Name: _______________________________ Class: ______________ Date: ___________________
GUIDED READING
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 11: The Road to Revolution
Section 1
British Policies at the War's End
Directions:
Use the information from pages 246 - 253 to complete the
following.
1. The French and Indian War changed the _____________________ between Great
Britain and its North American colonies in ways that neither side could foresee.
2. As Great Britain tried to __________________ its larger territory, keep the
________________ under control, and pay its ______________, leaders developed
what they called a "___________ _________________ policy."
3. The war against the ________________ had been _________________ for Great
Britain, and the country already had a ________________ debt.
4. British citizens at home had grown weary of increasingly higher _______________.
The British government needed _______________.
5. It (British Parliament) thought that, since the war had _________________ as a way to
____________ the colonies, the ____________________ should be willing to help
______________ for it and their continued defense.
6. So, the first ______________ of the war was that the _________________ government
began a policy of _________________ the colonies to raise money.
7. Second, with the war over, Great Britain began to enforce a series of old
_______________ laws, called the Navigation Acts, which they had loosely enforced or
ignored for many decades.
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8. One of these acts required that certain _______________ Great Britain needed, but did
not produce, be placed on a list of items that _________________ only be sold to Great
Britain or other British colonies.
9. Another act said that only British and British colonial _____________ could
______________ goods to colonial ports.
10. These acts made sure that colonies __________________ the mother country, as
_________________________ required.
11. To avoid these acts, the colonists had turned to _____________________ (secretly
importing or exporting goods).
12. A third effect of the French and Indian War was the continued __________________ of
British ________________ in the colonies.
13. Although the government said the soldiers were there for the colonists'
__________________, many thought they were there to keep an ___________ on the
colonists.
14. When the British began to require the colonists to _____________ and provide
_________________ for the _________________, resentment grew.
15. When the war ended, many ________________ Americans were afraid that the
colonists would begin to ______________ into their lands.
16. Several tribes joined the Ottawa [led by Chief Pontiac] and __________________
against the British in May 1763, attacking British forts. That was followed by
_____________ in which settlers were _________________.
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17. In October 1763, the British government, hoping to bring order to the area and prevent
further problems with the Native Americans, issued the _____________________ of
____________.
18. The document created a line along the crest of the ____________________
Mountains and _______________ any settlement west of the line. Those already
settled in the west were to _______________.
19. This new territory [in Georgia] was not west of the Proclamation Line, so Georgians
were not __________________ affected.
20. The other British colonies, however, were ________________. After all, one of the
______________ reasons for the French and Indian War had been to ______________
control of the _______________ _________________ territory.
21. Now they believed that their own government was ________________ the very Indians
who had been their ___________________.
22. The __________________ Act of 1764 was the first of many new laws that angered the
colonists.
23. This law revised the tax on the major _____________ of trade between the mainland
colonies and the island colonies in the West Indies - ___________________.
24. The act also called for more __________________ officials (people who oversaw the
goods coming into ports and made sure taxes were paid).
25. While Georgians were somewhat concerned about the 1764 act, the first law that really
made the Georgia colonists upset was the _________________ Act of 1765.
26. This law required that _________________ be placed on all ___________________
materials and documents.
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27. Up to this time, _________________ on goods had been paid by the
__________________; those were indirect or "____________________” taxes.
28. The stamp tax would be _______________ by every citizen who used any kind of
__________________ or had to have any kind of legal ___________________.
29. The colonists had no ______________________________ in the British Parliament.
30. They thought the Stamp Act was "______________________ without representation”.
31. In some colonies, people ___________________ in the streets over the Stamp Act.
32. The first reaction of ____________________, however, was calmer. The Commons
House of Assembly asked William ________________, the Georgia agent in London (a
person similar to a ____________________ today), to ask Parliament to
_______________, or take back, the Stamp Act.
33. When Knox said Parliament had a ________________ to tax the colonies in this way,
the Commons House fired him and tried to hire the South Carolina agent to also
represent them.
