SYNERGIES:
SETTLEMENT,
INTEGRATION AND
LANGUAGE LEARNING
Measuring OutcomesFindings
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsBenefitsOverview
Overview – The need for this project ...................................................................... 3
Benefits – Why
....................................................................................................... 5
Partnerships – Who
................................................................................................ 7
Delivery Plan – How
............................................................................................. 10
Overview of the Canadian Language Benchmarks/
Niveaux de compétence linguistique canadiens
................................................... 13
Overview of the Common European Framework of Reference
............................. 15
Action-oriented Tasks in the ESL/FSL Classroom
................................................ 17
Findings – How we know this works
.................................................................... 24
Measuring Outcomes
........................................................................................... 26
Acknowledgments
............................................................................................... 29
Appendices
.......................................................................................................... 31
INSIDE
Newcomers complement the
skills of the domestic labour
force, bring new investments
and innovative practices, help
to open trade routes with
their countries of origin and
enhance cultural diversity.”
TD Economics, 2012
Measuring OutcomesFindings
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsBenefitsOverview
OVERVIEW
“ Mastering language
fluency and cross-cultural
communication quickly
is critical for immigrant
success and building strong,
two-way global connections
in our economy.”
Ontario Immigration
Strategy, 2014
3
OVERVIEW
“ …newcomers think
they have adequate
communication and
language skills but
employers do not.”
Maytree, 2015
THE NEED FOR THIS PROJECT
The province of Ontario continues to welcome newcomers from around the world. Newcomers
are key to growing the Canadian economy. Learning an official language accelerates the
settlement journey.
In 2015, a research project was conducted that tested the theory that task-based learning
using a municipal immigration information online portal could accelerate language learning
and settlement in tandem. The results were so promising that this guide was developed to
assist other communities across Ontario in developing similar learning opportunities. Task
based learning is emerging as a best practice across Ontario and Canada.
The guide is based on the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB)/Niveaux de compétence
lingustique canadiens (NCLC), and the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) in
an ESL and FSL classroom. These concepts will be further explored later in this document.
This guide outlines how to use a municipal immigration portal as a platform to develop
task-based learning tools in partnership with a language provider.
For those who want the best for everybody – this is very exciting.
4
Measuring OutcomesFindings
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsOverview
BENEFITS
Benefits
5
BENEFITS
This section outlines the benefits of developing a local task-based learning partnership:
TO COMMUNITIES
We share in the collective responsibility of creating the kinds of
communities we want to live in. Prosperous, healthy, vibrant
communities are the result of engaged, active residents. Language
skills are critical to social, civic and financial inclusion. When residents
can work, volunteer and participate in leisure and civic activities,
communities are stronger, safer and healthier. Communities across
Canada are experiencing a skills shortage. Newcomers arrive with
skills. Language proficiency is essential to ensuring those skills are
utilized, benefiting local economies.
TO NEWCOMERS
Newcomers to Ontario understand that language learning, settlement
and becoming job ready is a journey and will take time. Many
newcomers, understanding the necessity of language proficiency
to successful settlement, have acquired some English and French
language skills in advance of their arrival. Task-based learning
has the potential to accelerate the journey, promoting the further
development of language and settlement simultaneously.
TO LANGUAGE PROVIDERS
Language providers are professionals committed to helping
newcomers realize success in their new communities. Like all
professionals, language providers are eager to learn best practices,
apply emerging, leading edge strategies and add to their suite of skills
and knowledge. Language providers are always searching for ways to
make learning authentic and relevant for learners. Using a MIIO site
as part of instruction does just that.
TO MUNICIPAL IMMIGRATION INFORMATION ONLINE SITES (MIIO)
MIIO sites are purpose-built tools, designed specifically and
exclusively to assist newcomers in navigating their new communities
and accelerating their settlement journey. MIIO sites routinely share
best practices. Working in partnership with a language provider is a
natural fit for both language providers and MIIO sites. A partnership
allows for greater exposure of the MIIO site with newcomers in an
environment supported by a language instructor. It also allows MIIO
sites to build upon their success by engaging in innovative practices
grounded in research.
TO LOCAL IMMIGRATION PARTNERSHIPS (LIP)
“The long term vision for LIPs is to support the development of
self – sustaining, multi-sectoral partnerships at the local community
level, so that newcomer needs are integrated seamlessly into the
community planning process, and community specific strategic
priorities are identified and action plans implemented to improve
newcomer outcomes….” (CFP: Issued by CIC August 25, 2010)
Like MIIO sites and language providers, LIPs are purpose-built
bodies designed for the expressed objective of meeting the needs of
newcomers. While the structures, roles and models of LIPs across
Ontario differ, the mandate does not. LIPs can act as a resource
to MIIO sites and language provider partners potentially facilitating:
access to data to inform grants, facilitating meetings to bring partners
together, mobilizing community service providers to participate in the
partnership, or advocating for local support for a new project.
6
Measuring OutcomesFindings
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanBenefitsOverview Partnerships
PARTNERSHIPS
Coming together is a beginning;
keeping together is progress;
working together is sucess.”
Henry Ford
7
PARTNERSHIPS
This section describes the key partners necessary for this project and outlines the synergies that can
occur as a result of their collaboration.
MUNICIPAL IMMIGRATION INFORMATION ONLINE (MIIO) PROGRAM – MUNICIPAL
IMMIGRATION PORTALS
The MIIO program was established to “increase the online capacity, resources and information
provided to immigrants by municipalities” (Grants Ontario). There are over 35 municipal immigration
portals in Ontario. Municipal immigration portals offer one-stop, community-based immigration
information, designed to welcome, support, attract and retain newcomers to their communities.
To view the municipal immigration portal in your area, visit: Ontario Immigration, Living in Ontario.
LOCAL IMMIGRATION PARTNERSHIPS (LIPS)
Local Immigration Partnership (LIPs) exist throughout Ontario, serving as mechanisms to develop
local partnerships and community-based planning around the needs of residents and newcomers.
Across Ontario, the relationships and links between municipal immigration portals and LIPs vary.
In some communities, the LIP can help facilitate the development of the partnerships required
for the Synergies project, and help promote its use. While working with the LIP can bring added
benefits, it is not required.
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL)/FRENCH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (FSL)
TRAINING FOR ADULT NEWCOMERS
ESL and FSL training classes for adult newcomers are offered through local school boards across
Ontario to those meeting the eligibility requirements.
To learn more about ESL/
FSL classes and to find the
school board(s) offering
language classes in your
area, visit: Ontario Ministry of
Citizenship and Immigration,
Learn English or French.
8
SYNERGY FROM PARTNERSHIPS
The Oxford Dictionary defines synergy as “the positive benefit that
occurs when two or more activities are combined. This means that the
resultant combination is in some way superior to the separate entities.”
The relationship between municipal immigration portals and community
ESL/FSL training classes can create a synergy to enhance language
learning, leading to the accelerated settlement and integration of
newcomers.
Of benefit to the ESL/FSL classroom, municipal immigration portals
provide:
Authentic resources and information in the host language
(e.g., public transportation schedules, local restaurant menus)
Relevant, community-based content, set in the context of
everyday life
Information to accomplish a task (e.g., attending a community
event, joining a recreation activity, getting a health card, voting,
registering for school)
The platform for the development of essential skills (e.g., digital
technology)
Of benefit to MIIO sites, ESL/FSL training classes provide:
Reach to a large number of newcomers who may not be familiar
with the municipal immigration portal
An environment that promotes the purposeful, in-depth use of
the municipal immigration portal by newcomers, supported by a
language instructor
Most importantly, the synergies created through these partnerships
have the potential to build newcomers’ language skills, confidence in
speaking a new language, and knowledge of their community, thereby
accelerating settlement and integration.
9
Measuring OutcomesFindings
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR
Overview CLB/NCLC
Partnerships
DELIVERY
PLAN
Delivery PlanBenefitsOverview
10
DELIVERY PLAN
There are key elements that need to come together to implement this project.
PARTNER REQUIREMENTS
A Municipal Immigration Information Online (MIIO) site requires:
An operational portal with current, local content
A local school board, with ESL/FSL training programs
A community committed to the successful settlement of newcomers
A school board requires:
An ESL/FSL training program
A commitment to innovative thinking and evidence-based instructional practices
Language instructors open to new learning
As leaders in the community, MIIO sites and school boards are invested in newcomer success.
Bringing these partners together to accelerate settlement through improved language skills is
an example of the types of partnerships that make Ontario strong.
For some MIIO sites and school boards, this may be an opportunity to strengthen partnerships,
in others, to create new ones. The starting point, is a conversation and a mutual desire to
improve settlement and language skills for newcomers. How this project may develop, may
look different in different communities.
11
FUNDING
Implementing this project is a relatively low cost project. School
boards and municipalities may decide to fund this independently.
Alternatively, external funders may be interested in funding this
type of project. Check federal and provincial funding bodies for
open calls for proposals.
