Checks for
Student
Understanding
SUPPORTING AP
®
TEACHERS:
A GUIDE FOR SCHOOL LEADERS
Quick Print Reference
Print the listed pages for AP course-specic resources.
21–26 Art History
131–136 Biology
105–110 Calculus AB
111–116 Calculus BC
137–142 Chemistry
177–186 Chinese Language and Culture
49–54 Comparative Government and Politics
117–122 Computer Science A
35–40 English Language and Composition
41–46 English Literature and Composition
143–148 Environmental Science
55–60 European History
187–196 French Language and Culture
197–206 German Language and Culture
61–66 Human Geography
207–216 Italian Language and Culture
217–226 Japanese Language and Culture
227–232 Latin
67–72 Macroeconomics
73–78 Microeconomics
27–32 Music Theory
149–154 Physics 1: Algebra-Based
155–160 Physics 2: Algebra-Based
161–166 Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism
167–172 Physics C: Mechanics
79–84 Psychology
233–242 Spanish Language and Culture
243–250 Spanish Literature and Culture
123–128 Statistics
85–90 U.S. Government and Politics
91–96 U.S. History
97–102 World History: Modern
Note—Six AP courses don’t follow the new unit structure and aren’t included in this guide: AP 2-D Art and
Design, AP 3-D Art and Design, AP Drawing, AP Computer Science Principles, AP Research, and AP Seminar.
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Checks for
Student
Understanding
SUPPORTING AP
®
TEACHERS:
A GUIDE FOR SCHOOL LEADERS
About College Board
College Board is a mission-driven not-for-prot organization that connects
students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, College Board was
created to expand access to higher education. Today, the membership association
is made up of over 6,000 of the world’s leading educational institutions and is
dedicated to promoting excellence and equity in education. Each year, College
Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a successful transition to
college through programs and services in college readiness and college success
including the SAT® and the Advanced Placement® Program. The organization also
serves the education community through research and advocacy on behalf of
students, educators, and schools.
For further information, visit collegeboard.org.
AP Equity and Access Policy
College Board strongly encourages educators to make equitable access a guiding
principle for their AP
®
programs by giving all willing and academically prepared
students the opportunity to participate in AP. We encourage the elimination
of barriers that restrict access to AP for students from ethnic, racial, and
socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underrepresented. Schools
should make every eort to ensure their AP classes reect the diversity of their
student population. College Board also believes that all students should have
access to academically challenging coursework before they enroll in AP classes,
which can prepare them for AP success. It is only through a commitment to
equitable preparation and access that true equity and excellence can be achieved.
© 2019 College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo
are registered trademarks of College Board. All other products and services may be trademarks of their
respective owners.
Visit College Board on the web: www.collegeboard.org.
Focus on
Content and Skills
Checks for Student Understanding is a school leader’s companion guide to the
new AP
®
course and exam descriptions. Designed to help focus instructional
conversations on the content and skills students need for success in an AP course
and on an AP Exam, this guide purposefully emphasizes what students should
know and be able to do as the “look-fors” during classroom observations.
This guide is neither a manual on how to be a great teacher nor a checklist to be
used for teacher evaluation. Local communities decide what their students need
from their teachers.
Instead, this guide oers resources for school leaders to help AP teachers keep
focus on the content and skills students will need to succeed in an AP course and
on an AP Exam.
Special Reminder: AP teachers now have additional resources designed to
check student understanding throughout the year, including Personal Progress
Checks. Because Personal Progress Checks are formative, the results of these
assessments cannot be used to evaluate teacher eectiveness or assign letter
grades to students, and any such misuses are grounds for losing authorization to
oer AP courses.
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Contents
ix Acknowledgments
1 About AP
1 How the AP Program Is Developed
1 How AP Courses Are Developed
2 How AP Exams Are Scored
2 How to Use AP Scores
3 AP Resources and Supports
5 Instructional Model
6 Course and Exam Descriptions
PART I: CHECKS FOR STUDENT UNDERSTANDING
8 Assessments for Learning
9 A System of Instructional Support
10 AP Formative Assessments
11 How AP Formative Assessments Improve the Process for
Checking Student Understanding
12 How AP Formative Assessments Are Designed to Check
Student Understanding
PART II: SUPPORTING AP TEACHERS
15 Supporting AP Teachers
16 How This Observation Model Works
17 AP Courses and Exams
19 Art and Music Courses
21 AP Art History
27 AP Music Theory
33 English Courses
35 AP English Language and Composition
41 AP English Literature and Composition
47 History and Social Science Courses
49 AP Comparative Government and Politics
55 AP European History
61 AP Human Geography
67 AP Macroeconomics
73 AP Microeconomics
79 AP Psychology
85 AP U.S. Government and Politics
91 AP U.S. History
97 AP World History: Modern
103 Mathematics and Computer Science Courses
105 AP Calculus AB
111 AP Calculus BC
117 AP Computer Science A
123 AP Statistics
129 Science Courses
131 AP Biology
137 AP Chemistry
143 AP Environmental Science
149 AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based
155 AP Physics 2: Algebra-Based
161 AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism
167 AP Physics C: Mechanics
173 World Languages and Cultures Courses
177 AP Chinese Language and Culture
187 AP French Language and Culture
197 AP German Language and Culture
207 AP Italian Language and Culture
217 AP Japanese Language and Culture
227 AP Latin
233 AP Spanish Language and Culture
243 AP Spanish Literature and Culture
Acknowledgments
College Board would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their
assistance with and contributions to the development of this guide. All individuals’
aliations were current at the time of contribution.
Cindy Gates, Okaloosa County School District, Fort Walton Beach, Fla.
Christopher Sartain, Oak Park High School, Kansas City, Mo.
Brian Tennison, Lane Tech College Prep High School, Chicago, Ill
Michael Vigue, The Boca Ciega High School, Gulfport, Fla.
COLLEGE BOARD STAFF
Edward Biedermann, Executive Director, Advanced Placement Program
Claire Lorenz, Senior Director, AP Instructional Design
Monica Roman, Senior Director, AP Partnerships Development
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About AP
College Board’s Advanced Placement® Program (AP®)
enables willing and academically prepared students to
pursue college-level studies—with the opportunity to
earn college credit, advanced placement, or both—while
still in high school. Through AP courses in 38 subjects,
each culminating in a challenging exam, students learn to
think critically, construct solid arguments, and see many
sides of an issue—skills that prepare them for college
and beyond.
Taking AP courses demonstrates to college admission
ocers that students have sought the most challenging
curriculum available to them, and research indicates that
students who score a 3 or higher on an AP Exam typically
experience greater academic success in college and
are more likely to earn a college degree than non-AP
students.
Each AP teacher’s syllabus is evaluated and approved by
faculty from some of the nation’s leading colleges and
universities, and AP Exams are developed and scored by
college faculty and experienced AP teachers.
Most four-year colleges and universities in the United
States grant credit, advanced placement, or both on the
basis of successful AP Exam scores; more than 3,300
institutions worldwide annually receive AP scores.
How the AP Program Is
Developed
The scope of content for an AP course and exam is
derived from an analysis of hundreds of syllabi and
course oerings of colleges and universities. Using
this research and data, a committee of college faculty
and expert AP teachers work within the scope of
the corresponding college course to articulate what
students should know and be able to do upon the
completion of the AP course. The resulting course
framework is the heart of this course and exam
description and serves as a blueprint of the content and
skills that can appear on an AP Exam.
The AP test development committees are responsible
for developing each AP Exam, ensuring the exam
questions are aligned to the course framework. The AP
Exam development process is a multiyear endeavor; all
AP Exams undergo extensive review, revision, piloting,
and analysis to ensure that questions are accurate, fair,
and valid, and that there is an appropriate spread of
diculty across the questions.
Committee members are selected to represent a variety
of perspectives and institutions (public and private, small
and large schools and colleges), and a range of gender,
racial/ethnic, and regional groups. A list of each subject’s
current AP test development committee members is
available on apcentral.collegeboard.org.