34. In the summer of 1765, the ___________________________ assembly sent a letter to
the _____________________ of the other colonies.
35. It was an ______________________ to send representatives to a _________________
of all the colonies to decide what to do in _____________________ to the Stamp act.
36. Governor ____________________ did not want Georgia to ______________________,
so he did not call the Commons House into ___________________.
37. In the fall of 1765, a group of Georgians ____________________ to the Stamp Act
formed an organization called the ____________ of ___________________.
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38. On October 25, 1765, a group gathered in front of Tondee's Tavern in
____________________. They had made an ________________ (likeness) of a stamp
agent, which they paraded through the streets, pretended to ______________, and
then _________________ while a crowd cheered them on.
39. On the day the Stamp Act went into __________________, nothing happened in
___________________ because there were no ___________________ and no
___________________ to sell them.
40. On January 3, 1766, the Stamp agent, George __________________, finally arrived
and began _________________ the stamps. The port re-opened as ship captains
_______________ their stamp tax and set sail.
41. No other colony ________________ stamps.
42. The rice planters and merchants were glad to see their cargo ____________________,
but some Georgians were unhappy they had _______________ ________.
43. In February, a group of 250 men from the backcountry ____________________ on
Savannah in protest. They were met by 100 Rangers with ______________. The
_______________________ were a fulltime, paid provincial __________________
force.
44. No further _________________ were sold in Georgia while it waited with the other
colonies to see what ________________ the British government would take.
45. The Townshend _______________________ Act placed taxes on goods coming
______________ the colonies - _____________, glass, paint, paper, and other items.
46. Parliament thought the colonists would not _________________ since these were
external (indirect) rather than internal taxes.
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47. Once again, _________________________ led the way with another letter proposing
the _________________ unite to oppose the act.
48. When the Commons House of Assembly tried to ________________ the
Massachusetts letter, the governor __________________ the legislature and sent the
delegates home.
49. Meanwhile, South Carolinians had begun a __________________, which meant they
refused to ___________ most British-made goods.
50. In 1770, _____________________ voted to repeal all the Townshend taxes, except the
tax on _______________.
51. Unfortunately, for Georgians, the relationship between Governor Wright and the
Commons House of __________________ was a problem. Wright was trying to do his
job and ___________________ the British government, but he was also trying to
explain to his superiors in Great Britain how these __________________ affected the
colonists.
52. One of the issues that became a problem was the man the Commons House chose to
be its ___________________.
53. The ____________________ represented the Commons House to the governor and
the council.
54. In April 1771, the Commons House elected Noble Wimberly _____________ to the
position.
55. Governor Wright would not approve the selection of the younger Jones because he had
been a ___________________ of the Sons of Liberty.
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56. After taking this action, ________________ left Georgia and traveled to England for
over a year.
57. While he was in Great Britain, Wright had ______________ the government to change
some of the policies the _________________ did not like.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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GUIDED READING
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 11: The Road to Revolution
Section 2
The Road to Independence
Directions:
Use the information from page 256 - 265 to complete the
following.
1. The early 1770s were calmer after the ________________ of the Townshend Revenue
Acts. ____________________ leaders and many colonists hoped that they could
work out better relations.
2. In 1773, Great Britain passed the __________ Act.
3. This law made Britain's East India Company the only _________________ that could
sell ________________ tea in the colonies. In other words, the company had a
___________________ on tea.
4. The company, which had been one of Great Britain's most __________________, had
lost a great deal of revenue because of the tea ___________________ during the
protests over the Townshend Acts. Parliament was trying to keep the company from
going __________________ (collapsing).
5. In some colonies, New York for example, the tea ships were sent back to Great Britain
in ___________________.
6. The most famous protest was the _________________ Tea Party. In that incident,
colonists __________________ as Indians boarded the tea ships in the harbor and
________________ the tea into the water.
7. British King George III was outraged at what he and Parliament saw as a
____________________ action - destroying the East India Company's
__________________.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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8. He {King George III] believed that the colonies had to be brought under
________________. As a result, Parliament enacted a series of laws to
______________ Boston and the Massachusetts colony.
9. The ___________________ Acts, as the British called them, closed Boston's
______________ to all ships going and coming until the colonists ____________ for the
tea.