Historically, projects like this align with federal and provincial
objectives, and may be eligible for funding for a variety of reasons,
such as:
Accelerating the successful settlement and integration of
newcomers
Reducing language proficiency as a barrier to successful
labour market attachment
Building capacity in the settlement sector to meet the needs
of francophone communities
Promoting partnerships to find efficiencies and to achieve
better results
Promoting pathways to social inclusion and civic engagement
Complementing and improving existing programs (e.g.,
language training services, municipal immigration portals,
health promotion, community safety)
When applying for funding, partners need to determine who will
be the principal applicant, the roles and responsibilities assigned
to each, as well as who will be responsible for the administration
of funds.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Roles and responsibilities associated with this project will look
differently in every community.
In the case of the Region of Durham project, additional funding
was obtained. Region of Durham was the principle applicant,
responsible for administering the contract, local content and all
reporting. The Durham District School Board was responsible for
developing and administering training to existing instructors as
well as supporting instructors in the development of the learning
materials for their ESL classrooms.
DELIVERY PLAN
12
Measuring OutcomesFindings
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR
OVERVIEW
OF THE
CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsBenefitsOverview
Overview CLB/NCLC
13
OVERVIEW OF THE CLB/NCLC
The Synergies project incorporates the principles of the Canadian
Language Benchmarks (CLB).
The CLB is the national standard used to describe the second
language proficiency of adult immigrants and prospective
immigrants for living and working in Canada. It is the framework
for learning, teaching, program planning, and assessment of
languages in Canada. The Niveaux de compétence linguistique
canadiens (NCLC) is the parallel French standard.
The CLB/NCLC consist of 12 benchmarks that are divided into
three levels: basic (1-4), intermediate (5-8), and advanced (9-
12). Each benchmark provides a description of communicative
abilities in four skill areas: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
A learner can be at different benchmarks in different skill areas.
The guiding principles state that the CLB/NCLC are (CLB, 2012):
Competency-based: Competency statements stress
what a learner can do in English. Competencies may be
understood as the demonstrable application of knowledge
and skills by individual learners.
Learner-centred: Competencies should be embedded
in tasks and contexts that are purposeful, relevant, and
meaningful to the learner, and tailored to the individual’s
abilities and learning style.
Task-based: A communicative ‘real world’ instance
of language use to accomplish a specific purpose in a
particular context.
Stress community, study and work-related tasks:
Language is used in specific social contexts with
particular individuals.
Using a municipal immigration portal to support and inform
task-based learning directly connects with the guiding principles
of the CLB/NCLC.
To learn more about the CLB/NCLC, visit
The Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks.
14
Measuring OutcomesFindings
Action-Oriented Tasks
OVERVIEW
OF THE
CEFR
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsBenefitsOverview Overview CEFR
15
OVERVIEW OF THE CEFR
The Synergies project incorporates the principles of the Common
European Framework of Reference.
The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages:
Learning, Teaching and Assessment (CEFR) is a framework of
reference developed by the Council of Europe. It is used in over 160
countries throughout Europe and around the world. The CEFR is
language neutral and has been translated into 40 languages. The uses
of the framework include learning, teaching, program planning, and
assessment of languages.
The CEFR has influenced the Kindergarten to Grade 12 curricula
of ministries of education in Ontario and in several other provinces
across Canada.
The CEFR organizes language proficiency into six broad levels:
A1 and A2 (Basic User); B1 and B2 (Independent User); and, C1
and C2 (Proficient User). Each level provides descriptions of four
communicative activities: reception, interaction, production, and
mediation – in both oral and written form.
The key concepts of the CEFR include (CEFR, 2001):
‘Can do’ Descriptors: ‘Can do’ descriptors are statements
that describe what a learner can do in the language. They
provide descriptors of language activities and language
competences.
The Action-oriented Approach: The action-oriented approach
views learners as ‘social agents’ who use language in order to
interact with others and accomplish meaningful, real-life tasks.
Tasks: “Tasks are actions that are performed strategically by
one or more people using their own specific competences to
achieve a result.”
Plurilingualism: Plurilingualism recognizes that different
languages are not kept in separate compartments in our
brains. As such, language learners build a linguistic repertoire,
developing competences and skills that come from learning
a language, but also through the synergies between the
other languages they know. In an ESL/FSL class, learners
are encouraged to draw on all their resources, including the
languages they already speak, and apply the most effective
strategies to accomplish tasks in the target language.
There are many similar principles between the Canadian Language
Benchmarks (CLB) and the CEFR. In fact, when compared to
the CEFR, the CLB was found to have strong concurrent validity
(CLB, 2011).
To learn more about the CEFR, visit The Council of
Europe: Education and Languages, Language Policy
16
Overview CEFR Measuring OutcomesFindings
ACTION-ORIENTED
TASKS IN THE ESL/
FSL CLASSROOM
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsBenefitsOverview
Action-Oriented Tasks
17
ACTION-ORIENTED TASKS IN
THE ESL/FSL CLASSROOM
In recent years, there has been a marked shift from learning “about” a language to
living a language. This shift in thinking is reflected in the action-oriented approach
(AOA), promoted in the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). The AOA
views learners are ‘social agents’ who use language in order to interact with others and
accomplish meaningful tasks. This approach has changed the way that language education
is taught, emphasizing oral communication and the need to build language competencies
that allow learners to function in real-life, everyday situations. This is accomplished in part
through task-based learning.
Tasks are actions performed by the learner using the learner’s competencies to achieve a
given result, such as getting a health card or planning a night out in the community.
In a classroom where task-based learning occurs, learners prepare for the task through
a series of communicative activities designed to build the learners’ competencies. Once
the learners are ready to complete the task, they would perform the task in a classroom
simulation.
Task-based learning is especially important in an ESL/FSL class for newcomers as it
provides the structure to build the competencies necessary to accomplish goals required to
settle and integrate effectively within the community, such as buying groceries and speaking
to a child’s teacher.
Task-based learning allows newcomers to prepare for, and simulate tasks in a safe and
supportive learning environment before completing those tasks in the real world.
When building an action-
oriented task, the following
checklist outlines what
elements are needed:
3Learners are ‘social
agents’ who use the target
language to carry out
tasks that have a tangible
result
3Communication is
spontaneous, purposeful,
set in the context of
everyday life
3Scenarios are authentic
and promote the use of
authentic resources and
texts
3There is a problem to be
solved, an objective to be
achieved, or a goal to be
accomplished, subject to
certain parameters and
constraints
3Learners are required
to draw upon their
competences and make
choices – to think and act
strategically
CREATING AN ACTION-ORIENTED TASK
18
ACTION-ORIENTED TASKS IN
THE ESL/FSL CLASSROOM
Task-based learning is not only a guiding concept of the CEFR, but is also one of the guiding principles of the Canadian Language
Benchmarks (CLB) and the Niveaux de compétence linguistique canadiens (NCLC).
To create an action-oriented task, begin with the can do
statements from the language standard being used in
the classroom (i.e., CLB/NCLC, CEFR). Cluster the can
do statements in a logical manner to maximize learning.
Reflect upon the needs of the learner to determine
what tasks will best support settlement and integration
within the community, focusing on relevant, purposeful,
real-life scenarios.
Visit the local municipal immigration portal to explore possible authentic resources that will help support the learning needed to perform the task.
SAMPLE ACTION-ORIENTED TASK
Presented here is a sample task for basic users, working at CLB 3/4 and
CEFR A2. The learners would work toward building their knowledge and skills
during the learning block to be able to complete the task at the end of the
period of instruction. The hyperlinks in this task bring the learners to their
municipal immigration portal (in this case the Durham Immigration Portal),
where they can access practical, real-life information from their community.
More sample tasks, like the task shown here, are available in the document
Exploring the Region of Durham Through Task-based Learning.
Clustered can
do statements
(CLB, NCLC, CEFR)
Needs of
the learner
(relevant,
purposeful,
real-life
scenarios)
Municipal
immigration
portal
– authentic
resources
Community
-connected
Action-oriented
Task
TASK
You are new to Canada and want health care. You received your Health Card and want to find a family
doctor. Research how Health Care Connect can help you. Call Health Care Connect to speak to an
agent and share your personal information.
The Health Care Connect agent will also talk to you about:
Your medical history
Your family’s medical history
Oral Interaction Task
Speak with the Health Care Connect agent and give your personal information. Discuss your health
care needs and the needs of your family.
Writing Task
Your friend, who is also a newcomer, wants to know how to apply for an OHIP card and how to find
a family doctor. Write an e-mail and explain the procedure. Share the conversation you had with the
Health Care Connect agent to help your friend feel more comfortable about calling.
19
ACTION-ORIENTED TASKS IN
THE ESL/FSL CLASSROOM
EXPLORING THE REGION OF DURHAM THROUGH
TASK-BASED LEARNING
Exploring the Region of Durham through Task-based Learning is a digital English
language learning tool that provides action-oriented tasks framed by content of the Durham
Immigration Portal. The tasks presented in this document are in keeping with the language
standards of both the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) and the Common European
Framework of Reference (CEFR).
This resource was the result of a joint partnership between the Region of Durham and
the Durham District School Board. It is available publicly online and can be downloaded
from the Durham Immigration Portal. This document includes a variety of tasks at various
benchmarks/levels that can be easily modified to other municipal immigration portals.
