Name: ______________________________ Class: ________________ Date: _______________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 9: Georgia in the Trustee Period
Section 1
Georgia's Founding
Use the information from pages 188 - 197 to complete the
1. In the early 1700s, Great Britain had __________________ colonies in North America,
all located along the East Coast between the ___________________ Ocean and the
__________________________ Mountains.
2. The oldest - ___________________ - was over 120 years old. The youngest colony,
established in 1681, was ______________________.
3. It [Pennsylvania] was given as a gift by King Charles II to ____________________
4. Penn founded the colony as a __________________ for members of his Christian
religious group - the ___________________ of _____________________, also known
as the ___________________.
5. In the 1660s, King Charles had given a large grant for a colony south of
___________________ to eight of his supporters. These ______________________
(owners) had thanked the king by naming the colony Carolina, which comes from the
Latin word for _____________________.
6. In 1729, the proprietors gave up control of the two colonies, and they became
___________________ colonies under the ________________ of the king.
7. By the late 1720s, no one had settled the part of South Carolina south of the Savannah
River, which was the dividing line between the ______________________ and the
______________________ nations.
8. James ______________________ and his associates were not the first Englishmen
who had the idea to settle there, but they were the first to actually turn their vision into
9. When Oglethorpe and his fellow __________________________ (those who give
money to worthy causes) asked King George II for a _____________ grant, they
presented three basic reasons for _______________________ the colony.
10. First, it would be a ______________________ effort that would take deserving
______________ people from England, and other Europeans who were
___________________ for being Protestants living in Catholic areas, and give them a
new _________________ in the colony.
11. A second reason was _________________ __________________. No
__________________ lived south of the Savannah River because they did not want to
_________________ the Spanish living in __________________, who also
___________________ some of the land.
12. A third reason for the colony was _____________________. The trustees believed
that, because of its _____________________ so far south, the new colony would be
able to grow _________________ that England could not grow and, therefore, had to
______________ from other countries.
13. This was part of the government's economic policy of ______________________. The
economic goal of mercantilism was to have a favorable balance of _______________.
14. This was accomplished when the _________________ country (and its colonies)
produced as much as possible of what it ____________________ (selling any extra to
other countries) and didn't have to spend its money _________________ goods from
other countries.
15. Under mercantilism, colonies __________________ to help their mother countries by
producing ___________ materials and serving as __________________ for goods
manufactured in the mother country.
16. For these charitable, defense, and economic reasons, James Oglethorpe and his
associates received the Charter of 1732, which named them the
"___________________ for the Establishing of the Colony of ___________________ in
17. The ____________________ was the document that granted the territory to the
trustees and set up the rules under which the trust would work.
18. _____________________ are people who hold responsibility and act on behalf of
19. Much of the charter was about how the trust would operate in _______________
20. It [charter] named Sir John ______________________ as the first president of the trust.
The charter also required that the trust have an executive committee, called the
___________________ ___________________.
21. The charter also stated that, just like members of a modern ________________ board,
the ___________________ themselves could not make a ___________________ in
any way and could not get any ________________ or money for serving on the trust.
22. While the trust members could receive no _________________, the charter did allow
them to hire ____________________. An ___________________ and a
______________________, who took minutes of their meetings and handled much of
the trust's correspondence, became ________________ employees.
23. The charter granted the trust the land between the ____________________ and
Altamaha Rivers and all the land between their ___________________ (the source or
spring from which a river first flows) westward to the __________________ Ocean.
24. The name of the colony was to be "Georgia" in honor of King __________________.
25. According to the charter, the trustees would have the colony for ______________-
____________ years (until 1753).
26. In keeping with the _______________________ purpose of the colony, the charter said
that no one person could receive more than five _______________ acres of land.
27. The _____________________ made were in keeping with the reasons for the founding
of the colony. The trustees would pay for the ________________ of some to the new
28. Each _____________ who went to Georgia as a charity colonist would receive
______________ acres of land to farm, along with ________________ and a year's
supply of ___________________ and other necessities from the trust's store.
29. Because Georgia was to be a ________________ between Florida and South Carolina,
the male citizens had to be prepared to serve if necessary in a _________________
(a force of citizen-soldiers).
30. The trustees wanted to make sure a man who could serve as a soldier lived on every
fifty acres of land, so _________________ were not allowed to ______________ the
31. If a man had no ___________ or other male heirs, his land went _____________to the
trust to be re-granted to a male.
32. Settlers could not _______________ or _____________ their land or use it to borrow
33. Because Great Britain hoped that Georgia would produce ______________, colonists
were required to plant some of their land in ___________________ trees.
34. The trust also allowed for colonists who ______________ their own way and did not
want to get food and supplies from the trust ______________.