Throughout AP course and exam development, College
Board gathers feedback from various stakeholders
in both secondary schools and higher education
institutions. This feedback is carefully considered to
ensure that AP courses and exams are able to provide
students with a college-level learning experience and
the opportunity to demonstrate their qualications for
advanced placement or college credit. .
How AP Courses Are Developed
In an ongoing eort to maintain alignment with best
practices in college-level learning, AP courses and
exams emphasize challenging, research-based
curricula aligned with higher education expectations.
Individual teachers are responsible for designing
their own curriculum for AP courses and selecting
appropriate college-level readings, assignments,
and resources. This course and exam description
presents the content and skills that are the focus of
the corresponding college course and that appear on
the AP Exam. It also organizes the content and skills
into a series of units that represent a sequence found
in widely adopted college textbooks and that many
AP teachers have told us they follow in order to focus
their instruction. The intention of this publication is to
respect teachers’ time and expertise by providing a
roadmap that they can modify and adapt to their local
priorities and preferences. Moreover, by organizing the
AP course content and skills into units, the AP Program
is able to provide teachers and students with formative
assessments—Personal Progress Checks—that
teachers can assign throughout the year to measure
students’ progress as they acquire content knowledge
and develop skills.
Checks for Student Understanding About AP 1
How AP Exams Are Scored
The exam scoring process, like the course and exam
development process, relies on the expertise of
both AP teachers and college faculty. While multiple-
choice questions are scored by machine, the free-
response questions and through-course performance
assessments, as applicable, are scored by thousands
of college faculty and expert AP teachers. Most are
scored at the annual AP Reading, while a small portion
is scored online. All AP readers are thoroughly trained,
and their work is monitored throughout the Reading
for fairness and consistency. In each subject, a highly
respected college faculty member serves as chief
faculty consultant and, with the help of AP readers
in leadership positions, maintains the accuracy of
the scoring standards. Scores on the free-response
questions and performance assessments are weighted
and combined with the results of the computer-scored
multiple-choice questions, and this raw score is
converted into a composite AP score on a 1–5 scale.
AP Exams are not norm-referenced or graded on a
curve. Instead, they are criterion-referenced, which
means that every student who meets the criteria for
an AP score of 2, 3, 4, or 5 will receive that score, no
matter how many students that is. The criteria for the
number of points students must earn on the AP Exam
to receive scores of 3, 4, or 5—the scores that research
consistently validates for credit and placement
purposes—include:
§ The number of points successful college students
earn when their professors administer AP Exam
questions to them.
§ The number of points researchers have found to
be predictive that an AP student will succeed when
placed into a subsequent, higher-level college
course.
§ Achievement-level descriptions formulated by
college faculty who review each AP Exam question.
How to Use AP Scores
The extensive work done by college faculty and
AP teachers in the development of the course and
exam and throughout the scoring process ensures
that AP Exam scores accurately represent students’
achievement in the equivalent college course. Frequent
and regular research studies establish the validity of AP
scores as follows:
AP Score
Credit
Recommendation
College Grade
Equivalent
5
Extremely well qualied A
4
Well qualied A-, B+, B
3
Qualied B-, C+, C
2
Possibly qualied n/a
1
No recommendation n/a
While colleges and universities are responsible for
setting their own credit and placement policies, most
private colleges and universities award credit and/
or advanced placement for AP scores of 3 or higher.
Additionally, most states in the U.S. have adopted
statewide credit policies that ensure college credit for
scores of 3 or higher at public colleges and universities.
To conrm a specic college’s AP credit/placement
policy, a search engine is available at apstudent.org/
creditpolicies.
Checks for Student Understanding About AP 2
AP Resources
and Supports
By completing a simple activation process at the start of the school year, teachers and
students receive access to a robust set of classroom resources.
AP Classroom
AP Classroom is a dedicated online platform designed to support teachers and students
throughout their AP experience. The platform provides a variety of powerful resources and
tools to provide yearlong support to teachers and enable students to receive meaningful
feedback on their progress.
UNIT GUIDES
Appearing in the course and exam descriptions and on AP Classroom, these planning guides
outline all required course content and skills, organized into commonly taught units. Each unit
guide suggests a sequence and pacing of content, scaolds skill instruction across units, and
organizes content into topics.
PERSONAL PROGRESS CHECKS
Formative AP questions for every unit provide feedback to students on the areas where they
need to focus. Available online, Personal Progress Checks measure knowledge and skills
through multiple-choice questions with rationales to explain correct and incorrect answers,
and free-response questions with scoring information. Because the Personal Progress
Checks are formative, the results of these assessments cannot be used to evaluate teacher
eectiveness or assign letter grades to students, and any such misuses are grounds for
losing school authorization to oer AP courses.
*
PROGRESS DASHBOARD
This dashboard allows teachers to review class and individual student progress throughout
the year. Teachers can view class trends and see where students struggle with content and
skills that will be assessed on the AP Exam. Students can view their own progress over time
to improve their performance before the AP Exam.
AP QUESTION BANK
This online library of real AP Exam questions provides teachers with secure questions to use
in their classrooms. Teachers can nd questions indexed by course topics and skills, create
customized tests, and assign them online or on paper. These tests enable students to practice
and get feedback on each question.
* To report misuses, please call: 877-274-6474 (International: +1-212-632-1781).
Checks for Student Understanding AP Resources and Supports
3
Digital Activation
In order to teach an AP class and make sure students are registered to take the AP Exam,
teachers must rst complete the digital activation process. Digital activation gives students
and teachers access to resources and gathers students’ exam registration information online,
eliminating most of the answer sheet bubbling that has added to testing time and fatigue.
AP teachers and students begin by signing in to My AP and completing a simple activation
process at the start of the school year, which provides access to all AP resources, including
AP Classroom.
TO COMPLETE DIGITAL ACTIVATION:
§ Teachers and students sign in to, or create, their College Board accounts.
§ Teachers conrm that they have added the course they teach to their AP Course Audit
account and have had it approved by their school’s administrator.
§ Teachers or AP Coordinators, depending on who the school has decided is responsible,
set up class sections so students can access AP resources and have exams ordered on
their behalf.
§ Students join class sections with a join code provided by their teacher or AP coordinator.
§ Students will be asked for additional registration information upon joining their rst class
section, which eliminates the need for extensive answer sheet bubbling on exam day.
While the digital activation process takes a short time for teachers, students, and AP
coordinators to complete, overall it helps save time and provides the following additional
benets:
§ Access to AP resources and supports: Teachers have access to resources specically
designed to support instruction and provide feedback to students throughout the school
year as soon as activation is complete.
§ Streamlined exam ordering: AP Coordinators can create exam orders from the same
online class rosters that enable students to access resources. The coordinator reviews,
updates, and submits this information as the school’s exam order in the fall.
§ Student registration labels: For each student included in an exam order, schools will
receive a set of personalized AP ID registration labels, which replaces the AP student pack.
The AP ID connects a student’s exam materials with the registration information they
provided during digital activation, eliminating the need for pre-administration sessions and
reducing time spent bubbling on exam day.
§ Targeted Instructional Planning Reports: AP teachers will get Instructional Planning
Reports (IPRs) that include data on each of their class sections automatically rather than
relying on special codes optionally bubbled in on exam day.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Resources and Supports 4
Instructional
Model
Integrating AP resources throughout the course can help students develop content knowledge
and course skills. The instructional model outlined below shows possible ways to incorporate
AP resources into the classroom.
Plan
Teachers may consider the following approaches as they plan their instruction before
teaching each unit.
§ Review the overview, if applicable, at the start of each unit guide to identify essential
questions, conceptual understanding, and skills for each unit.
§ Use the Unit at a Glance table to identify related topics that build toward a common
understanding, and then plan appropriate pacing for students.
§ Identify useful strategies in the Instructional Approaches section to help teach the
content and skills.
Teach
When teaching, resources can be used to build students’ knowledge of content and mastery
of skills.
§ Use the unit guides to identify the required content.
§ Integrate the content with a skill, considering any appropriate scaolding.
§ Employ any of the instructional strategies previously identied.
§ Use the available resources listed in the unit guides to bring a variety of assets into the
classroom.