BUILDING AN ACTION-ORIENTED LEARNING BLOCK
Now that a task has been determined, it is necessary to plan the learning block that will
support learners in completing the end task. This process is known as backward design,
as you are beginning with the end product (the task) and working backward to inform
programming.
A learning block is a unit of study whereby the learners acquire the competencies necessary to complete the task. The culmination of
the learning block is the performance and assessment of the task. For example, a learning block might be based on the task “ordering
at a restaurant.” During the learning block, learners would work toward being able to complete the task of ordering at a restaurant by
participating in a variety of communicative learning activities.
20
ACTION-ORIENTED TASKS IN
THE ESL/FSL CLASSROOM
In the task shown here, possible communicative activities might include:
Reading menus from local restaurants
Role playing
Participating in an inside/outside circle activity to practise
greetings, leave-taking and goodwill expressions
Calculating a tip
Exploring international food
Surveying the class on food preferences
Food safety (Dine Safe)
Practising expressions of politeness
Participating in guided teaching using an
interactive slideshow
Understanding a restaurant bill
Click on the hyperlinks above to view examples of the communicative
activities that were used in the Region of Durham.
Find a restaurant in Durham and take a friend there for dinner. Look at the menu and order
your meal from the waiter/waitress. You both want a drink, a starter, a main course and a
dessert. Unfortunately, you only have $30.00 each. Don’t forget about taxes and a tip! The
waiter/waitress will ask you these questions:
How are you today?
Are you ready to order?
What can I get for you?
After your meal, ask the waiter for the bill and make sure that the total cost is less than $60.00
for you and your friend.
Oral Interaction Task
Order dinner at a restaurant on a limited budget.
Writing Task
Send an email to another friend to tell him/her about your meal. Describe the restaurant and
the service and suggest that one day you eat there together.
Eating Out in Durham
21
ACTION-ORIENTED TASKS IN
THE ESL/FSL CLASSROOM
Various forms of assessment would occur throughout the learning
block to improve learning.
While learners are preparing for the task through various
communicative activities, assessment for learning would occur.
In this kind of assessment, learners are provided with timely,
descriptive feedback to identify where they are, and what they
need to do next to improve their performance. Instructors would
also use this information to identify gaps between where the
learners are, and where they need to be to perform the task
successfully and would adjust their programming accordingly.
Assessment as learning would also occur during the learning
block. Assessment as learning helps students to become
“independent, autonomous learners who are able to set individual
goals, monitor their own progress, determine next steps, and
reflect on their thinking and learning” (Growing Success, 2010).
Assessment of learning (evaluation) occurs most often towards
the end of the learning block. During this kind of assessment,
the learner demonstrates what he/she has learned/can do. The
performance of the task (e.g., ordering at a restaurant) at the end
of the learning block is an example of assessment of learning.
Click here to view the assessment of tool used in the Region of
Durham to assess the learners completing the performance task of
ordering at a restaurant.
Assessment
for learning
Assessment
as learning
Assessment
of learning
COMPETENCES
performance
task
Communicative
Activities
Communicative
Activities
Communicative
Activities
22
ACTION-ORIENTED TASKS IN
THE ESL/FSL CLASSROOM
TRAINING FOR INSTRUCTORS
A key element to the success of this project is training for instructors. As such, a slideshow has been developed for that purpose.
This training will:
Outline the potential benefits of replicating this project
Highlight the Ontario Immigration Strategy
Provide an overview of municipal immigration portals and ESL/FSL language training for adult newcomers
Demonstrate the synergy that can exist between a municipal immigration portal and ESL/FSL language training
Share the findings from the Region of Durham case study
that support this approach
Provide an overview of the action-oriented approach
and task-based learning and make connections with
the CLB, NCLC, and CEFR
Share practical tools to implement task-based learning
using a municipal immigration portal in a language class
Hear instructor and learner voice supporting this project
The slideshow includes speaker notes to assist the person
delivering the training.
To view the slideshow, click here.
23
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR Measuring OutcomesFindings
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsBenefitsOverview
FINDINGS
24
FINDINGS
HOW WE KNOW THIS WORKS
This section provides evidence supporting the case for the
implementation of this project in other communities, providing
a local case study and the perspective of an international
expert in second language education.
LOCAL FINDINGS:
THE REGION OF DURHAM CASE STUDY
This summary provides the context in which the Region of Durham
case study was developed, including a brief description of the
Region, key partners, as well as an overview of the preliminary
resources that shaped this work. The summary describes the case
study, provides the methodology and research findings and lastly,
how this study is contributing to the international research on the
linguistic integration of newcomers.
Click here to read the summary from the Region of Durham
AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
DR. ENRICA PICCARDO
Dr. Piccardo’s work centres on second/foreign language education
and teacher development. Dr. Piccardo is a specialist of the
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and
language education and is recognized internationally as an expert
in her field. Dr. Piccardo is an Associate Professor at the Ontario
Institute for Studies in Education at the Universtiy of Toronto and
at the Université Joseph Fourier in Genoble, France.
Click here to read more from Dr. Piccardo
25
Findings
Action-Oriented Tasks
Overview CEFR Measuring Outcomes
Overview CLB/NCLC
Delivery PlanPartnershipsBenefitsOverview
MEASURING
OUTCOMES
26
MEASURING OUTCOMES
Measuring outcomes is one way of finding out if the work being
done is having an impact. It provides the opportunity to reflect
on that work, to determine which strategies have been effective
and where there may be gaps. Measuring outcomes provides
the opportunity to have conversations, informed by data, to help
with planning and decision-making. Measuring outcomes will help
answer the question “did we make a difference?” as a result of the
work being done.
In adult ESL/FSL classrooms where municipal immigration portals are
being used to support task-based learning, data can be gathered for
many purposes, including to measure if newcomers are better off as a
result of the project.
When determining if newcomers are better off as a result of this project,
the following guiding questions might be helpful to explore:
Has this language program influenced adult newcomers’:
Knowledge about, and engagement within the community?
Access to essential services in the community?
Motivation to attend language classes and to learn English/French?
Confidence levels in English/French?
27
MEASURING OUTCOMES
TOOLS TO COLLECT DATA
Reliable data can be collected in different ways. The most common
methods are questionnaires, interviews and focus groups, with each
method providing a different scope.
Questionnaires give a good overview of what a group of people think of,
and report on, one or more specific topic. Pre-and post-questionnaires are
helpful tools to measure impact as a result of the work that has been done.
Interviews and focus groups allow a deeper exploration of visions,
opinions, perceptions and feelings related to a topic or an experience.
Interviews can be semi-structured, which means that a series of questions
prepared in advance are proposed to the interviewee but there is space
for further, more personal, development of answers. Focus groups gather
a number of participants who share a similar profile and/or a similar
experience. The group exchange during focus groups usually helps to
take the discussion to a more in-depth level.
GETTING CONSENT WHEN COLLECTING DATA
When conducting research and gathering data in classrooms, depending
on who is gathering the data and for what purpose the data is being used,
approval from the school board may be required. It is recommended to
consult the local school board policy on research to determine what the
application process might be and what steps, such as obtaining signed,
informed consent from participants, might be necessary.
In order to facilitate gathering data in your area, sample
resources have been provided from the research project
conducted at the Region of Durham. They include:
1. Consent letter for instructors
2. Consent letter for learners
3. Consent letter for MIIO staff
4. Pre and post questionnaires for instructors
(relating to training)
5. Pre and post questionnaires for learners
6. Focus group questions for learners
7. Focus group questions for instructors
8. Focus group questions for MIIO staff
9. Durham District School Board External Research
Application template
SAMPLE RESOURCES TO HELP WITH GATHERING DATA
28
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Funders
This project was made possible with funding from the Province of
Ontario, Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration.
Leaders
This collaboration was made possible by Dr. Hugh Drouin,
Commissioner, Social Services Department, Regional Municipality
of Durham, Martyn Beckett, former Director of Education, Durham
District School Board and Lisa Millar, current Director of Education,
Durham District School Board.
The vision and production of this project were made possible by the
principle writer, research co-ordinator and project facilitator, Danielle
Hunter, Durham District School Board, Enrica Piccardo, University of
Toronto, and Audrey Andrews, LIP lead and MIIO manager, Regional
Municipality of Durham.
Contributors
To the many organizations and individuals who contributed to the
vision of this project, the research, the development of the guide
and the promotion of its use – thank you.
Durham District School Board
Durham District School Board, Continuing Education
Veronica Vulic, Durham Catholic District School Board,
Continuing Education
Geoff Collins, Durham District School Board
Anne Marie Laginski, Durham District School Board,
Superintendent of Education, Family of Schools,
School Support Initiative
Paul Brown, Durham District School Board,
Continuing Education, Principal
Dikosava Gajic, Durham District School Board,
Continuing Education, Department Head of Language Programs
Marlene Wogu, Durham District School Board,
Continuing Education, ESL Instructor
Maureen O’Reilly, Durham District School Board,
Continuing Education, ESL Instructor
Prudence Bryan Smith, Durham District School Board,
Continuing Education, ESL Instructor
The adult learners at Continuing Education,
Durham District School Board
You can access
this guide at
www.durhamimmigration.ca
30
APPENDICES
SYNERGIES:
Settlement,
Integration
& Language
Learning
31
ACTION-ORIENTED
TASKS IN THE ESL/
FSL CLASSROOM
APPENDICES
32
Name: ______________________________________
Eating Out in Durham Choosing a Restaurant
There are lots of great restaurants in Durham that serve food from all around the globe! Visit the Durham Immigration Portal and learn more about
many restaurants in your backyard. By clicking here, you will discover food locations across the region. Find three restaurants on the list where you
would like to eat. Find the restaurant website by doing an internet search and review the menu. Complete the following information based on your
choices. After reviewing three restaurants, select one that you would like to visit, giving three reasons why you made that choice.
