CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Standard Checklist:
11 questions to help you make sense of a randomised controlled trial (RCT)
Main issues for consideration:
Several aspects need to be considered when appraising a
randomised controlled trial:
Is the basic study design valid for a randomised
controlled trial? (Section A)
Was the study methodologically sound? (Section B)
What are the results? (Section C)
Will the results help locally? (Section D)
The 11 questions in the checklist are designed to help you think about these aspects
How to use this appraisal tool:
The first three questions (Section A) are screening questions
about the validity of the basic study design and can be answered quickly. If, in light of your
responses to Section A, you think the study design is valid, continue to Section B to assess
whether the study was methodologically sound and if it is worth continuing with the appraisal by
answering the remaining questions in Sections C and D.
Record ‘Yes’, ‘No’ or ‘Can’t tell’ in response to the questions. Prompts below all but one of the
questions highlight the issues it is important to consider. Record the reasons for your answers
in the space provided. As CASP checklists were designed to be used as educational/teaching
tools in a workshop setting, we do not recommend using a scoring system.
About CASP Checklists:
The CASP RCT checklist was originally based on JAMA Users’ guides to the
medical literature 1994 (adapted from Guyatt GH, Sackett DL and Cook DJ), and piloted with
healthcare practitioners. This version has been updated taking into account the CONSORT 2010
guideline (http://www.consort-statement.org/consort-2010, accessed 16 September 2020).
CASP recommends using the Harvard style, i.e. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme
(2020). CASP (insert name of checklist i.e. Randomised Controlled Trial) Checklist. [online]
Available at: insert URL. Accessed: insert date accessed.
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