Assess
Teachers can measure student understanding of the content and skills covered in the unit and
provide actionable feedback to students.
§ At the end of each unit, use AP Classroom to assign students the online Personal
Progress Checks, as homework or as an in-class task.
§ Provide question-level feedback to students through answer rationales; provide unit- and
skill-level feedback using the progress dashboard.
§ Create additional practice opportunities using the AP Question Bank and assign them
through AP Classroom.
Checks for Student Understanding Instructional Model 5
Course and Exam
Descriptions
Updated course and exam descriptions make required course content and skills
clearer for teachers and students and better align with college-level expectations.
Visit course home pages on AP
®
Central to download free copies.
apcentral.collegeboard.org
Checks for Student Understanding Course and Exam Descriptions 6
PART I
Checks for
Student
Understanding
7
Assessment Spectrum
FORMATIVE
SUMMATIVE
INFORMAL FORMAL
Assessments for Learning
AP teachers now have additional resources designed to check student understanding throughout the year.
Formative questions help teachers measure content and skills as students learn, unlike the summative questions
on an AP Exam, which assess student mastery at the end of the course. This spectrum of assessments can be
used by teachers and students from day one to exam day.
Assessment Spectrum
TOPIC QUESTIONS
Use when you teach each topic and skill.
§ Teachers assign as homework or in class on custom quizzes they
create in AP Classroom.
§ Question results reveal misunderstandings and help:
Teachers target content and skills to emphasize in lessons.
Students to understand why an answer is correct or incorrect.
PERSONAL PROGRESS CHECKS
Use when students complete each unit.
§ Teachers unlock or schedule start/end dates and times for student
access in class or as homework.
§ Students get a personal progress report with feedback on
everytopic, skill, and question.
§ Teachers get a progress report for every class and student.
§ Students and teachers get rationales explaining every
question’sanswer.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS AND PRACTICE EXAMS
Use when students prepare for an AP Exam and as scaolded
instruction.
§ More than 15K AP Exam questions are available in the AP Question
Bank
§ Best used to help students understand AP Exam expectations and
as prep towards the end of the year.
§ If administered online, or scores are entered online, teachers and
students view results by question.
AP EXAM
Assesses knowledge and skills students learn throughout the entire
AP course.
Checks for Student Understanding Assessments for Learning 8
A System of Instructional
Support
Topic
Plan your course
UNIT GUIDES
As you plan your lessons
Check for understanding
TOPIC QUESTIONS
As you teach each topic and skill
Feedback on strengths and gaps
PERSONAL PROGRESS CHECKS
As students complete each unit
Highlight progress
PROGRESS DASHBOARD
As you check progress across units
Prepare for the AP Exam
AP QUESTION BANK
As students prepare for the exam
Checks for Student Understanding A System of Instructional Support 9
AP Formative Assessments
Using topic questions and Personal Progress Checks on formative
assignments will give teachers and students real-time data to help
them address common misunderstandings.
When teaching a specic topic:
CHECK STUDENT UNDERSTANDING WITH TOPIC QUESTIONS
Teachers assign the topic questions as part of homework or have students answer them in class using
AP Classroom. Students can access these questions on mobile devices or computers.
USE STUDENT AND CLASS RESULTS TO FOCUS INSTRUCTION
Teachers review class results on topic questions to reveal misunderstandings and target content and skills to
emphasize during the lesson on that topic.
When you complete a unit:
UNLOCK AND ASSIGN THE PERSONAL PROGRESS CHECK
Personal Progress Checks consist of multiple-choice and free-response sections that will help students see
the progress they’re making toward mastering course content and skills for each unit.
USE STUDENT AND CLASS REPORTS TO PRIORITIZE ADDITIONAL PRACTICE
Teachers share reports with students so they can understand their personal strengths and areas for
improvement. Teachers will be able to use student and class reports to identify common strengths,
weaknesses, and related questions (for additional practice).
Checks for Student Understanding AP Formative Assessments 10
How AP Formative Assessments
Improve the Process for Checking
Student Understanding
Previous Process Improved Process
Step 1 Teach content using an AP course outline
or an older version of the AP course and
exam description
Step 1 Teach content and skills using the suggested
sequence and pacing in the new AP course
and exam description
Step 2 Find released or ocial practice AP Exams
Step 3 Comb through AP Exams to nd questions
relevant to the topic youre teaching
Step 4 Assemble and assign questions Step 2 Assign topic questions
Step 5 Use student scores on questions to assign
grades and inform instruction
Step 3 Review questions and answer explanations
in AP Classroom to inform instruction
and encourage students to identify
misunderstandings to build a study plan
Step 6 Find more questions that you haven’t
assigned
Step 4 Assign a Personal Progress Check at the end
of each unit
Step 7 Use student scores on questions to assign
grades and inform instruction
Step 5 Get feedback on every topic and skill in the
unit, highlighting where students are strongest
and where they need more support; review
questions and answer explanations where
students struggle
Encourage students to identify
misunderstandings and build a study plan
Step 8 Assign a unit test Step 6 Assign and grade classroom exams periodically
SUMMATIVE FORMATIVE
Step 9 Use student scores on the unit test to
assign grades and inform instruction
AP Exam questions are summative questions.
Step 2–Step 7 rely on questions from the AP
Exam. As summative questions given at the
end of the course, they assume students have
learned all the content and skills of the course.
Using summative questions for formative
assessments—without rst modifying the
content, skills, and level of rigor—can produce
student scores that don’t appropriately reect
what a student knows and is able to do.
Step 7 Use student scores on classroom exams to
assign grades and inform instruction
Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
are formative assessments.
They’ve been custom designed to assess what
students know and are able to do for each topic
in every unit.
11
Teach Formative Assessments
Teach Topic A
with Skill X
Topic Questions:
Topic A + Skill X
Teach Topic B
with Skill Y
Topic Questions:
Topic B + Skill Y
Teach Topic C
with Skill Z
Topic Questions:
Topic C + Skill Z
Personal Progress Check:
Topics/Skills: A/X, B/Y, C/Z
How AP Formative Assessments Are
Designed to Check Student Understanding
MOST COURSES ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION
Teach Formative Assessments
Teach Skills A, B, C
with Text(s)
Topic Questions:
Skills A, B, C + Stimuli
ASIAN LANGUAGES AND CULTURES
Personal Progress Check:
Skills A, B, C + Stimuli
ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION
Teach Formative Assessments Teach Formative Assessments
Teach Skills A, B, C
with Modes
Topic Questions:
Stimuli/Task Models +
Skills A, B, C
Teach Skills X, Y, Z
within Genre-Based Unit
Topic Questions:
Skills X, Y, Z +
Stimuli of Unit Genre
Personal Progress Check:
Stimuli/Task Models +
Skills A, B, C
EUROPEAN LANGUAGES AND CULTURES
Personal Progress Check:
Skills X, Y, Z + Stimuli Genre
LATIN, SPANISH LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Teach Formative Assessments Teach Formative Assessments
Teach Reading A
with Skills
Topic Questions:
Reading A + Skills
Teach Skills A, B, C
with Stimuli/Task Models
Topic Questions:
Stimuli/Task Models +
Skills A, B, C
Teach Reading B
with Skills
Topic Questions:
Reading B + Skills
Teach Other Reading
with Skills
Topic Questions:
Other Reading + Skills
Personal Progress Check:
Skills A, B, C +
Stimuli/Task Models
Personal Progress Check:
Readings A, B, Other + Skills
12
PART II
Supporting
AP Teachers
13
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Supporting AP Teachers
AP teachers are expected to provide students with opportunities to engage with all required course content and
skills. School leaders can support AP teachers by helping them see the extent to which their learning activities
focus on what students should know and be able to do to succeed in the AP course and on the AP Exam.
The following AP course-specic pages give school leaders a framework for observing student learning and for
providing feedback to AP teachers.
Checks for Student Understanding Supporting AP Teachers 15
How This
Observation
Model Works
Follow this observation model with teachers who adopt the unit structure
presented in the new AP course and exam descriptions.