Name of restaurant:
Name of restaurant:
Name of restaurant:
Location:
Location:
Location:
Type of food:
Type of food:
Type of food:
What I will order:
What I will order:
What I will order:
ITEM
COST
ITEM
COST
ITEM
COST
Drink:
Drink:
Drink:
Appetizer:
Appetizer:
Appetizer:
Main:
Main:
Main:
Dessert:
Dessert:
Dessert:
Total cost of meal with tax and tip:
Total cost of meal with tax and tip:
Total cost of meal with tax and tip:
I would like to visit _________________________________________________ (name of restaurant) because:
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Name: ______________________________________
Eating Out in Durham
You and your classmate are making plans to go out to eat. Compare the restaurant you chose with the choice of a classmate. Justify your choice
and convince your classmate that your pick is the best option.
MY CHOICE
MY CLASSMATES’ CHOICE
Name of restaurant:
Name of restaurant:
Location:
Location:
Type of food:
Type of food:
What I will order:
What he/she will order:
ITEM
COST
ITEM
COST
Drink:
Drink:
Appetizer:
Appetizer:
Main:
Main:
Dessert:
Dessert:
Total cost of meal with tax and tip:
Total cost of meal with tax and tip:
Reasons supporting my selection:
Reasons against his/her selection:
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Eating Out in Durham Ordering at a Restaurant
Inside/Outside Circle Activity
Note to instructor:
Print off a PDF of a menu such as http://www.montanas.ca/pdf/menu_dinner.pdf
Have every student complete the chart (see attached).
Divide the class into two groups. Half the group stands in a circle facing outward while the other half forms a circle
around them facing inward. Group A will play the role of server while group B will play the role of customer. Students
exchange information until the instructor signals the outer circle to move in one direction. The students now have a new
person to role play with. Practice this activity multiple times, aiming to have the customer speak without the speaking
notes. Be sure to change the roles so that all students experience being the server and the customer.
Group A
Group B
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Name: ______________________________________
Eating Out in Durham Ordering at a Restaurant
Inside/Outside Circle Activity
The questions below are questions that you will most likely be asked at a restaurant. Using the menu provided, prepare
your answers to the questions. Don’t forget your greetings and leave-takings! Get ready to be approached by the
restaurant staff!
Welcome to Montana’s! Do you have a reservation?
For how many people?
What can I get you to drink?
Would you like an appetizer to start?
And for your main entrée?
Can I clear your plate?
How was your meal?
Here is the dessert menu. Can I get you coffee, tea or dessert?
Here is the bill. How would you like to pay?
Thank you for visiting. Please come again.
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Name: ______________________________________
Eating Out in Durham Dine Safe
Visit the Durham Immigration Portal to learn more about DineSafe Durham. Complete the following questions:
1. Why does the Durham Region Health Department take food safety seriously?
2. What is DineSafe Durham?
3. What does the by-law require?
4. Describe what the following inspection summary signs mean.
Green:
Yellow:
Red:
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Name: ______________________________________
Eating Out in Durham Dine Safe
5. Review the three restaurants that you explored earlier in the learning block on the DineSafe website. Click on
“Inspection results. Have any of the three restaurants been inspected? If so, what were the findings?
Restaurant #1: __________________________________________________________________
Findings:
Restaurant #2: __________________________________________________________________
Findings:
Restaurant #3: __________________________________________________________________
Findings:
6. Would your findings from question #5 influence whether you visited these restaurants?
7. Find a restaurant that has had the colour posting “Red – Closed.” Why was the restaurant closed?
8. What advice would you give a friend who was considering eating at the restaurant in question #7?
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EATING OUT
IN DURHAM
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PA R T 1:
M A K I N G P L A N S
T O G O O UT T O
E AT
E AT I N G O U T I N D U R H A M
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Hi! How are you doing?
Hi! It is great to see you again!
Hi! How are you doing?
Hey! What’s up!
I am well. How are you doing?
I’m fine, thank you. How are you?
Hi! It’s great to see you too!
Not much? You?
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I am hungry! Would you like to go out to eat?
I am starving! Would you like to get some food?
It’s lunch time! Would you like to get a bite to eat?
No thanks. I am not hungry
Yes! I would love to go out to eat.
That would be great! I am hungry too.
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What do you feel like?
Do you feel like _______________?
How about _____________. What do you think?
I feel like _______________. How about you?
Greek
Middle Eastern
Italian
Indian
Thai
Japanese
No. I do not like ______. What about ______.
I love _______________. And you?
Mexican
A burger
?
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Where would you like to go?
What restaurant?
Would you like to eat at _____________?
I would like to go to _______________
How about ______________________
No. I do not like that restaurant. How about ____
I am thinking ______________________
?
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When would you like to go?
I would like to go at _________. Is that okay?
How about_____________. Does that work?
No. That won’t work. How about ______?
How about ___________?
______________________ is perfect.
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Do we need a reservation?
Yes. The restaurant is very busy.
Yes. Good idea.
No. The restaurant is not busy.
How about ___________?
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Great! I will see you at __________.
See you at _____________.
Yes. See you then!
Oh no! I have to cancel. I forgot I have_______.
Looking forward to it! See you then!
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PART 2:
ORDERING AT A
RESTAURANT
E AT I N G O U T I N D U R H A M
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Hello! Welcome! Do you have a reservation this
evening?
Welcome to ________________. A table for
how many this afternoon?
Good evening! There is a wait tonight of 30
minutes. Did you want a table at the bar while you
wait? And for how many?
Hello. We do have a reservation under the name
___________________.
Hello. No we don’t have a reservation. Do you have
a table?
Hi. A table for two please, near the fireplace if
possible.
Sure. We will wait at the bar. It is for two people.
Oh no. That is too bad. We will have to come back
another time. Thanks.
Great. Follow me.
Have a seat. Your server will be here shortly.
The Hostess
The Host
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Hello! My name is _________ and I will be your
server today. The specials for today
are_________. Can I start you with a drink?
Good afternoon. My name is ___________. I will
be taking care of you today. Here are your menus.
I would like ________________ (drink) please.
Just water please.
What do you have on tap?
I will be back in a moment to take your order.Thank you.
The Server
The Waiter
The Waitress
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Are you all set to order? What can I get for you?
Do you have any questions about the menu?
I will have _____________ to start.
We will get _____________ as an appetizer to
share.
No, I don’t have any questions. I will have _______.
That sounds good. I will start with _________.
It looks like you have decided. Can I start you with
an appetizer?
The Server
The Waiter
The Waitress
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And what can I get you for your main entrée?
Great. Your order will be out shortly.
I would like __________________.
What do you have that is vegetarian? (gluten-free,
halal, etc.)
It is a hard decision! What do you recommend? Ok.
I will have ___________.
The Server
The Waiter
The Waitress
Excellent choice. And for your main?
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And here is your food. Can I get you anything else?
Bon appetit!
Great. Thank you.
Looks delicious!
Here you are. Be careful. The plate is hot.
Here you are. Would you like fresh ground pepper?
No thanks.
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I am terribly sorry. I will get you a new ______
right away.
Excuse me. There is _________________.
?
There will be no charge for your meal.
CLB 7 Only
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Are you finished? Can I take your plate?
Yes please. The meal was delicious!
Looks like you are all done. Would you like the rest
packed up?
Can I take your plate? How was your meal?
The meal was terrible! It was _________.
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Did you save room for dessert?
Yes please. I would like ___________.
Can I interest you in coffee, tea and dessert?
No thank you. I am too full.
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Excuse me. Can we please have the bill?
I will bring it right out.
Just the bill please
Here you are. Is that cash or credit? Can I bring
you any change?
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Thank you.
Thank you for visiting __________. We hope to
see you again soon!
You’re welcome. The food was great!
