What is the MPA MEAT?
e MPA MEAT aims to assess governance in terms of enforcement,
implementation and maintenance. However, MPA management in the
context of governance approaches in the Philippines is not limited to
the physical management of the MPA only but also includes direct and
indirect uses, threats, people, and the systemic interaction between
people and resources.
What is an eﬀectively managed MPA?
IUCN denes management eﬀectiveness as the degree to which
management actions are achieving the goals and objectives of a
protected area (Hockings et al., 2000). Management eﬀectiveness is
dened, in the context of the MPA MEAT, according to four diﬀerent
levels: (1) established, (2) strengthened, (3) sustained, and (4)
institutionalized. MPA eﬀectiveness, on the other hand based on
several criteria and/or governance indicators in combination with the
biophysical and socioeconomic impact indicators.and socioeconomic
Where to use the MPA MEAT?
MPA MEAT is a management tool to help measure MPA eﬀectiveness
using simplied tools allowing an objective evaluation of MPAs. It can
be applied to locally-managed MPAs and marine areas declared under
the National Integrated Protected Area System Act (RA 7586). It can
be implemented through an assisted self-evaluation or key informant
interviews. Documents provide proof of completion of targets. For
NIPAS marine areas, consider only the areas within the seascape that
are directly managed or linked to the PAMB.
How to use the MPA MEAT?
e 48-item modication of the CCEF rating to incorporate other
indicators and weighted importance values takes into account the
suggestion of the WB score card (Staub and Hatziolas 2004) and of
certain threshold governance processes (EcoGov2 in prep., Arceo et
al.) to help gauge some outputs/outcomes and dene eﬀectiveness
(Hockings et al. 2000).
Each level in the MPA MEAT have criteria and activities that need to
be satised as described in the guide questions. e thresholds
indicated with an asterisk (*) are given higher points. e minimum
score including all the scores of the thresholds should be satised to pass the level. For levels 3 and 4, the age of the
MPA is considered also as a prerequisite for proving “sustainability” and “institutionalization”.
e levels in this tool are sequential. e highest level, which the MPA being assessed has satised the minimum
score, is its Management Level. e cumulative score is used to measure the MPA management rating. e
minimum number of years of MPA operation in Levels 3 and 4 should be satised in order to pass these levels.
MPA MEAT AS
BENCHMARKING TOOL FOR
CTI NPOA GOAL ON MPAS
e benchmarking of Marine
Protected Area (MPA) management
eﬀectiveness is a crucial part in
improving functionality of
governance and management of
MPAs in the Philippines. It serves as
a baseline for the monitoring of the
Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI)
Philippines’ National Plan of Action
(NPOA) areas and dovetails with
tracking of commitments to the
Convention on Biological Diversity
e MPA Management Eﬀectiveness
Assessment Tool (MPA MEAT) was
developed as a benchmarking tool as
a result of considerable cooperative
work between several institutions
and individuals working to help
establish and sustain MPA as an
important strategy to adaptively
manage the coastal and marine areas
of the Philippine Archipelago.
It is envisioned that the MPA MEAT
will be implemented widely to help
pursue the goal of improving
eﬀectiveness of MPAs in the
Philippines as part of the CTI (see
CTI Goal on MPAs). It can be used
as a minimum set of standards for
compliance to the CTI NPOA.