1. Review course structure
Use the following AP course-specic pages, along with any referenced pages
from the AP course and exam descriptions, to review what students should
know and be able to do for success in the AP course and on the AP Exam.
2. Participate in a pre-observation discussion
Meet with the AP teacher to discuss the planned lesson and what evidence
should be collected on student learning during the observation.
3. Observe student learning
Use the Observing Student Learning document, along with relevant pages
from the course and exam description, to catalog evidence of how students
engage with course content and skills.
4. Participate in a post-observation discussion
Meet with the AP teacher to discuss the evidence collected on student learning
during the observation.
Checks for Student Understanding How This Observation Model Works 16
AP Courses and Exams
The AP Program consists of 38 college-level courses that high schools can choose to oer, and corresponding
exams that are administered once a year.
Six AP courses don’t follow the new unit structure and aren’t included in this guide: AP 2-D Art and Design, AP 3-D Art
and Design, AP Drawing, AP Computer Science Principles, AP Research, and AP Seminar.
Art and Music Courses
AP Art History
AP Music Theory
English Courses
AP English Language and Composition
AP English Literature and Composition
History and Social
Science Courses
AP Comparative Government and Politics
AP European History
AP Human Geography
AP Macroeconomics
AP Microeconomics
AP Psychology
AP U.S. Government and Politics
AP U.S. History
AP World History: Modern
Mathematics and Computer
Science Courses
AP Calculus AB
AP Calculus BC
AP Computer Science A
AP Statistics
Science Courses
AP Biology
AP Chemistry
AP Environmental Science
AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based
AP Physics 2: Algebra-Based
AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism
AP Physics C: Mechanics
World Language and Culture
Courses
AP Chinese Language and Culture
AP French Language and Culture
AP German Language and Culture
AP Italian Language and Culture
AP Japanese Language and Culture
AP Latin
AP Spanish Language and Culture
AP Spanish Literature and Culture
Checks for Student Understanding AP Courses and Exams 17
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Art and Music
Courses
19
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UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
AP Art History
The AP Art History course welcomes students into the global art world to
engage with its forms and content as they research, discuss, read, and write
about art, artists, art making, and responses to and interpretations of art. By
investigating specic course content of 250 works of art characterized by diverse
artistic traditions from prehistory to the present, the students develop in-depth,
holistic understanding of the history of art from a global perspective. Students
learn and apply skills of visual, contextual, and comparative analysis to engage
with a variety of art forms, developing understanding of individual works and
interconnections across history.
The AP Art History Course and Exam Description details what students should
know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of the CED
is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-art-
history-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units Skill Categories
ART HISTORICAL THINKING SKILLS
1. Global Prehistory
1. Visual Analysis
2. Contextual Analysis
3. Comparison of Works of Art
4.
Artistic Traditions
5.
Visual Analysis of Unknown Works
6.
Attribution of Unknown Works
7.
Art Historical Interpretations
8.
Argumentation
2. Ancient Mediterranean
3. Early Europe and Colonial Americas
4. Later Europe and Americas
5. Indigenous Americas
6. Africa
7. West and Central Asia
8. South, East, and Southeast Asia
9. The Pacific
10. Global Contemporary
Checks for Student Understanding AP Art History 21
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to demonstrate a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the
learning objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Art History
22
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative.
For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students demonstrate
the learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Art History 23
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice the
skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Art History 24
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP ART HISTORY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Art History Course and Exam Description, along
with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates all
parts of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
demonstrating?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Art History
4
Enduring
Understandings:
25
5
Big Ideas:
6
Skills:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Art History 26
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
Music Fundamentals I: Pitch, Major Scales
and Key Signatures, Rhythm, Meter, and
Expressive Elements
Convert between Performed and
Notated Music
AP Music Theory
The AP Music Theory course corresponds to one-to-two semesters of typical,
introductory college music theory coursework that covers topics such as
musicianship, theory, and musical materials and procedures. Musicianship
skills, including dictation and listening skills, sight singing, and harmony, are an
important part of the course. Through the course, students develop the ability to
recognize, understand, and describe basic materials and processes of tonal music
that are heard or presented in a score. Development of aural (listening) skills is a
primary objective. Performance is also part of the curriculum through the practice
of sight singing. Students learn basic concepts and terminology by listening to and
performing a wide variety of music. Notational skills, speed, and uency with basic
materials are emphasized.
The AP Music Theory Course and Exam Description details what students should
know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of the CED
is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-music-
theory-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units Skill Categories
SKILL CATEGORIES
1.
1.
Analyze Performed Music
2. Analyze Notated Music
3.
2.
Music Fundamentals II: Minor Scales and Key
Signatures, Melody, Timbre, and Texture
4. Complete Based on Cues
3. Music Fundamentals III: Triads and Seventh
Chords
4. Harmony and Voice Leading I: Chord
Function, Cadence, and Phrase
5. Harmony and Voice Leading II: Chord
Progressions and Predominant Function
6. Harmony and Voice Leading III:
Embellishments, Motives, and Melodic
Devices
7. Harmony and Voice Leading IV: Secondary
Function
8. Modes and Form
Checks for Student Understanding AP Music Theory 27
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the
learning objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Music Theory
28
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with current night’s homework. Teachers and students
can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Music Theory 29
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice the
skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Music Theory 30
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP MUSIC THEORY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Music Theory Course and Exam Description,
along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Music Theory
4
Enduring
Understandings:
31
5
Big Ideas:
6
Skills:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Music Theory 32
English Courses
The AP English courses do not specify the content or themes students will study. Teachers select themes or topics
and then choose texts.
33
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
AP English Language and
Composition
The AP English Language and Composition course focuses on the development
and revision of evidence-based analytic and argumentative writing, the rhetorical
analysis of nonction texts, and the decisions writers make as they compose and
revise. Students evaluate, synthesize, and cite research to support their arguments.
Additionally, they read and analyze rhetorical elements and their eects in
nonction texts—including images as forms of text—from a range of disciplines
and historical periods.
The AP English Language Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-english-language-and-composition-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
BIG IDEAS SKILL CATEGORIES
1. Rhetorical Situation
1. Rhetorical Situation—Reading
2. Rhetorical Situation—Writing
3. Claims and Evidence—Reading
4.
Claims and Evidence—Writing
2. Claims and Evidence
3. Reasoning and Organization
4. Style
5. Reasoning and Organization—Reading
6. Reasoning and Organization—Writing
7. Style—Reading
8. Style—Writing
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Language and Composition 35
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit title?
Unit titles are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing. Unit titles are
written in by the teacher based on how they choose to organize the course.
What are the skills?
Skills are listed on the unit overview. They dene what a student should
learn, practice, and develop in order to qualify for college credit. These skills
are the targets of assessment for the AP Exam. All units include more than
one skill. All skills are required for the course.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the unit overview. They
describe the knowledge required to perform the skills. Some skills have
more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential knowledge
statements are required for the unit.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the unit overview. They are
important concepts that a student must retain long after the completion of
the course.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the unit overview as the three-letter part of the
label for the enduring understanding. They are threads that run throughout
the course that enable students to create meaningful connections among
course concepts. All units include more than one big idea. All big ideas are
required for the unit.
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Language and Composition 36
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged to
be creative.
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts.
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students developed
the skills?
Teachers can assign topic questions to formatively
assess student learning.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Language and Composition 37
Observation
Use the corresponding unit overview, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence
of how students engage with course skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
There are no right answers to the questions below. They are meant to help teachers focus on the skills students
need for success in the course and on the exam.
Skills
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the skill?
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the text(s)?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Language and Composition 38
1
Text(s):
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Skills:
Look-Fors Evidence
Observing Student Learning
AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Text(s):
Directions: Use the corresponding unit overview from the AP English Language and Composition Course
and Exam Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student engages with
the text(s).