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IMAGE REFERENCES
Slide 3
http://mamiverse.com/20-random-acts-of-kindness-ideas-69459/
Slide 4
http://www.foodandnutrition.org/Stone-Soup/September-2013/How-to-Really-Tell-If-Youre-Hungry/
Slide 5
http://micromedia.vaniercollege.qc.ca/home/s0905473/multimedia/greek%20food-1.html
http://www.seriouseats.com/2014/06/best-beer-for-middle-eastern-food-falafel-kebab-mezze-hummus-
beer-pairing-advice.html
http://italian.food.com/
http://indiabistro.ca/indian-food-vancouver
http://eatthaifoods.com/
http://makizushi.ca/index.php?route=product/category&path=112_118
http://www.chem.utoronto.ca/wp/chemclub/2015/02/01/mexican-cultural-night-new-grad-recruitment-
night/
http://www.ilsono.es/en/our-menu/ox-hamburger-fries/
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IMAGE REFERENCES (CONT)
Slide 6
http://cobalpha.niu.edu/studentvoices/index.php/keeping-cool-when-changing-schools/
http://www.restoandthecity.ca/home/menus/6105/Greek-Tycoon-Restaurant
https://www.tripadvisor.ca/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g155003-d777670-i126374745-
Teddy_s_Restaurant_Deli-Oshawa_Ontario.html
http://www.yelp.ca/biz/mcdonalds-oshawa-7
Slide 7
http://www.ikea.com/us/en/catalog/categories/departments/decoration/10759/
Slide 8
http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2014/08/06/new-apps-let-diners-buy-and-sell-hottest-restaurant-
reservations/
Slide 9
http://mcha.jp/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/pic_beauty042_125.jpg
Slide 11
http://live-entertaining.com/hostess---live-entertaining.com.html
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IMAGE REFERENCES (CONT)
Slide 12
https://www.shiftgig.com/404
https://billypenn.com/2015/07/18/do-you-know-how-our-menu-works-19-especially-annoying-
restaurant-phrases/
Slide 13
https://www.shiftgig.com/404
http://lincontrofl.com/dinner-antipasto/
Slide 14
https://www.shiftgig.com/404
http://lincontrofl.com/dinner-antipasto/
Slide 15
http://www.gettyimages.ca/detail/video/waitress-bringing-pie-to-family-at-pizza-stock-video-
footage/910-22
http://www.islandconnections.com/edit/adolphus.htm
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IMAGE REFERENCES (CONT)
Slide 16
http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2009/mar/27/celebrity-chefs-restaurant-
compensation-culture
http://https://gourmetonthego.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/img_0114.jpg
http://www.foodandwine.com/fwx/how-not-get-lipstick-your-wine-glass
Slide 17
http://s3-media1.fl.yelpcdn.com/bphoto/a33luSlzgXdYztBuMsIhZA/348s.jpg
Slide 18
https://standinginnovation.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/waiter-serving-dessert.jpg?w=620
https://www.applebees.com/~/media/2012_menu_images/Menu%20C/579x441/Desserts/Desserts_Br
ownie_Bite.jpg
Slide 19
http://images.nymag.com/images/2/daily/2009/08/20090824_restaurantcheck_250x250.jpg
Slide 20
http://www.econlife.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/guest-check-restaurant-bill-candy.jpg
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Name: _____________________________________
Date: _____________________________________
Eating Out in Durham
Performance Task Assessment CLB 3/4
Competency Statement
Level
Notes
LISTENING
Can understand simple social exchanges, including
greeting, introductions and leave taking
1 2 3 4
Can understand expressions used in a restaurant
situation
1 2 3 4
SPEAKING
Can initiate and respond to greetings, leave-takings
in interactions
1 2 3 4
Can initiate and respond to appropriately in short
routine exchanges about self and another person
1 2 3 4
Can use simple questions
1 2 3 4
Can ask for clarification, repetition if needed
1 2 3 4
Can order a drink, a starter, a main course and a
desert from the server
1 2 3 4
Can follow language conventions
1 2 3 4
Can ask for the bill
1 2 3 4
Can complete the payment
1 2 3 4
READING
Can get basic information from a menu
1 2 3 4
Can identify restaurant headings (e.g., Dessert)
1 2 3 4
Can identify pricing and stay in the right price range
1 2 3 4
Can find details on a bill (including taxes) to pay the
correct amount, including tip
1 2 3 4
WRITING
Can write a greeting, leave-taking and short social
message
1 2 3 4
Can write a few sentences to describe the
restaurant, the meal and the service provided
1 2 3 4
Can follow spelling and language conventions
1 2 3 4
Can express likes and dislikes
1 2 3 4
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Name: _____________________________________
Date: _____________________________________
Eating Out in Durham
Performance Task Assessment CLB 7
Competency Statement
Level
Notes
LISTENING
Can understand moderately complex social
exchanges
1 2 3 4
Can understand moderately complex
communication intended to influence or persuade
1 2 3 4
SPEAKING
Can open, maintain and close a short formal
conversation
1 2 3 4
Can introduce a person formally
1 2 3 4
Can ask follow up questions to keep the
conversation going
1 2 3 4
Can confirm own comprehension by repeating and
paraphrasing
1 2 3 4
Can order a drink, a starter, a main course and a
desert for yourself and a friend from the server
1 2 3 4
Can follow language conventions
1 2 3 4
Can ask for the bill and complete the payment
1 2 3 4
READING
Can get information from a more complex menu
1 2 3 4
Can comprehend more specialized vocabulary
1 2 3 4
Can identify pricing and stay in the right price range
1 2 3 4
Can find details on a bill (including taxes) to pay the
correct amount, including tip
1 2 3 4
WRITING
Can convey personal messages in informal
correspondence
1 2 3 4
Can describe the experience at the restaurant, the
difficulties ordering, the service received and the
great food that was enjoyed
1 2 3 4
Can use moderately complex grammar and syntax
structures, and an expanded range of vocabulary
1 2 3 4
Can use good paragraph structure with clearly
expressed main ideas and adequate supporting
details
1 2 3 4
Paragraphs are developed and joined appropriately
1 2 3 4
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TRAINING FOR INSTRUCTORS
A key element to the success of this project is training for instructors. As such, a slideshow
(shown here) has been developed for that purpose.
1
This training will:
Outline the potential benefits of implementing this project
Highlight the Ontario Immigration Strategy
Provide an overview of municipal immigration portals and ESL/FSL language training for
adult newcomers
Demonstrate the synergy that can exist between a municipal immigration portal and
ESL/FSL language training
Share the findings from the Region of Durham case study that support this approach
Provide an overview of the action-oriented approach and task-based learning and make
connections with the CLB, NCLC, and CEFR
Share practical tools to implement task-based learning using a municipal immigration
portal in a language class
Hear instructor and learner voice supporting this project
2
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As will be seen throughout this presentation, there are many possible benefits in
implementing this project both for learners and the community, as well as for language
instructors.
Benefits to learners and the community include:
Improving the settlement and integration of newcomer families using the municipal
immigration portal
Improving English or French language learning for newcomers
Benefits to instructors include:
Building instructional strategies around task-based learning (evidence-based)
Reflecting on teaching and learning strategies
Knowing the impact of these strategies on learner proficiency and motivation
3
Ontario’s Immigration Strategy is setting the direction for immigration policy in the
province of Ontario. We know that the economic future of Ontario depends on the
successful integration of newcomers into the community and workplace. When
newcomers are successful, we all benefit.
Link to “A New Direction: Ontario’s Immigration Strategy”:
http://www.citizenship.gov.on.ca/english/keyinitiatives/imm_str/strategy/strategy.pdf
4
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As part of Ontario’s Immigration Strategy, many programs have been funded by the Ontario
Government to help newcomers successfully integrate into their communities and the
workplace, in a variety of sectors, including the Municipal Immigration Information Online
(MIIO) Program and ESL/FSL training classes for adult newcomers.
The MIIO Program was established to “increase the online capacity, resources and
information provided to immigrants by municipalities” (Grants Ontario). There are over 35
municipal immigration portals in Ontario. Municipal immigration portals offer one-stop,
community-based immigration information, designed to welcome, support, attract and
retain newcomers to their communities
ESL/FSL training classes for adult newcomers are offered through local school boards across
Ontario to those meeting the eligibility requirements.
Link to information from the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration on ESL/FSL:
http://www.citizenship.gov.on.ca/english/keyinitiatives/language.shtml
Link to MIIO sites (Municipal Immigration Portals) in your community:
http://www.ontarioimmigration.ca/en/living/OI_HOW_LIVE_CITIES.html
5
The Oxford Dictionary defines Synergy as “the positive benefit that occurs when two or
more activities are combined. This means that the resultant combination is in some way
superior to the separate entities […]”
There is growing interest in how the relationship between municipal immigration portals
and community ESL/FSL language training can create a synergy that can enhance language
learning, leading to accelerated settlement and integration for newcomers.
6
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To test whether using an immigration portal as a platform for task-based learning in an
ESL/FSL class would enhance settlement and integration, a case study was conducted in the
Region of Durham. This case study was a joint partnership between the Regional
Municipality of Durham, the Durham District School Board, the Ontario Institute for Studies
in Education (OISE) University of Toronto and the Université Grenoble Alpes.
The research questions were:
what is the impact of the implementation of task-based learning in the adult ESL
classroom, using the language program developed in the Region of Durham?
how does the language program influence newcomers' knowledge and access to
services in the Region of Durham (settlement and integration)?
is there any impact on student motivation to learn English and attend English language
classes where the learning model is task-based?
is there any impact on confidence levels in English when a task-based learning model is
implemented?
The results of this case study were promising.
Findings included:
7
A perceived improvement in the learner’s level of English
An increase in learner confidence speaking English
An increase in learner confidence performing the task (ordering at a restaurant)
An increase in learner familiarity with the immigration portal
7
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Municipal immigration portals can play an important role in language learning, leading to
the accelerated settlement and integration of the learner.