35. These "adventurers" could get a grant of up to ______________ hundred acres of land,
but they would have to have a ______________, either a relative or a servant, for
_______________ fifty acres.
36. The trustees' _____________ was to colonize Georgia with ________________, so 44
of the first 114 colonists, were ____________________, most either wives or daughters
of male settlers.
37. They believed that women were crucial to _________________________ the
households and bringing ________________________ to the colony.
38. James Oglethorpe decided to _________________ the first settlers himself; in fact, he
was the _______________ trustee who ever came to the colony.
39. In November ____________, the ship Ann set sail across the Atlantic with the chosen
settlers. It arrived in Charles Town, South ___________________, in January 1733.
40. While the Georgia colonists waited at Port Royal (Beaufort, ___________________ and
several other men left to find a good ____________ for the first settlement.
41. Sailing up the Savannah River past several islands, Oglethorpe chose a high
______________ know as __________________, named for the small band of creek
Indians who lived nearby.
42. Being on high ground would give them a _________________ advantage against any
____________________ coming from the sea.
43. The elderly leader of the Yamacraw people was ______________________, who
became a good friend to James Oglethorpe.
44. The ___________________ agreed to give the colony all the land along the coast from
the Savannah to the Altamaha "as far inland as the tidal waters."
45. Fortunately for the British and the Indians, John and Mary ____________________
owned a ___________________ post nearby where they did business with South
Carolinian traders.
46. Both John and Mary (his wife) had _________________ who were _____________
Indians and fathers who were British traders.
47. As a result they spoke both __________________ and were able to interpret all the
meetings between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi. After John died in 1735,
_____________ became the main ___________________.
48. On February 12, 1733, now celebrated as _________________ ___________,
Oglethorpe brought settlers to the _________________ Savannah.
49. With the help of South Carolina _________________ William ___________, they laid
out the streets and ________________ of this first Georgia community.
50. The town began with _______________ squares, each having twenty ___________ on
the north side and twenty lots on the south side. Each square with its forty lots was
called a _______________.
51. Beginning a new ____________ in Georgia was not _____________ for these first
settlers. Coming from a very different _________________, they struggled with the
heat and _____________________.
52. They found _____________________ to be pesky, although they did not realize that
the insects could make them _______________.
53. In the very first spring and summer, many of the colonists, including the only
__________________, died from what they called "_______________" and "agues,"
probably _________________.
54. The men spent their days ________________ the land, _________________ small
homes of less than four hundred square feet, and _____________________ crops.
55. Women ________________ and tended the family gardens, ________________ cows
and raised chickens, ____________________ all of their family meals, ____________
and mended clothing, cleaned homes and laundered clothes, and took care of
56. A woman's work was to "___________________ and orderly household."
57. The first [public structure] to be built in Savannah was the ______________________,
which also served as the _________________.
58. Oglethorpe established a town ______________ to decide disputes and handle
__________________, although the colonists had to ________________ themselves
since there were no __________________ in the colony.
59. Near the guardhouse on the east end of town, a ________________ (wooden stocks in
which a person's head and hands were locked) was erected for _________________ of
those who disturbed the "_________________" of the colony.
60. Other public buildings and structures included a ___________________, a _________
for grinding grain into flour, and a large public ______________ for baking bread.
61. Building _________________ for the colony was also a priority.
62. Tybee Island, where the Savannah River meets the Atlantic Ocean, got both a
____________ and a _____________________.
Use page 197 to answer the following questions.
63. Georgia founding Trustee James Oglethorpe and Yamacraw Mico (_______________)
Tomochichi developed a relationship of mutual _________________ and
___________________ during the early years of the colony. (page 197)
64. Tomochichi had helped the Georgia colony by agreeing to give them land, and he also
helped keep the ________________ between the British and other
_________________ Indians. (page 197)
Name: ______________________________ Class: ________________ Date: _______________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 9: Georgia in the Trustee Period
Section 2
Changes and Challenges
Use the information from pages 198 - 207 to complete the
1. In the spring of 1734, James Oglethorpe went to _____________________, taking with
him ________________________ and other Indians. They were very
__________________ there during the four months they stayed, even meeting the
_________________ family and the _______________________ of Canterbury (the
head clergyman of the Church of England).
2. Oglethorpe used his time in England to _____________________ the Georgia colony,
raise _________________, and prepare for the colony's future ___________________.
3. When he returned to Georgia in 1736, he brought ___________________ and other
weapons for defense.
4. Also on this return voyage were two new ____________________ (Church of England)
ministers for the colony, brother John and Charles ___________________.
5. Other members of the Church of England began to call them "____________________"
because of the methodical way they tried to live a _______________ life.
6. At that time, Georgia was considered a _____________________ in need of
______________________ services. John [Wesley] hoped to work with the Indians
and perhaps _____________________ some to Christianity.