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
obser
ve students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student practices all
parts of the skills.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Language and Composition
4
Enduring
Understandings:
39
5
Big Ideas:
6
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Language and Composition 40
AP English Literature
and Composition
The AP English Literature and Composition course focuses on reading, analyzing,
and writing about imaginative literature (ction, poetry, drama) from various
periods. Students engage in close reading and critical analysis of imaginative
literature to deepen their understanding of the ways writers use language to
provide both meaning and pleasure. As they read, students consider a work’s
structure, style, and themes, as well as its use of gurative language, imagery, and
symbolism. Writing assignments include expository, analytical, and argumentative
essays that require students to analyze and interpret literary works
The AP English Literature Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-english-literature-and-composition-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
GENRES SKILL CATEGORIES
1. Short Fiction (Units 1, 4, 7)
1. Explain the function of character
2. Explain the function of setting
3. Explain the function of plot and structure
2. Poetry (Units 2, 5, 8)
3. Longer Fiction or Drama (Units 3, 6, 9)
4.
Explain the function of the narrator or
speaker
5. Explain the function of word choice,
imagery, and symbols
6. Explain the function of comparison
7. Develop textually substantiated arguments
about interpretations of part or all of a text
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Literature and Composition 41
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What are the skills?
Skills are listed on the unit overview. They dene what a student should
be able to do with the essential knowledge in order to progress toward the
enduring understandings. All units include more than one skill. All skills are
required for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the unit overview. They
describe the knowledge required to perform the skills. Some skills have
more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential knowledge
statements are required for the unit.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the unit overview. They are
important concepts that a student must retain long after the completion of
the course.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the unit overview as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are categories that provide students
with a repertoire of skills and approaches to analyzing literature and
composing arguments about interpretations of literature. All units include
more than one big idea. All big ideas are required for the unit.
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Literature and Composition 42
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged to
be creative.
How does the learning activity provide
an opportunity for students to practice
the skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts.
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students developed
the skills?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Literature and Composition 43
Observation
Use the corresponding unit overview, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence
of how students engage with course skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
There are no right answers to the questions below. They are meant to help teachers focus on the skills students
need for success in the course and on the exam.
Skills
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the skill?
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the text(s)?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Literature and Composition 44
2
Text(s):
3
Essential Knowledge:
4
Skills:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Genre:
Each student knows the genre.
Observing Student Learning
AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit/Genre:
Text(s):
Directions: Use the corresponding unit overview from the AP English Literature and Composition Course
and Exam Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student engages with
the text(s).
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
obser
ve students learning?
§ Which parts did you not
observe?
Each student practices all
parts of the skills.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Literature and Composition 45
5
Enduring
Understandings:
6
Big Ideas:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP English Literature and Composition 46
History and Social
Science Courses
47
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
AP Comparative Government
and Politics
AP Comparative Government and Politics introduces students to the rich diversity
of political life outside the United States. The course uses a comparative approach
to examine the political structures; policies; and political, economic, and social
challenges of six selected countries: China, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, and the
United Kingdom. Students compare the eectiveness of approaches to many global
issues by examining how dierent governments solve similar problems. They will
also engage in disciplinary practices that require them to read and interpret data,
make comparisons and applications, and develop evidence-based arguments.
The AP Comparative Government and Politics Course and Exam Description
details what students should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit
or placement. A PDF of the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.
collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-comparative-government-and-politics-course-and-
exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
Skill Categories
DISCIPLINARY PRACTICES
1. Political Systems, Regimes, and
Governments
1. Concept Application
2. Country Comparison
2. Political Institutions
3. Data Analysis
3. Political Culture and Participation
4. Source Analysis
4. Party and Electoral Systems and Citizen
Organizations
5. Argumentation
5. Political and Economic Changes and
Developments
Checks for Student Understanding AP Comparative Government and Politics 49
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to perform a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are themes that run throughout
the course. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big ideas are
required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Comparative Government and Politics
50
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students perform the
learning objective?
Teachers can assign topic questions to formatively
assess student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Comparative Government and Politics 51
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Comparative Government and Politics 52
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Comparative Government and Politics Course
and Exam Description, along with this document, when observing student learning
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student performs all
parts of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
performing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Comparative Government and Politics
4
Enduring
Understandings:
53
5
Big Ideas:
6
Skills:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Comparative Government and Politics 54
AP European History
In AP European History, students investigate signicant events, individuals,
developments, and processes from approximately 1450 to the present. Students
develop and use the same skills, practices, and methods employed by historians:
analyzing primary and secondary sources; developing historical arguments;
making historical connections; and utilizing reasoning about comparison,
causation, and continuity and change over time. The course also provides seven
themes that students explore throughout the course in order to make connections
among historical developments in dierent times and places: interaction of Europe
and the world, economic and commercial development, cultural and intellectual
development, states and other institutions of power, social organization and
development, national and European identity, and technological and scientic
innovations.
The AP European History Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-european-history-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Renaissance and Exploration
2. Age of Reformation
3. Absolutism and Constitutionalism
4. Scientific, Philosophical, and Political
Developments
5. Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction in the Late
18th Century
6. Industrialization and Its Effects
7. 19th-Century Perspectives and Political
Developments
8. 20th-Century Global Conflicts
9. Cold War and Contemporary Europe
Skill Categories
HISTORICAL THINKING SKILLS
1. Developments and Processes
2. Sourcing and Situation
3. Claims and Evidence in Sources
4. Contextualization
5. Making Connections
6. Argumentation
Checks for Student Understanding AP European History 55
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What historical developments
must students learn?
Historical development statements are listed on the topic page. They
comprise the knowledge required to demonstrate mastery of the learning
objective. Some learning objectives have more than one historical
development statement. All historical development statements are required
course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the historical development statements to progress
toward an enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have
more than one learning objective. All learning objectives are required course
content for the topic.
What’s the thematic focus?
Thematic focus is listed on the topic page. It’s the long-term takeaway
that leaves a lasting impression on students. Some topics have more than
one thematic focus. All thematic focuses are required course content
for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired
with more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP European History
56
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the historical development
statements?
Each historical development statement may have
multiple parts. These parts may be taught across more
than one class period. The learning activity or set of
learning activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students demonstrate
the learning objective?
Teachers can assign topic questions to formatively
assess student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP European History 57
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the historical developments?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the historical
developments?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP European History 58
2
Historical
Developments:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP EUROPEAN HISTORY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP European History Course and Exam Description,
along with this document, when observing student learning
Each student learns all parts
of the historical development
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates all
parts of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
obs
erve students
demonstrating?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student knows how
the historical developments
contribute to the thematic
focus.
Checks for Student Understanding AP European History
4
Thematic Focus:
59
5
Skills:
6
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP European History 60
AP Human Geography
This course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and
processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and alteration of Earth’s
surface. Students employ spatial concepts and landscape analysis to examine
socioeconomic organization and its environmental consequences. They also learn
about the methods and tools geographers use in their research and applications.
The curriculum reects the goals of the National Geography Standards (2012).
The AP Human Geography Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-human-geography-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units Skill Categories
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
SKILL CATEGORIES
1. Thinking Geographically
1. Concepts and Processes
2. Population and Migration Patterns and
Processes
2. Spatial Relationships
3. Data Analysis
3. Cultural Patterns and Processes
4. Source Analysis
4. Political Patterns and Processes
5. Scale Analysis
5.
Agriculture and Rural Land-Use Patterns
and Processes
6. Cities and Urban Land-Use Patterns and
Processes
7. Industrial and Economic Development
Patterns and Processes
Checks for Student Understanding AP Human Geography 61
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Human Geography
62
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Human Geography 63
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Human Geography 64
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Human Geography Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Human Geography
4
Enduring
Understandings:
65
5
Big Ideas:
6
Skills:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Human Geography 66
AP Macroeconomics
AP Macroeconomics is a college-level course that introduces students to the
principles that apply to an economic system as a whole. The course places
particular emphasis on the study of national income and price-level determination.
It also develops students’ familiarity with economic performance measures,
the nancial sector, stabilization policies, economic growth, and international
economics. Students learn to use graphs, charts, and data to analyze, describe,
and explain economic concepts.
The AP Macroeconomics Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-macroeconomics-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units Skill Categories
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
SKILL CATEGORIES
1. Basic Economic Concepts
1. Principles and Models
2. Interpretation
3. Manipulation
4.