Municipal immigration portals offer:
Authentic resources and information in the target language such as public
transportation schedules and local restaurant menus
Relevant, community-based content, set in the context of everyday life
Information to accomplish a task, such as attending a community event, joining a
recreation activity, getting a Health Card, voting, and registering for school
The development of essential skills (e.g., digital technology)
8
In recent years, there has been a marked shift from learning “about” a language to living a
language. This shift in thinking is reflected in the action-oriented approach (AOA),
promoted in the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). The AOA views
learners are ‘social agents’ who use language in order to interact with others and
accomplish meaningful tasks
9
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Tasks are actions performed by the learner(s) using the learner’s competences to achieve a
given result.
TBL anchors learning in the preparation and performance of a simulated task in the
classroom environment, relating classroom activities to real life experiences
10
TBL is especially important in an ESL/FSL class for newcomers as it provides the structure to
build the competences necessary to accomplish goals required to settle and integrate
effectively within the community, such as buying groceries and speaking to a child’s
teacher.
TBL allows learners to prepare for, and simulate tasks in a safe and supportive learning
environment before completing those tasks in the real world.
11
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The Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) is the national standard used in ESL classrooms
for adult newcomers in Ontario and across Canada. It is the framework for learning,
teaching, program planning, and assessment of languages in Canada.
The Niveaux de compétence linguistique canadiens (NCLC) is the parallel standard (not a
translation) used in FSL classrooms for adult newcomers in Ontario and across Canada.
Both of the above-mentioned standards are anchored in the action-oriented approach and
task-based learning.
The core principles of these standards are (CLB, 2012):
Competency-based -competency statements stress what a learner can do in English.
Competencies may be understood as the demonstrable application of knowledge and
skills by individual learners
Learner-centred – “competencies should be embedded in tasks and contexts that are
purposeful, relevant, and meaningful to the learner, and tailored to the individual’s
abilities and learning styles”
Task-based – “a communicative ‘real world’ instance of language use to accomplish a
specific purpose in a particular context
Stress community, study and work-related tasks – “Language is used in specific social
12
contexts with particular individuals”
Using a municipal immigration portal to support and inform task-based learning directly links
to the guiding principles of the CLB/NCLC.
12
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The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching and
Assessment (CEFR) is a framework of reference developed from over twenty years of
research. It is used in over 160 countries throughout Europe and around the world. The
CEFR is language neutral and has been translated into 40 languages.
The CEFR has influenced the K-12 Curriculum of Ministries of Education in Ontario and
across Canada.
The key concepts of the CEFR include: ‘Can do’ descriptors; the action-oriented approach;
task-based learning; and plurilingualism.
Can do’ descriptors are statements that describe what a learner can do in the language.
The action-oriented approach views learners are ‘social agents’ who use language in order
to interact with others and accomplish meaningful tasks.
Tasks are actions that are performed strategically by one or more people using their own
specific competences to achieve a result(CEFR, 2001).
Plurilingualism recognizes that different languages are not kept in a separate compartment
13
in our brains. As such, language learners build a linguistic repertory, developing competences
and skills that come from learning a language, but also through the synergies between the
other languages they know. For example, knowing French may be helpful in learning
Spanish. In an ESL/FSL class, learners should be encouraged to draw on all of their resources,
including the languages they already speak, and apply the most effective strategies to
accomplish tasks in the target language.
There are many similar principles between the CLB and the CEFR. In fact, when compared to
the CEFR, the CLB was found to have strong concurrent validity.
13
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Given that task-based learning is a guiding principle of the CLB, the language standard used
in language classes for adult newcomers across Ontario, it makes sense to draw upon the
content of the municipal immigration portals to develop and perform tasks that are
meaningful, purposeful, based on real-life situations, that use authentic resources right
from the newcomers community
14
When building an action-oriented task, the following checklist outlines what elements are
needed:
Checklist:
Learners are ‘social agents’ who use the target language to carry out tasks that have a
tangible result
Communication is spontaneous, purposeful, set in the context of everyday life
Scenarios are authentic and promote the use of authentic resources and texts
There is a problem to be solved, an objective to be achieved, or a goal to be
accomplished, subject to certain parameters and constraints
Learners are required to draw upon their competences and make choices – to think and
act strategically
15
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To create an action-oriented task, begin with the can do statements from the language
standard being used in the classroom (i.e., CLB/NCLC, CEFR). Cluster the can do statements
in a logical manner to maximize learning.
Reflect upon the needs of the learner to determine what tasks will best support settlement
and integration within the community, focusing on relevant, purposeful, real-life scenarios.
Visit your local municipal immigration portal to explore possible authentic resources that
will help support the learning needed to perform the task.
16
Shown here is a sample task for basic users, working at CLB 3/4 and CEFR A2. The learners
would work toward building their knowledge and skills during the learning block to be able
to complete the task at the end of the period of instruction.
This task is taken from the document “Exploring the Region of Durham Through Task-based
Learning. This document will be explored later in the slideshow.
17
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Provide training participants with the task from the previous slide and the checklist. Allow
participants time to identify the components of this task that make it action-oriented.
Possible answers include:
Learners are social agents who use the target language to carry out tasks that have a
tangible result and often involve a product
speaking with an agent to find a family doctor
Communication is spontaneous, purposeful, set in the context of everyday life
Spontaneous – The performance of the task will be spontaneous conversation,
with the learner having the competences necessary to complete the task
Purposeful – To get a family doctor
Set in the Context of Everyday Life – Accessing health care is necessary when
arriving in a new community
Scenarios are authentic and promote the use of authentic resources and texts
Authentic – All members of a community need to access health care
Authentic Resources – Health Care Connect is an authentic resource that can be
accessed to find health care. Learners might also access maps
There is a problem to the solved, an objective to be achieved, or a goal to be accomplished,
subject to certain parameters and constraints
18
Objective to be achieved – Accessing health care
Parameters and restraints – Geographic parameters, possible restraints around
the type of doctor needed, based on the health care needs of the family
Learners are required to draw upon their competences and make choices – to think and act
strategically
This task would be preformed at the end of a learning block. Learners would have
added to their competences through focussed instruction on the topic to be able to
successfully complete the task
18
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More sample tasks like the “getting health care” task are available in the document
Exploring the Region of Durham Through Task-based Learning,This document was the
result of a joint partnership between The Region of Durham and the Durham District School
Board. It is available publicly online and can be downloaded from the Durham Immigration
Portal. In this document, you will find a series of task examples at various
benchmarks/levels that can be easily modified to other municipal immigration portals. This
document also provides the CLB Competency Statements/CEFR Can Do Statements and
suggests possible learning needed (through instruction in the learning block) to complete
the task.
Link to “Exploring the Region of Durham Through Task-based Learning”:
https://www.durhamimmigration.ca/learning/Documents/Living-in-English_Discovering-
Durham.pdf
19
In addition to providing the competency statements/can do statements and suggesting
possible learning for the learning block, this document also provides planning sheets for
the learner to gather and organise their learning to help prepare for the task.
Link to “Exploring the Region of Durham Through Task-based Learning”:
https://www.durhamimmigration.ca/learning/Documents/Living-in-English_Discovering-
Durham.pdf
The Student Planning Sheet featured on this slide can be found on page 81 of the above-
mentioned document
20
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Now that a task has been created, it is necessary to plan backwards, also known as
backward design, to build a learning block, always keeping the end (the task) in mind.
A learning block is a unit of study whereby the learners acquire the competences necessary
to complete the task. The culmination of the learning block is the performance and
assessment of the task. For example, a learning block might be based on the task “ordering
at a restaurant. During the learning block, students would work towards being able to
complete the task of ordering at a restaurant by participating in a variety of communicative
learning activities, such as reading menus, practising expressions of politeness, greetings
and leave-taking, to build their knowledge and skills.
Various forms of assessment would occur throughout the learning block to improve
learning.
While learners are preparing for the task through various communicative activities,
assessment for learning would occur. In this kind of assessment, learners are provided
with timely, descriptive feedback to identify where they are, and what they need to do next
to improve their performance. Instructors would also use this information to identify gaps
between where the learners are, and where they need to be to perform the task
successfully and would adjust their programming accordingly.
21
Assessment as learning would also occur during the learning block. Assessment as learning
helps students to become “independent, autonomous learners who are able to set individual
goals, monitor their own progress, determine next steps, and reflect on their thinking and
learning.” (Growing Success, 2010)
Assessment of learning (evaluation) occurs most often towards the end of the learning block.
During this kind of assessment, the learner demonstrates what he/she has learned/can do.
The performance of the task at the end of the learning block is an example of assessment of
learning.
21
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Provided here is a sample of a task, taken from Exploring the Region of Durham Through
Task-based Learning. With the direction of the can do statements from the CLB / NCLC
CEFR, think about what competences might be needed for the learner to complete the
task. Those competences would be developed through the course of the learning block
through a series of purposeful communicative activities. Assessment would happen
regularly through the course of the learning block to support the learner in completing the
task. Once the learner has acquired the necessary skills, the learner would be ready to
perform the task.
