!the!same!topic!developed!by!students!or!
presented!by!the!instructor:!
a. Identify!claims!m ad e!in!eac h!ar gu m en t!
b. Distinguish!among!facts!(based!on!research!findings)!and!
speculation!or!opinion!(not!supported!by!ob jective!
informat ion ) !us ed !to !su p p o rt !ea ch !cl aim!
c. Compare!and!critique!claims!made!by!these!two!arguments!on!
the!same!topic:!
i. by!identifying!if!they!emphasize!similar!or!different!
evidence.!
ii. and/or!by!comparing!the!interpretation!of!evidence.!
iii. and/or!by!considering!the!ethical!issues!of!each!!
!
!!!!!!
Using!competing!arguments!on!the!same!topic!developed!by!
students!or!presented!by!the!instructor:!
a. Identify!claims!m ad e!in!eac h!ar gu m en t!
b. Distinguish!among!scientific!facts!(based!on!research!findings!
and!scientific!consensus)!and!speculation!or!opinion!(not!
supported!by!scientifically-vetted!information)!used!to!
support!each!claim!
c. Compare!and!critique!claims!made!by!these!two!arguments!
on!the!same!topic:!
i. by!identifying!if!they!emphasize!similar!or!different!
evidence.!
ii. and/or!by!comparing!the!interpretation!of!evidence.!!
iii. Considering!the!limitations,!constraints,!and!ethical!
issues!of!eac h! !
iv. !In!light!of!curren tly!acc ep ted!ex pla na tion s!
2) 6.:(:1&*.&
<*4?,E-41&
around!a!
scientific!
argument!with!
peers&_!
!!!!!!
Respectfully!provide!and!receive!critiques!,/>0'/<)9&&'6!about!
one’s!explanations,!procedures,!models!and!questions!2+?!
a. Citing!relevant!scientific!evidence!and!
b. Posing!and!responding!to!69&8%0%8!questions!that!elicit!pertinent!
elaboration!and!detail.!
!!!!!!
Respectfully!provide!and/or!receive!critiques!,/>0'/<)9&&'6!on!
scientific!arguments!2+?!
a. Probing!reasoning!and!scientific!evidence!
b. Challenging!ideas!and!conclusions!
c. Responding!thoughtfully!to!diverse!perspectives!
d. Determining!what!additional!informatio n !is!r eq u ire d !to !
resolve!contradictions!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !
!"#$%&'()*+,-.*(&/0(01&2.*31-4*05&6(40&7(5&8))&9*:;04&9141-31<=&&Any!unauthorized!reprint!or!use!of!this!document!is!prohibited!under!federal!law.!!!"#$%&'()%*'(+%,(-./0&was!
supported!by!a!grant!to!the!California!State!University!East!Bay!by!the!National!Science!Foundation!Discovery!Research !K12 ,!A ward!No.!DRL-1418440.!PI:!
michele.korb@csueastbay.edu!or!contact!corinne.lardy@csus.edu,!michelle .s in a puelas@cs u e a s t b a y .e d u !!
Last!Updated!8/26/2020!
3) ',.40-E?0&
(.<K,-&-1+*.1&
an!argument!
using!evidence!
and!reasoning!to!
support!a!claim!!
!!!!!!
a. Construct,!use,!and/or!present!an!oral!and!written!argument,!to!
support!or!refute!an!explanation!or!a!mod el!for!a!phe n omenon!
(science),!or!a!solution!to!a!problem !(engine ering),!that!is!
supported!by:!
i. A!claim!or!set!of!claims!
ii. @&4&51#,!empirical!evidence!(e.g.,!observations,!data,!
and/or!a!model)!to!support!the!claim!and,!!
iii. Scientific!reasoning!(;#8/'9/'1,&)68%&#,%0%8)9'%#8%94&6A)
,-&/'%&6A)1#.>/')%.&16B! to !supp ort!evid ence !linked !to!claim !
!
b. Refine!claim!or!set!of!claims!based!on!an!evaluation!of!the!
evidence!presented!
!!!!!!
a. Construct,!use,!and/or!present!an!oral!and!written!argument!
or!counter-arguments!based!on!data!and!evidence.!!!
!!!!!!
b. Refine!claim!or!set!of!claims!based!on!an!evaluation!of!the!
data!and!evidence!presented!
!!!!!!
4) !"#$%#&&'%#$(&
O(P1N&<1+1.<N&
(.<K,-&13()E(01&
(&?)(*F&(X,E0&
0;1&
1++1?0*31.144K&
F1-*0!of!an&
,XY1?0&,-&<14*:.&
4,)E0*,.!using!
evidence!
!!!!!!
a. Make!and!defend!a!claim!(or!set!of!claims)!related!to!a!design!
solution!that:!
i. supports!or!refutes!the!advertised!performance!of!a!
device,!process,!or!system,!!
ii. are!based!on!empirical!evidence!about!the!effectiveness!of!
a!design!solution!(whether!or!not!the!technology!meets!
relevant!criteria!and!constraints)!!
iii. reflects!scientific!knowledge,!and!student-generated!
evidence.!
!
b. Evaluate!competing!design!solutions!based!on!jointly!
developed!and!agreed-upon!design!criteria!
!!!!!!
a. Make!and!defend!a!claim!(or!set!of!claims)!related!to!a!design!
solution!that:!
i. supports!or!refutes!the!advertised!performance!of!a!
device,!process,!or!system,!!
ii. are!based!on!empirical!evidence!about!the!effectiveness!
of!a!design!solution!(whether!or!not!the!technology!
meets!relevant!criteria!and!constraints)!!
iii. are!based!on!evidence!about!the!natural!or!designed!
world.!
!
b. Evaluate!competing!design!solutions!based!on!relevant!factors!
such!as!economic,!societal,!environmental,!and!ethical!
consideration.!
*!Teaching!methods!instructors!should!consider!use!of!discourse!scaffolds!or!sentence!frames!to!help!guide!this!!
!
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