Graphing and Visuals
2. Economic Indicators and the Business Cycle
3. National Income and Price Determination
4. Financial Sector
5.
Long-Run Consequences of Stabilization
Policies
6. Open Economy—International Trade and
Finance
Checks for Student Understanding AP Macroeconomics 67
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page along with other
appropriate topic-skill pairings. They should be used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on
the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Macroeconomics
68
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can use data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Macroeconomics 69
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
There are no right answers to the questions below. They are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills
students need for success in the course and on the exam.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skill?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Macroeconomics 70
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP MACROECONOMICS
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Macroeconomics Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Macroeconomics
4
Enduring
Understandings:
71
5
Big Ideas:
6
Skills:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Macroeconomics 72
AP Microeconomics
AP Microeconomics is a college-level course that introduces students to the
principles of economics that apply to the functions of individual economic decision-
makers. The course also develops students’ familiarity with the operation of
product and factor markets, distributions of income, market failure, and the role of
government in promoting greater eciency and equity in the economy. Students
learn to use graphs, charts, and data to analyze, describe, and explain economic
concepts.
The AP Microeconomics Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-microeconomics-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units Skill Categories
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
SKILL CATEGORIES
1. Basic Economic Concepts
1. Principles and Models
2. Interpretation
3. Manipulation
2. Supply and Demand
3. Production, Cost, and the Perfect
Competition Model
4. Graphing and Visuals
4. Imperfect Competition
5. Factor Markets
6. Market Failure and the Role of Government
Checks for Student Understanding AP Microeconomics 73
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired
with more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page along with other
appropriate topic-skill pairings. They should be used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on
the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Microeconomics
74
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Microeconomics 75
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Microeconomics 76
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP MICROECONOMICS
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Microeconomics Course and Exam Description,
along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Microeconomics
4
Enduring
Understandings:
77
5
Big Ideas:
6
Skills:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Microeconomics 78
AP Psychology
The AP Psychology course introduces students to the systematic and
scientic study of human behavior and mental processes. While considering
the psychologists and studies that have shaped the eld, students explore and
apply psychological theories, key concepts, and phenomena associated with
such topics as the biological bases of behavior, sensation and perception,
learning and cognition, motivation, developmental psychology, testing and
individual dierences, treatments of psychological disorders, and social
psychology. Throughout the course, students employ psychological research
methods, including ethical considerations, as they use the scientic method,
evaluate claims and evidence, and eectively communicate ideas.
The AP Psychology Course and Exam Description details what students should
know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of the
CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-
psychology-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units Skill Categories
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
SKILL CATEGORIES
1. Scientific Foundations of Psychology
2. Biological Bases of Behavior
1. Concept Understanding
2. Data Analysis
3. Sensation and Perception
3. Scientific Investigation
4.
Learning
5.
Cognitive Psychology
6.
Developmental Psychology
7.
Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
8.
Clinical Psychology
9.
Social Psychology
Checks for Student Understanding AP Psychology 79
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What examples must students
learn?
Examples are listed on the topic page. They include the required content
related to each learning target. Some learning targets have more than one
example. All examples are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning targets?
Learning targets are listed on the topic page. They dene what a student
needs to be able to do with the examples to progress toward understanding.
Most topics have more than one learning target. All learning targets are
required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. They describe what a student
should be able to do while exploring course concepts. Some topics are
paired with more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress
Checks formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Psychology
80
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with all
aspects of the examples?
Each example may have multiple parts. These parts
may be taught across more than one class period. The
learning activity or set of learning activities should cover
all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning target?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to
identify misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Psychology 81
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the examples?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
target?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the examples?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Psychology 82
2
Examples:
3
Learning Targets:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP PSYCHOLOGY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Psychology Course and Exam Description,
along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student learns all parts of
each example.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning targets.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Psychology 83
4
Skills:
5
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Psychology 84
AP U.S. Government
and Politics
AP U.S. Government and Politics provides a college-level, nonpartisan introduction
to key political concepts, ideas, institutions, policies, interactions, roles, and
behaviors that characterize the constitutional system and political culture of the
United States. Students will study U.S. foundational documents, Supreme Court
decisions, and other texts and visuals to gain an understanding of the relationships
and interactions among political institutions, processes, and behaviors. They will
also engage in disciplinary practices that require them to read and interpret data,
make comparisons and applications, and develop evidence-based arguments. In
addition, they will complete a political science research or applied civics project.
The AP U.S. Government and Politics Course and Exam Description details what
students should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement.
A PDF of the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard
.org/pdf/ap-us-government-and-politics-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units Skill Categories
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
DISCIPLINARY PRACTICES
1. Foundations of American Democracy
1. Concept Application
2. SCOTUS Application
2. Interactions Among Branches of
Government
3. Data Analysis
3. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
4. Source Analysis
4. American Political Ideologies and Beliefs
5. Argumentation
5. Political Participation
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. Government and Politics 85
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. Government and Politics
86
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. Government and Politics 87
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. Government and Politics 88
2
Essential Knowledge:
3
Learning Objectives:
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
Observing Student Learning
AP U.S. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP U.S. Government and Politics Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. Government and Politics
4
Enduring
Understandings:
89
5
Big Ideas:
6
Skills:
7
Topic Questions:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did y
ou
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. Government and Politics 90
AP U.S. History
In AP U.S. History, students investigate signicant events, individuals,
developments, and processes in nine historical periods from approximately
1491 to the present. Students develop and use the same skills and methods
employed by historians: analyzing primary and secondary sources; developing
historical arguments; making historical connections; and utilizing reasoning
about comparison, causation, and continuity and change. The course also
provides eight themes that students explore throughout the course in order to
make connections among historical developments in dierent times and places:
American and national identity; work, exchange, and technology; geography and
the environment; migration and settlement; politics and power; America in the
world; American and regional culture; and social structures.
The AP U.S. History Course and Exam Description details what students should
know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of the CED
is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-us-
history-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Period 1: 1491–1607
2. Period 2: 1607–1754
3. Period 3: 1754–1800
4.
Period 4: 1800–1848
5.
Period 5: 1844–1877
6.
Period 6: 1865–1989
7.
Period 7: 1890–1945
8.
Period 8: 1945–1980
9.
Period 9: 1980–Present
Skill Categories
HISTORICAL THINKING SKILLS
1. Developments and Processes
2. Sourcing and Situation
3. Claims and Evidence in Sources
4.
Contextualization
5.
Making Connections
6.
Argumentation
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. History 91
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What historical developments
must students learn?
Historical development statements are listed on the topic page. They
comprise the knowledge required to demonstrate mastery of the learning
objective. Some learning objectives have more than one historical
development statement. All historical development statements are required
course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the historical development statements to progress
toward an enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have
more than one learning objective. All learning objectives are required course
content for the topic.
What’s the thematic focus?
Thematic focus is listed on the topic page. It’s the long-term takeaway that
leaves a lasting impression on students. Some topics have more than one
thematic focus. All thematic focuses are required course content for the
topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired
with more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. History
92
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the historical development
statements?
Each historical development statement may have
multiple parts. These parts may be taught across more
than one class period. The learning activity or set of
learning activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students demonstrates
the learning objective?
Teachers can assign topic questions to formatively
assess student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. History 93
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the historical developments?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the historical
developments?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. History 94
Observing Student Learning
AP U.S. HISTORY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP U.S. History Course and Exam Description,
along with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Historical
Developments:
Each student learns all parts
of the historical development
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student demonstrates all
parts of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
demonstrating?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Thematic Focus:
Each student knows how
the historical developments
contribute to the thematic
focus.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. History 95
5
Skills:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
6
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP U.S. History 96
AP World History: Modern
In AP World History: Modern, students investigate signicant events, individuals,
developments, and processes from 1200 to the present. Students develop and
use the same skills, practices, and methods employed by historians: analyzing
primary and secondary sources; developing historical arguments; making
historical connections; and utilizing reasoning about comparison, causation, and
continuity and change over time. The course provides six themes that students
explore throughout the course in order to make connections among historical
developments in dierent times and places: humans and the environment, cultural
developments and interactions, governance, economic systems, social interactions
and organization, and technology and innovation.