10. These laws became known in the colonies as the _____________________ Acts.
11. ____________________ were upset by the Intolerable Acts, even though they were
aimed at the _______________________ colony and not Georgia.
12. In spite of Georgia's ____________________ to British policy, Georgia chose not to
send any delegates to a meeting in _____________________, Pennsylvania.
13. That meeting came to be called the First ___________________ _________________.
14. Georgians did decide to have another meeting, called the ______________________
congress, in Savannah in January 1775 at the same time that the Commons House was
scheduled to meet.
15. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress had called for the colonies to
______________ together to boycott all British goods.
16. This strategy, called a ________________________ agreement, had worked in the
protest over the Townshend Acts.
17. The provincial congress voted to ____________ delegates to the Second Continental
Congress that was scheduled to meet in Philadelphia in May ___________.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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18. The three men elected - Archibald ______________, Noble Wimberly
______________, and John __________________ - were all from the Savannah area
in Christ Church Parish.
19. Since the provincial congress had no real ________________ to do this, they hoped the
Commons House, as the _______________ elected representatives of the people
would ________________ of what they had done.
20. Governor ________________ was dismayed by what was happening. He came
personally to the Commons House and asked the __________________ to keep the
rule of law.
21. He was afraid the rebellion would bring Georgia "___________________ and
_______________."
22. When he [Wright] thought the Commons House was going to take up the
_____________ of the provincial congress, he sent the delegates home before they
could _______________.
23. As a result, __________________ was the only one of the ________________ colonies
that had no ____________________ at the start of the Second Continental Congress.
24. Meanwhile, St. John's Parish thought both the provincial congress and the Commons
House was being too ______________.
25. The residents of St. John's Parish had their own meeting and elected Dr. Lyman
______________ to represent them at the Second Continental Congress.
26. Because he did not ________________ represent the colony of Georgia, however, he
would not be able to _____________.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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27. For the rest of the spring of 1775, events in Georgia led to a growing breakdown of the
______________ government, especially the power of _________________ Wright.
28. On May 10, 1775, Georgians read in the Georgia Gazette that __________________
colonists and British ________________ had fought each other in ___________ in what
came to be known as the Battles of ___________________ and ________________.
29. American writer and poet Ralph Waldo ___________________ would later say the
rebelling Massachusetts farmers had "fired the shot heard '_____________ the
______________."
30. In the early spring of 1775, the British general stationed in Boston, Thomas
_____________, had received orders to ______________ the ringleaders of the Sons
of Liberty, including Samuel _______________ (who had led the Boston Tea Party) and
John _________________.
31. Gage also knew that the Sons of Liberty were storing ____________________ and
_____________________ in the villages outside Boston. He determined to take these
__________________ supplies.
32. But some colonists learned of Gage's _____________, and three men rode through the
countryside at night _______________ the colonists that the British soldiers were
coming.
33. One of those riders became very famous - silversmith John _________________.
34. When the king's soldiers marched to the village of Lexington on April ________, they
were met by armed Americans called "_____________________."
35. Someone ____________, and a skirmish occurred that left __________________ dead
and wounded. ___________ sides claimed they had fired that first shot.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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36. The news _______________________ the Sons of Liberty in ______________.
37. Noble Wimberly Jones called for a ________________ at his house the next night.
After the meeting, he [Jones], Joseph Habersham, Edward Telfair, Joseph Clay, John
Milledge, Mordecai Sheftall, and others _________________ into the royal
________________ (the storage house for gunpowder) and stole about six hundred
pounds of _______________________.
38. It would be used as ammunition in the ______________________.
39. Other acts __________________ the king and royal government followed.
40. With the royal government not functioning well, ____________ and ______________
needed to be maintained.