7. ______________________ [Wesley] came with his brother to Georgia working as a
______________________ for Oglethorpe and serving as a _________________ at
Fort Frederica.
8. Although the Wesley's did not intend to found a new _________________ group, and
Charles was especially tied to the Church of England, _______________________ did
become a separate denomination.
9. When Oglethorpe returned, he also brought with him copies of three _____________
approved by the _________________ government.
10. One law made the ______________ and use of rum and other "spirits"
_____________________ in Georgia, although colonists could still drink beer, wine,
and ___________________.
11. In addition to believing that rum made the colonists _______________, the trustees did
not want it used in _________________ with the Indians.
12. The second law related to the __________________. It required that anyone trading
with the Indians in Georgia have a ___________________.
13. The trustees hoped to keep good _________________ with the Indians by making
sure that the traders treated them ___________________.
14. This was especially important because Georgians did not want the Indians to become
allies of the ___________________ in Florida.
15. An ______________ is a person, group, or country who joins with another for a
common interest.
16. The ____________ of the three laws made slavery _________________ in Georgia.
17. _________________ is the practice of owning people as property.
18. White ___________________ servants, however, were allowed in Georgia when extra
workers were needed.
19. These [indentured servants] were people from Europe who sold their ______________
for a period of years in return for passage to the colony and support during their period
of servitude.
20. Only a few months after the colony began, a ship carrying forty-two _____________
arrived unexpectedly from England. The trustees, who wanted
____________________ Christians in the colony, __________ __________ like the
idea of the Jews living in Georgia, but _______________________ decided that they
could stay and granted them lots.
21. Among them was Dr. Samuel _________________, who was able to ___________ the
lives of some of the victims of the fever that was _____________________ so many
22. In some parts of ______________________, people were _______________________
(ill-treated) for their religion.
23. That was the case for the German-speaking _____________________ who lived in and
near ______________________ in central Europe.
24. Their supporter, the Reverend Samuel _______________________, contacted the
trustees, who ____________________ to allow them to become colonists.
25. The first Salzburgers arrived in ________________. The first site [land to settle]
chosen, which they called Ebenezer, turned out to be too ___________________.
26. Two years later, they asked for and received _______________ land. They called this
town ____________ _______________________ which means "stone of help."
27. Under the leadership of their ___________________ John Martin Bolzius, the
Salzburgers became _______________________ colonists.
28. They not only __________________, but they were also the colonists most dedicated to
producing _________________. The trustees were more pleased with these
________________ than any others.
29. Another group of German-speaking Protestants who came to Georgia were the
________________________, whose religious ______________ was the Unity of
30. They worked hard to ___________________ the Indians and convert them to the
____________________ religion.
31. The Moravians were ______________________ and believed that any kind of
___________________ or violence was wrong.
32. James Oglethorpe ____________________ one of the groups who came.
33. Oglethorpe was concerned about _________________ defense if __________ should
break out. To have colonists who could serve as ___________________ in the south
of the colony, Oglethorpe recruited men from the highlands of ___________________.
34. The Scottish _____________ had a reputation for being good soldiers and
35. The most successful farmers were the ____________________ who were happy in
New Ebenezer with their fifty-acre grants. They supported the law _______________
slavery and supported the trustees' vision of _____________ farms.
36. Unfortunately, some Georgia colonists became ____________________ with the
trustees' policies and laws.
37. Many of the leaders of these complainers or _____________________ had paid their
own passage and did not like the trustees' ________________ policies.
38. In December, they sent a long ___________________ to Great Britain, calling for
39. They knew that ______________________ in South Carolina made high
_________________ because they could grow _______________. Rice required not
only many _____________ of land but also many __________________.
40. They also began to pressure the trust to allow ________________.
41. By 1740, some of the loudest malcontents left to settle in ______________
42. On his [Oglethorpe’s] trip to England, he had convinced _____________________ that
the British government should ___________ for the colony's protection, since Georgia
was the buffer between Spanish Florida and all the _______________ colonies north of
43. Upon his return in 1736, Oglethorpe ordered that _____________ be built at both the
northern and southern ends of the colony.
44. In honor of the ____________________ of King George's son Frederick Prince of
Wales to his German bride Princess Augusta in April of that year, the southern fort and
town on _____ _______________ Island was named ____________________, and the
northern fort and town became Augusta.
45. ____________________ was a center of trade for ___________________ and
beaver ___________ because both the Creek and Cherokee paths to the Savannah
River came together a few miles north of the fort near the Fall Line.
46. Oglethorpe made ___________________ his home; from there, he oversaw the
building of several more forts along the ____________ islands.
47. He also had the colonists lay out roads, which today would be called _____________,
connecting the settlements of the colony.