The AP World History: Modern Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-world-history-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. The Global Tapestry
2. Networks of Exchange
3. Land-Based Empires
4.
Transoceanic Interconnections
5.
Revolutions
6.
Consequences of Industrialization
7.
Global Conflict
8.
Cold War and Decolonization
9.
Globalization
Skill Categories
HISTORICAL THINKING SKILLS
1. Developments and Processes
2. Sourcing and Situation
3. Claims and Evidence in Sources
4.
Contextualization
5.
Making Connections
6.
Argumentation
Checks for Student Understanding AP World History: Modern 97
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What historical developments
must students learn?
Historical development statements are listed on the topic page. They
comprise the knowledge required to demonstrate mastery of the learning
objective. Some learning objectives have more than one historical
development statement. All historical development statements are required
course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the historical development statements to progress
toward an enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have
more than one learning objective. All learning objectives are required course
content for the topic.
What’s the thematic focus?
Thematic focus is listed on the topic page. It’s the long-term takeaway that
leaves a lasting impression on students. Some topics have more than one
thematic focus. All thematic focuses are required course content for
the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP World History: Modern
98
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the historical development
statements?
Each historical development statement may have
multiple parts. These parts may be taught across more
than one class period. The learning activity or set of
learning activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students demonstrate
the learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to
identify misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP World History: Modern 99
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the historical developments?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the historical
developments?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP World History: Modern 100
Observing Student Learning
AP WORLD HISTORY: MODERN
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP World History: Modern Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Historical
Developments:
Each student learns all parts
of the historical development
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student demonstrates all
parts of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
demonstrating?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Thematic Focus:
Each student knows how
the historical developments
contribute to the thematic
focus.
Checks for Student Understanding AP World History: Modern 101
5
Skills:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
6
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP World History: Modern 102
Mathematics and
Computer Science
Courses
103
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
AP Calculus AB
AP Calculus AB and AP Calculus BC focus on students’ understanding of
calculus concepts and provide experience with methods and applications. Both
courses require students to use denitions and theorems to build arguments and
justify conclusions. The courses feature a multi-representational approach to
calculus, with concepts, results, and problems expressed graphically, numerically,
analytically, and verbally. Exploring connections among these representations
builds understanding of how calculus applies limits to develop important ideas,
denitions, formulas, and theorems. A sustained emphasis on clear communication
of methods, reasoning, justications, and conclusions is essential. Teachers
and students should regularly use technology to reinforce relationships among
functions, to conrm written work, to implement experimentation, and to assist in
interpreting results.
The AP Calculus AB and BC Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-calculus-ab-bc-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
AP Calculus AB
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Limits and Continuity
2. Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental
Properties
3. Differentiation: Composite, Implicit, and
Inverse Functions
4. Contextual Applications of Differentiation
5. Analytical Applications of Differentiation
6. Integration and Accumulation of Change
7. Differential Equations
8.
Applications of Integration
Skill Categories
MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES
1. Implementing Mathematical Processes
2. Connecting Representations
3. Justification
4.
Communication and Notation
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus AB 105
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus AB
106
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to
identify misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus AB 107
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus AB 108
Observing Student Learning
AP CALCULUS AB
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Calculus AB and BC Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Essential Knowledge:
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observ
e students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Enduring
Understandings:
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus AB 109
5
Big Ideas:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
6
Skills:
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
7
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus AB 110
AP Calculus BC
AP Calculus AB and AP Calculus BC focus on students’ understanding of
calculus concepts and provide experience with methods and applications. Both
courses require students to use denitions and theorems to build arguments and
justify conclusions. The courses feature a multi-representational approach to
calculus, with concepts, results, and problems expressed graphically, numerically,
analytically, and verbally. Exploring connections among these representations
builds understanding of how calculus applies limits to develop important ideas,
denitions, formulas, and theorems. A sustained emphasis on clear communication
of methods, reasoning, justications, and conclusions is essential. Teachers
and students should regularly use technology to reinforce relationships among
functions, to conrm written work, to implement experimentation, and to assist in
interpreting results.
The AP Calculus AB and BC Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-calculus-ab-bc-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
AP Calculus BC
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Limits and Continuity
2. Differentiation: Definition and Fundamental
Properties
3. Differentiation: Composite, Implicit, and
Inverse Functions
4. Contextual Applications of Differentiation
5. Analytical Applications of Differentiation
6. Integration and Accumulation of Change
7. Differential Equations
8.
Applications of Integration
9.
Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates,
and Vector-Valued Functions
10. Infinite Sequences and Series
Skill Categories
MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES
1. Implementing Mathematical Processes
2. Connecting Representations
3. Justification
4.
Communication and Notation
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus BC 111
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus BC
112
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus BC 113
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice the
skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus BC 114
Observing Student Learning
AP CALCULUS BC
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Calculus AB and BC Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Essential Knowledge:
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observ
e students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Enduring
Understandings:
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus BC 115
5
Big Ideas:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
6
Skills:
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
obs
erve students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
7
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Calculus BC 116
AP Computer Science A
AP Computer Science A introduces students to computer science through
programming. Fundamental topics in this course include the design of solutions to
problems, the use of data structures to organize large sets of data, the development
and implementation of algorithms to process data and discover new information,
the analysis of potential solutions, and the ethical and social implications of
computing systems. The course emphasizes object-oriented programming and
design using the Java programming language.
The AP Computer Science A Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-computer-science-a-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Primitive Types
2. Using Objects
3. Boolean Expressions and if Statements
4.
Iteration
5.
Writing Classes
6.
Array
7.
ArrayList
8.
2D Array
9.
Inheritance
10.
Recursion
Skill Categories
COMPUTATIONAL THINKING PRACTICES
1. Program Design and Algorithm
Development
2. Code Logic
3. Code Implementation
4. Code Testing
5. Documentation
Checks for Student Understanding AP Computer Science A 117
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Computer Science A
118
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to
identify misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Computer Science A 119
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice the
skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Computer Science A 120
Observing Student Learning
AP COMPUTER SCIENCE A
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Computer Science A Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Essential Knowledge:
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
obser
ve students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Enduring
Understandings:
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Computer Science A 121
5
Big Ideas:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
6
Skills:
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
7
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Computer Science A 122
AP Statistics
The AP Statistics course introduces students to the major concepts and tools for
collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data. There are four themes
evident in the content, skills, and assessment in the AP Statistics course: exploring
data, sampling and experimentation, probability and simulation, and statistical
inference. Students use technology, investigations, problem solving, and writing as
they build conceptual understanding.
The AP Statistics Course and Exam Description details what students should know
and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of the CED is
available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-statistics-
course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Exploring One-Variable Data
2. Exploring Two-Variable Data
3. Collecting Data
4.
Probability, Random Variables, and
Probability Distributions
5. Sampling Distributions
6.
Inference for Categorical Data: Proportions
7.
Inference for Quantitative Data: Means
8.
Inference for Categorical Data: Chi-Square
9.
Inference for Quantitative Data: Slopes
Skill Categories
SKILL CATEGORIES
1. Selecting Statistical Methods
2. Data Analysis
3. Using Probability and Simulation
4.
Statistical Argumentation
Checks for Student Understanding AP Statistics 123
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the skills to pair
with the topic?
Skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with more than
one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively
assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings on the topic page. They should be used during
and at the end of each unit, respectively.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Statistics
124
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
skills?
Each skill may have multiple parts. These parts may be
taught across more than one class period. The learning
activity or set of learning activities should cover all parts
relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to
identify misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Statistics 125
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Statistics 126
Observing Student Learning
AP STATISTICS
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Statistics Course and Exam Description, along
with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Essential Knowledge:
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
obser
ve students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Enduring
Understandings:
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Statistics 127
5
Big Ideas:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
6
Skills:
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant
to the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
7
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from
the topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Statistics 128
Science Courses
129
THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK.
AP Biology
AP Biology is an introductory college-level biology course. Students cultivate their
understanding of biology through inquiry-based investigations as they explore
the following topics: evolution, cellular processes, energy and communication,
genetics, information transfer, ecology, and interactions.