41. So the rebels set up local committees for that purpose and called for a new provincial
congress to meet on ____________ _______.
42. An overall Council of ______________________ was set up to oversee the local
committees and basically take on the __________________ of the governor and his
Council.
43. Life became more difficult for those who did not ________________ with the actions of
the Liberty boys.
44. The ______________ provincial congress met on July 4, 1775, at Tondee's Tavern in
Savannah.
45. During the meeting, the provincial congress passed many ____________________ on
the rights of the colonists and asked the king to ________________ his soldiers from
the colonies.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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46. They also elected __________ men to the ________________ Continental
Congress being held in Philadelphia. ___________________ would now be
participating fully with the __________________ other colonies.
47. By late _____________, Georgia was heading toward full _________________.
48. Georgia citizens, however, were not ___________________ in their stand.
49. Some Georgians, including some who had disapproved of the British policies, did not
believe in outright ___________________ of the government and its laws.
50. One such person was Presbyterian minister John J. ____________. The Reverend
Zubly had attended meetings protesting British actions and had even been
_____________ as one of the delegates to the Second Continental Congress.
51. But full defiance to the point of _______________________ went too far for Zubly and
others.
52. These citizens remained loyal to Great Britain and King George, so they were called
____________________; sometimes they were called _______________, the name of
the political party in Great Britain that supported the king and his policies.
53. Those who ______________ the government called themselves _________________.
These people were also known as _________________, the name of the political party
in Great Britain that sometimes opposed the king and his policies.
54. They believed that the changes in the British policies since the French and Indian War
were taking away ____________________ that had been guaranteed them as British
citizens.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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55. By the end of 1775, enough ___________________ had become Patriots that the
colony _______________ the other twelve colonies, which had been more defiant for a
longer time.
56. Why had Georgia been ________________ to active rebellion than its sister colonies?
57. For one thing, Georgia was ____________________. A second reason that had initially
made many colonists reluctant to _____________- the mother country was that Georgia
had so many exposed ___________________ that could be attacked by
_______________.
58.Finally, most Georgians genuinely _______________ their royal governor, James
Wright.
59. His [Wright] leadership had helped the colony to grow in ___________________ and
had brought more stability and more ___________________.
60. Following the battles of Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress met
in _____________________.
61. One of its early actions was to approved a Continental ______________ of 20,000 men,
with George _____________________ as its commander.
62. The Congress sent a ______________________ to King George III, explaining why the
colonists had "taken up arms."
63. Following that, they drew up a ________________________ asking the king to
reconsider his __________________, so ________________ could be made.
64. This was known as the "___________________ Branch" Petition, because an olive
branch has long been a ________________ of making peace.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
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65. The king not only __________________ the olive branch, but he also sent another
_________________ troops to the colonies to end what he considered a rebellion.
66. In January 1776, a Patriot named Thomas ________________ published a pamphlet
called _________________ ________________, arguing for a path of independence.
67. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry _____________ of Virginia introduced a resolution of
_______________________ [at the Second Continental Congress].
68. The Congress appointed a committee, including Thomas _________________ of
Virginia, John _______________ of Massachusetts, and Benjamin _______________,
to write a ____________________ that would explain to the world, and to their fellow
colonists, why they were justified in ___________________ from their mother country.
69. On July 2, the Continental Congress ______________ for independence.
70. After two more days of revising the document, the _______________________ of
______________________, went to the printer on July _________, ______________.
71. Three men signed the Declaration of Independence as ___________________
representatives to the Second Continental Congress: Button __________________,
Lyman ________________, and George ________________. (page 266)
72. When the war began, he [Gwinnett] was chosen by the provincial congress as
______________________ of the Georgia Continental Battalion. (page 266)
73. _____________ served as Georgia _______________ in 1783 and helped found the
______________________ of Georgia. (page 267)
74. ____________________ had a successful career after the war as a governor,
______________ ____________________ of the Georgia Supreme Court, and United
States __________________. (page 267)
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