Possible answers might include:
Listening
Recognition of formal and informal greetings, leave-takings, goodwill expressions
Listen and respond to common expressions used in a restaurant
Speaking
Greetings, leave-takings, and small talk phrases
Appropriate polite expressions
Reading
Locating a menu on the internet
Getting basic information from a restaurant menu
Identifying headlines and prices
22
Finding details on a bill and paying the right amount, including tip
Writing
Writing greetings, leave-takings and short simple messages
Writing an email to a friend to describe a restaurant, a meal and the service received
Link to “Exploring the Region of Durham Through Task-based Learning”:
https://www.durhamimmigration.ca/learning/Documents/Living-in-English_Discovering-
Durham.pdf
22
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Here are examples of possible communicative activities to build the competencies
necessary to complete the task.
Sample communicative activities can be found in the Synergies project guide.
Link to “Exploring the Region of Durham Through Task-based Learning”:
https://www.durhamimmigration.ca/learning/Documents/Living-in-English_Discovering-
Durham.pdf
23
Here are some of the thoughts from Durham District School Board instructors who
participated in this project:
24
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Here are the thoughts of CLB 3/4 learners from Durham District School Board who
participated in this project:
25
26
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FINDINGS
APPENDICES
82
This section provides the context in which
the Region of Durham case study developed,
including a brief description of the region,
key partnerships, as well as an overview
of the preliminary resources that shaped
this work. Finally, this section will describe
the case study, providing the methodology
and research findings from the Region of
Durham and how this study is contributing
to international research on the linguistic
integration of newcomers.
CONTEXT AND KEY PARTNERSHIPS
The Region of Durham
The Region of Durham, situated 45 minutes
east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, covers
an area of approximately 2,590 square
kilometers. Durham is home to eight
local municipalities, offering a variety of
landscapes, in both urban and rural settings.
Durham’s population of 608,125 people is
comprised of 20.7% immigrants, with that
number rising to over 30% in some of its area
municipalities (Statistics Canada, 2013).
Region of Durham
Case Study
Durham Region Strategic Plan: 2015-2019
|
23
Durham Region
Municipalities
L A K E S I M C O E
L A K E O N T A R I O
L
A
K E
S
C
U G
O
G
TOWNSHIP
OF
BROCK
TOWNSHIP
OF
UXBRIDGE
TOWNSHIP
OF
SCUGOG
CITY
OF
PICKERING
TOWN
OF
AJAX
TOWN
OF
WHITBY
CITY
OF
OSHAWA
MUNICIPALITY
OF
CLARINGTON
LANDAREA
2,535squarekilometres(980squaremiles)
DurhamRegionisthelargestgeographicaljurisdictionintheGreaterTorontoArea(GTA),
stretchingfromLakeOntariointhesouthtoLakeSimcoeinthenorth.
I
mm
ig
r
ant
Population
in
Du
r
ha
m
by
Languages
Spoken
(2011
Census)
New
I
mm
ig
r
ants
to
Du
r
ha
m
(2011
Census)
v
Municipality
Population
2011
Nu
m
be
r
of
I
mm
ig
r
ants
Pe
r
centage
of
I
mm
ig
r
ants
Nu
m
be
r
of
New
I
mm
ig
r
ants
Pe
r
centage
of
New
I
mm
ig
r
ants
Du
r
ha
m
608,125
125,840
20.7
8,945
7.1
Ajax
109,600
37,315
34
3,005
8.1
B
r
ock
11,340
845
7.5
40
4.7
Cla
r
ington
84,550
9,390
11.1
450
4.8
Oshawa
149,605
21,620
14.5
1,530
7.1
Picke
r
ing
88,720
27,430
30.9
1,605
5.9
Scugog
21,570
1,960
9.1
85
4.3
Uxb
r
idge
20,620
2,120
10.3
130
6.1
Whitby
122,020
25,160
20.6
2,100
8.3
End
of
table
Language
Most
Often
Spoken
at
Ho
m
e
Population
Urdu
3,155
Persian
(Farsi)
2,240
Tamil
2,200
Spanish
1,995
Polish
1,890
Tagalog
1,680
Italian
1,440
Arabic
1,435
Chinese,
n.o.s.
1,200
Cantonese
1,015
Portuguese
935
Languages
Spoken
Population
Italian
8,880
Spanish
7,830
Tagalog
7,540
Urdu
7,005
German
5,840
Polish
5,360
Hindi
5,125
Tamil
4,890
Greek
3,970
Arabic
3,715
Persian
(Farsi)
3,705
10
Region of Durham Case Study
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The Local Diversity and Immigration Partnership Council (LDIPC)
In 2005, the Canada Ontario Immigration Agreement led to the
creation of Local Immigration Partnership Councils (LIPs) in Ontario
whose mandate includes serving as mechanisms to develop local
partnerships and community-connected planning to support
newcomer settlement and integration.
Durham Region is home to one of Ontario’s first LIPs, known locally
as the Local Diversity and Immigration Partnership Council (LDIPC).
The LDIPC includes members from diverse sectors of the community
representing agencies, school boards, faith groups, local business
and the Region. The LDIPC has four main objectives: To create a
culture of inclusion; support labour market attachment of newcomers;
engage employers in attracting and retaining a diverse workforce;
and, support the two-way integration of diverse populations.
In the region of Durham, the establishment of the LDIPC aligned
with the creation of the Durham Immigration Portal, providing
the opportunity for both bodies to work collaboratively toward
common goals.
The Durham Immigration Portal
Funded by the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration (MCI)
through the Municipal Immigration Information Online (MIIO) Program,
the Durham Immigration Portal (www.durhamimmigration.ca) is one of
over 35 MIIO sites across Ontario.
The Durham Immigration Portal is a one-stop, community-focused
web portal designed to welcome, support, attract and retain skilled
newcomers to the region of Durham. Durham Region’s Immigration
Portal is a collaborative and community-connected initiative, with
over 80 organizations from multiple sectors such as education,
business, non-profit, government and business associations taking
responsibility for content creation and for its long-term sustainability.
The Durham Immigration Portal is divided into six sections: living,
working, learning, doing business, settling, creating community, and
about. Each section provides information on the region, including
community supports and services that are available, as well as
information that promotes civic engagement.
Newcomer Language Learning Partnerships
One of the biggest obstacles to building a globally-connected
economy is professional language training for immigrants.
Proficiency in English and French is essential to living and working
in Ontario. Mastering language fluency and cross-cultural
communication quickly is critical for immigrant success and building
strong, two-way global connections in our economy” (Ontario
Immigration Strategy, 2012).
Recognizing the significant role that language learning plays in
the successful settlement and integration of newcomers, strong
relationships exist between community organizations, language
service providers and Regional staff leading diversity and immigration
work. Staff from the Region of Durham have close relationships
with both the Durham District School Board (DDSB) and the Durham
Catholic District School Board (DCDSB). These partnerships have
led to the development of jointly developed resources that aim to
enhance the settlement and integration of newcomers and build
language competences.
Region of Durham Case Study
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PRELIMINARY RESOURCES FROM THE REGION OF DURHAM
Over the past number of years, language resources have been created to extend the use of the Durham Immigration Portal from a rich source
of community information to a learning platform that provides authentic resources and the opportunity for learners to personalize their learning
based on their individual needs in the context of everyday life. It is this opportunity to experience language by “doing” that supports the
learner in building the competences necessary for purposeful communication in order to complete the tasks that are required for successful
settlement and integration within the community.
Durham Immigration Portal-based Curriculum:
English Language Learning Resources
The first language learning resource to be developed was the Durham Immigration
Portal-based Curriculum: English Language Learning Resources. This print document
is an English language learning tool, developed in accordance with the Canadian
Language Benchmarks (CLB), which provides activities for use in community language
classes based on the local information from the Durham Immigration Portal.
Durham Immigration Portal: Exploring the Region of Durham
through Task-based Learning
The growing interest in task-based learning (TBL) and most recently the action-
oriented approach (AOA) within the Canadian context opened new opportunities to
anchor language learning into real-life practice. Durham Immigration Portal: Exploring
the Region of Durham through Task-based Learning is a digital English language
learning tool that provides action-oriented tasks framed by content of the Durham
Immigration Portal in keeping with the language standards of both the CLB and the
Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). This resource can be used within
a classroom learning environment within the region of Durham or in other areas of the
world where English is studied to not only build language proficiency but also as a tool
to support intercultural awareness.
Living in English, Discovering Durham
Module One – Living in Durham: Welcome to Durham
Module Two – Working in Durham: Getting a Job in Durham
Module Three – Learning in Durham: Going to School in Durham
Module Four – Living in Durham: Getting Health Care in Durham
Module Five – Settling in Durham: Eating Out in Durham
Module Six – Settling in Durham: Emergency 911 in Durham
Exploring the Region of Durham
Through Task-based Learning
Region of Durham Case Study
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THE REGION OF DURHAM CASE STUDY – SYNERGIES:
SETTLEMENT, INTEGRATION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING
In January 2016, with funding from MCI, a case study was jointly
launched by the Region of Durham, University of Toronto, Ontario
Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) and the DDSB to explore
the possible synergy between language learning and settlement in
the region of Durham through the use of the Durham Immigration
Portal. The following research questions were investigated: Has this
specific language program influenced Canadian adult newcomers’:
i) knowledge of and access to essential services? ii) motivation to
attend English language classes and to learn English? iii) confidence
in the host language?