The AP Biology Course and Exam Description details what students should know
and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of the CED is
available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-biology-
course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Chemistry of Life
2. Cell Structure and Function
3. Cellular Energetics
4.
Cell Communication and Cell Cycle
5.
Heredity
6.
Gene Expression and Regulation
7.
Natural Selection
8.
Ecology
Skill Categories
SCIENCE PRACTICES
1. Concept Explanation
2. Visual Representation
3. Questions and Methods
4.
Representing and Describing Data
5.
Statistical Tests and Data Analysis
6.
Argumentation
Checks for Student Understanding AP Biology 131
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Biology
132
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to
identify misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Biology 133
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice the
skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Biology 134
Observing Student Learning
AP BIOLOGY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Biology Course and Exam Description, along
with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Essential Knowledge:
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
obser
ve students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Enduring
Understandings:
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Biology 135
Look-Fors Evidence
5
Big Ideas:
Each student knows
the big idea.
6
Skills:
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant to
the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
7
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from the
topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Biology 136
AP Chemistry
The AP Chemistry course provides students with a college-level foundation
to support future advanced coursework in chemistry. Students cultivate their
understanding of chemistry through inquiry-based investigations, as they explore
content such as: atomic structure, intermolecular forces and bonding, chemical
reactions, kinetics, thermodynamics, and equilibrium.
The AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description details what students should
know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of the
CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/ap-
chemistry-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. Atomic Structure and Properties
2. Molecular and Ionic Compound Structure
and Properties
3. Intermolecular Forces and Properties
4. Chemical Reactions
5. Kinetics
6.
Thermodynamics
7.
Equilibrium
8.
Acids and Bases
9.
Applications of Thermodynamics
Skill Categories
SCIENCE PRACTICES
1. Models and Representations
2. Question and Method
3. Representing Data and Phenomena
4.
Model Analysis
5.
Mathematical Routines
6.
Argumentation
Checks for Student Understanding AP Chemistry 137
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Chemistry
138
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to identify
misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Chemistry 139
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice the
skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Chemistry 140
Observing Student Learning
AP CHEMISTRY
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description, along
with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Essential Knowledge:
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
observ
e students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Enduring
Understandings:
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Chemistry 141
5
Big Ideas:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
6
Skills:
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant to
the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
7
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from the
topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Chemistry 142
AP Environmental Science
The AP Environmental Science course is designed to engage students with the
scientic principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the
interrelationships within the natural world. The course requires that students
identify and analyze natural and human-made environmental problems, evaluate
the relative risks associated with these problems, and examine alternative solutions
for resolving or preventing them. Environmental science is interdisciplinary,
embracing topics from geology, biology, environmental studies, environmental
science, chemistry, and geography.
The AP Environmental Science Course and Exam Description details what students
should know and be able to do to qualify for college credit or placement. A PDF of
the CED is available on AP Central here: https://apcentral.collegeboard.org/pdf/
ap-environmental-science-course-and-exam-description.pdf.
Content Units
UNITS OF COURSE CONTENT
1. The Living World: Ecosystems
2. The Living World: Biodiversity
3. Populations
4.
Earth Systems and Resources
5.
Land and Water Use
6.
Energy Resources and Consumption
7.
Atmospheric Pollution
8.
Aquatic and Terrestrial Pollution
9.
Global Change
Skill Categories
SCIENCE PRACTICES
1. Concept Explanation
2. Visual Representation
3. Text Analysis
4.
Scientific Experiments
5.
Data Analysis
6.
Mathematical Routines
7.
Environmental Solutions
Checks for Student Understanding AP Environmental Science 143
Pre-Observation Discussion
LESSON BASICS
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the unit?
Units are listed on the Course at a Glance, which presents a visual
organization of the course, including sequence and pacing.
What’s the topic?
Topics are listed on the Unit at a Glance, which indicates the topic–skill
pairings for the unit.
What essential knowledge
must students learn?
Essential knowledge statements are listed on the topic page. They describe
the knowledge required to achieve a learning objective. Some learning
objectives have more than one essential knowledge statement. All essential
knowledge statements are required course content for the topic.
What are the learning
objectives?
Learning objectives are listed on the topic page. They dene what students
should be able to do with the essential knowledge to progress toward an
enduring understanding. Most enduring understandings have more than one
learning objective. All learning objectives are required course content for
the topic.
What are the enduring
understandings?
Enduring understandings are listed on the topic page. They are the long-
term takeaways related to the big ideas that leave a lasting impression on
students. Some topics have more than one enduring understanding. All
enduring understandings are required course content for the topic.
What are the big ideas?
Big ideas are noted on the topic page as the three-letter part of the label
for the enduring understanding. They are recurring concepts or themes that
spiral across topics. Some topics include more than one big idea. All big
ideas are required course content for the topic.
What are the suggested skills
to pair with the topic?
Suggested skills are listed on the topic page. Some topics are paired with
more than one skill. Topic questions and Personal Progress Checks
formatively assess this topic–skill pairing.*
*The topic questions and Personal Progress Checks formatively assess the topic–skill pairings suggested on the topic page. They should be
used during and at the end of each unit, respectively. As a summative assessment, questions on the AP Exam may pair any topic with any skill
taught throughout the course.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Environmental Science
144
TEACHING
Discussion Question Tip
What’s the learning activity you’ve planned?
There’s no single correct learning activity or set of
learning activities, and some learning activities may span
more than one class period. Teachers are encouraged
to be creative. For ideas, see Sample Instructional
Activities in each unit guide.
Content:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to engage with
all aspects of the essential knowledge
statements?
Each essential knowledge statement may have multiple
parts. These parts may be taught across more than
one class period. The learning activity or set of learning
activities should cover all of these parts.
Skills:
How does the learning activity provide an
opportunity for students to practice the
suggested skills?
Each suggested skill may have multiple parts. These
parts may be taught across more than one class period.
The learning activity or set of learning activities should
cover all parts relevant to the topic.
ASSESSING
Discussion Question Tip
How will you know if students achieve the
learning objective?
Teachers can use topic questions to formatively assess
student learning for each topic.
How will you use the topic questions
so that students can address their
misunderstandings?
Topic questions can be paired with the prior night’s
homework, used at the start or end of class, or paired
with the current night’s homework. Teachers and
students can access data from AP Classroom to
identify misunderstandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Environmental Science 145
Observation
Use the corresponding topic page, along with the Observing Student Learning document, to catalog evidence of
how students engage with course content and skills.
Post-Observation Discussion
These questions are meant to help teachers focus on the content and skills students need for success in the course
and on the exam. There’s no single correct answer to any of the questions below.
Content
§ How deeply did students engage with all
aspects of the essential knowledge?
§ Did they have an opportunity to apply their
knowledge within the context of the learning
objective?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in learning the essential
knowledge?
Skills
§ How thoroughly did students practice
the skills?
§ Did they have an opportunity to practice the
skills within the context of the topic?
§ Did anything stand in their way?
§ What could have facilitated even greater
student success in developing the skills?
Checks for Student Understanding AP Environmental Science 146
Observing Student Learning
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Teacher Name: Class Period:
Unit:
Topic:
Directions: Use the corresponding topic page from the AP Environmental Science Course and Exam
Description, along with this document, when observing student learning.
Look-Fors Evidence
1
Topic:
Each student knows the topic.
2
Essential Knowledge:
Each student learns all parts
of the essential knowledge
statements.
§ Which parts did you
observe students learning?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
3
Learning Objectives:
Each student achieves all parts
of the learning objectives.
§ Which parts did you
obser
ve students
achieving?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
4
Enduring
Understandings:
Each student demonstrates
enduring understandings.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Environmental Science 147
5
Big Ideas:
Look-Fors Evidence
Each student knows
the big idea.
6
Skills:
Each student practices all
parts of the skills relevant to
the topic.
§ Which parts did you
observe students
practicing?
§ Which parts did you
not observe?
7
Topic Questions:
Each student addresses
misunderstandings from the
topic questions.
Checks for Student Understanding AP Environmental Science 148
AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based