48. Appointed to the rank of __________________, Oglethorpe commanded the British
_________________ and the militias of South Carolina and Georgia.
49. He [Oglethorpe} wanted to maintain the __________________ of the Creek, especially
if war should break out with ______________.
50. Oglethorpe's defense efforts became important when the War of ________________
_____________ broke out between the Spanish and the British that very year.
51. The main action began in ____________, when Oglethorpe planned and led an
___________________ of Florida where the Spanish had the town of St. Augustine with
its big fort of __________ __________________.
52. He was able to get help from hundreds of ____________________.
53. Meanwhile, the bombardment of both Fort San Marcos and the town of St. Augustine,
which began in late June, _________ ________ go well.
54. When ________________ Spanish ships slipped in and ___________________ the fort
with food, the _____________ began to fall apart.
55. British troops got sick from the _______________, some _______________, and the
Indians wanted to leave.
56. Oglethorpe believed he had no choice but to _______________.
57. In 1741, Spain ordered its officials in ___________ and _______________ to prepare
an expedition against Georgia for the following spring.
58. Over ______________ ships and seven _________________ men left Cuba, arriving in
St. Augustine after enduring a terrible storm at sea.
59. On July 7, the Spanish tried to ________________ Fort Frederica on the other end of
St. Simons Island.
60. The __________________ troops were able to defend.
61. When the ___________________ sent additional troops in the afternoon, the
___________________ fired at them from the ________________, forcing them to
retreat back to Fort St. Simons.
62. This _________________ of the Spanish troops became known as the Battle of
_______________ __________________.
63. The war soon became a larger war (called King ___________________ War) when
___________________ became involved, but no further ___________________ took
place in Georgia.
64. With Georgia successfully defended, Oglethorpe __________ for England in 1743 and
never __________________ to the colony he had founded.
65. Before leaving, he _________________ Mary Musgrove and promised her more
_________________ for her years of service.
Name: ______________________________ Class: ________________ Date: _______________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 9: Georgia in the Trustee Period
Section 3
Life in Trustee Georgia
Use the information from pages 208 - 210 to complete the
1. Throughout the trustee period, Georgians spent most of their time working to meet their
basic __________________.
2. The ______________________ continued to try to __________________ the colony
from Great Britain, although they did not really ____________________ what actual
living in the colony was like.
3. In spite of trustees plans and rules, the _____________________ did not develop as
they had hoped, although some areas did experience economic growth.
4. Because of the focus on daily ______________________, institutions such as
______________________ and __________________ usually took a back seat.
5. Because Oglethorpe was so busy, he seldom wrote ________________ to Great
Britain. In 1737, the trust hired William ___________________ as a secretary to write
them about the colony's ___________________ and its __________________.
6. In 1741, the trust ___________________ Georgia into a northern province, overseen by
______________________, and a southern province overseen by
7. When Oglethorpe left in 1743, the trustees appointed Stephens __________________
of the entire colony.
8. He governed with the help of a Board of _____________________, the first Georgians
to have any ________________.
9. To try to keep current settlers and ________________ more, Stephens encouraged the
trustees to _______________ their rules, which they finally did by the late 1740s.
10. Restrictions on land ______________________ came to an end, so large
_____________________ began to appear.
11. In 1750, they began to allow _________________ in Georgia, although the rules for
slaves were more __________________ than they would be later.
12. Before long, the __________________, coast, and rivers near the coast had thousands
of __________________ devoted to the cultivation of _______________.
13. Georgia's ______________ trees and the _____________ they produced became
important trade products.
14. Conducting trade became an important ____________________, and merchants and
storekeepers began to set up _______________________, as did
_____________________ (skilled craftsmen), who made goods needed by the
15. What ______________________ their children received was at home and covered
practical matters.
16. _________________ learned how to plant and harvest ______________;
__________________ learned how to cook and ________________.
17. The most successful attempts at __________________ education were in the New
Ebenezer community. There, the Salzburgers had __________________ for their
18. In 1740, Anglican minister George _______________________, a follower of the
Wesley's and Methodism, founded the Bethesda __________________ and school.
19. _____________________ means "House of Mercy."
20. Organized _________________________ also had a difficult time.
21. The most successful ______________________ in organizing religious services were
the Salzburgers.
22. In the late 1740s, many of the trustees were __________________________. Their
early visions of the colony had _________________.
23. When Parliament did not ________________ them any money in 1751, they decided to
_______________ the colony over to the British _____________________ in 1752, a
year earlier than required.
24. Even though _____________________ did not become the colony the trustees had
envisioned, it did have its __________________________.
25. By the time the first royal ______________________ appointed by the king arrived,
Georgia had started on the path to ___________________ and __________________.
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