The results were impressive with learners reporting rapid gains in
their knowledge of community information and perceived language
learning.
Methodology
This qualitative case study included three ESL instructors, the
Department Head of Language Programs, and 36 learners (twelve
CLB 3 learners, twelve CLB 4 learners, and twelve CLB 7 learners)
from Durham Continuing Education, Durham District School Board
as well as the Manager of Strategic Partnerships and Initiatives from
the Regional Municipality of Durham.
Instructors participated in four hours of professional development to
deepen their understanding of the task-based approach, the Durham
Immigration Portal, and the document Exploring the Region of
Durham through Task-based Learning. Living in English, Discovering
Durham. Next, instructors were provided eight hours of co-planning
time to develop activities to support learners in achieving the task
selected from the above mentioned document (Scenario: Ordering at
a restaurant). These activities, as well as the task, aimed to develop
linguistic competence and to improve knowledge of, and access to,
the community to promote successful settlement and integration of
newcomers through the Durham Immigration Portal. The instructors
then delivered the learning block over approximately five days,
consisting of the activities, and culminating in the performance of the
task, to their respective ESL class.
The study, which occurred over a three-month period, used a variety
of tools for data collection. Instructors completed a pre and post
questionnaire around the professional development training and also
participated in a focus group toward the end of the study. Adult
learners completed a pre- and post-questionnaire around the “in
class” learning block. A handful of adult learners also volunteered
to participate in a focus group at the end of the learning block. The
Manager of Strategic Partnerships and Initiatives from the Regional
Municipality of Durham also completed a questionnaire, aimed at
further understanding the creation and sustainability of the Durham
Immigration Portal, and identifying important factors to consider
when replicating this project in a different community. All focus
groups, were recorded, providing approximately 4 hours of video
footage.
Discussion of Results
Data from the case study revealed that learners highly appreciated
being exposed to task-based learning (TBL) and the action-oriented
Approach (AOA). Learners at CLB 3-4 / CEFR A2 presented an
average score of 8.9/10 when asked “how much did you enjoy task-
based learning?”.
Region of Durham Case Study
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As is evident in the following graph, CLB 3-4 learners reported greater perceptions of their own English skills (20% increase in the rank score),
greater comfort speaking English (18% increase in the rank score), greater perceived ability to accomplish the real-life task of ordering at a
restaurant (32% increase in the rank score) and greater familiarity with the Durham Immigration Portal (45% increase in the rank score).
Graph 1: Pre- to Post-Survey Change in Rank Score for the CLB 3 and 4 Group
Positive results, albeit less substantial, were also reported in the intermediate group, CLB 7. Learners reported greater perceptions of their
own English skills (5% increase in the rank score), greater comfort speaking English (12% increase in the rank score), greater perceived ability
to accomplish the real-life task of ordering at a restaurant (8% increase in the rank score) and greater familiarity with the Durham Immigration
Portal (48% increase in the rank score).
Region of Durham Case Study
0
Perceived Level of English Comfort Speaking English Ordering at a Restaurant Familiarity with the Durham Immigration Portal
Pre Post
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
4.80
5.00
4.90
1.50
6.80 6.80
8.10
6.00
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Graph 2: Pre- to Post-Survey Change in Rank Score for the CLB 7 Group
Instructors observed that their students enjoyed using TBL/AOA and reported increased interest in learning, improved attendance during the
intervention, as well as an increase in confidence. They also declared that, overall, they enjoyed teaching this way and that lesson planning
was improved. One instructor voiced: “[…] I stayed more focused [in lesson planning], I kept coming back to the question how is this going
to help my students perform the task?” Instructors felt that the spiraling of learning through the intervention, which led to gradual release of
responsibility on their side, was helpful in solidifying learning and building confidence in students. They also observed a transfer of knowledge
to other contexts and noted the benefits of embedding grammar and vocabulary in context. Furthermore, they saw this approach as student-
centred, and, through this intervention, reinforced the necessity to ensure that learning encompasses practical, real-life connections that
support community integration. Finally, instructors reported that students benefited from the authentic nature of the task, and their direct
application in real-life situations. The application through classroom simulations took place in a safe, supportive environment, where students
felt comfortable taking risks. Through the use of the Durham Immigration Portal, a greater awareness in the students of what their community
offers of specific interest to newcomers was also observed.
Region of Durham Case Study
0
Level of English Comfort Speaking English Ordering at a Restaurant Familiarity with the Durham Immigration Portal
Pre Post
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
6.8
6.3
7.1
2.1
7.3
7.5
7.9
6.9
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Instructors identified challenges throughout the study, including
an increase of planning time and professional development, which
currently is not allocated in their contract. The observation was also
made by instructors that TBL/AOA conflicted with some students’
preconceived notion of teaching, especially the more traditional
teaching of grammar. Another challenge reported related to classes
being continuous intake and exit, resulting in missed instruction.
Instructors did express that flexibility and a spiral approach to
learning did help to alleviate this concern as there were other entry
points for new students to get caught up on missed learning.
The case study from the Region of Durham yielded promising
results. TBL/AOA brings together real-life tasks, strategic/
autonomous decision-making in learning, and transparency of
objectives and assessment. Targeted resources and professional
development, coupled with the availability of authentic, locally
situated and community-relevant resources available on the same
virtual space (Durham Immigration Portal) maximize the language
learning process and support action once learners (newcomers)
leave the class, which in turn helps with settlement and community
integration.
The Council of Europe - Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants
(LIAM) Symposium
In March 2016, the Region of Durham case study was presented in
Strasbourg, France at the Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants:
Lessons from Research symposium organised by the Language
Policy Unit of the Council of Europe. This symposium brought
together researchers from various fields to help inform the policies of
the 47 member states on the integration of adult migrants. Canada
has observer status with the Council of Europe.
The Region of Durham case study will also be part of the research
compilation by editors J. C. Beacco, D. Little, H.-J. Krumm, and
Ph. Thalgott, entitled The Linguistic Integration of Adult Migrants:
Some Lessons from Research, published by De Gruyter Mouton
in cooperation with the Council of Europe, available online and in
print in 2017.
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The work outlined in the Synergies project is deeply rooted in
authentic communication and real-life tasks, supported by local
content from a municipal immigration portal. This work, aimed at
accelerating the settlement and integration of newcomers by building
language competencies and skills, aligns with the latest development
of second language education research, including task-based learning
and the action-oriented approach. This work is also strengthened
by its use of solid pedagogical language frameworks, namely the
Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) / Niveaux de compétence
linguistique canadiens (NCLC), and the Common European Framework
of Reference (CEFR). This paper will provide an overview of the above-
mentioned research and language frameworks, making connections
that illustrate the value of implementing a similar project in other
regions across Ontario.
Second Language Education Research - Task-based learning (TBL)
and the action-oriented approach (AOA)
The question “How best to teach a language?” has been around for
centuries, but attention given to this issue by both educators and
researchers has increased in the last few decades. A significant shift
occurred in the 80s when attention moved to the main purpose of
using a language, that is to say: communication. Before then, language
was seen either as an object of intellectual study or as something one
learnt mechanically and quasi-automatically through repetition.
If communication is the key, the main goal is to enable learners to
use the language in order to communicate. However, learners are
individuals who do not communicate for the sake of communication,
but rather because they have specific needs and pursue specific
goals. This shift was at the origin of the ‘communicative approach.’
In this approach, the instructor is no longer seen as someone who
simply follows rules designed by experts but as someone who draws
on principles and techniques to design learning that is adapted to the
needs of learners.
According to the communicative approach, learners must learn the
language, not just ‘about’ the language. Language cannot simply be
presented as a set of rules to be learned, nor can language learning
be reduced to mere language repetition. In order to help learners use
the language, curricula cannot be organized just around grammar
points, but have to be organized around what the learners want to
communicate and accomplish in the language, for example asking
for directions, ordering a meal in a restaurant, or purchasing a ticket.
While doing this, the learners accomplish speech acts like asking,
An International Perspective
Dr. Enrica Piccardo
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instructing and affirming. Of course, there is not only one way of
doing all this and each of these speech acts can be expressed
differently. The communicative approach started to make language
instructors and learners aware that there was more to learning a
language than simply repeating or memorizing and that grammar
was only one component of communication. Learners must use the
language in meaningful ways to communicate a message (either orally
or in writing). Using the language to communicate is what provides
opportunities for modelling in the classroom and prepares learners for
communication outside the classroom.
Now, if communication has to be modelled on real-life situations, these
situations need to be somehow reproduced in the classroom context.
This is best done through authentic tasks. Tasks are not exercises.
They are not an excuse for using language forms and structures, orally
or in writing. Task-based learning (TBL) is a logical enrichment of the
communicative approach. As such, tasks have increasingly populated
textbooks and curricula as well as language standards, including the
Canadian Language Benchmarks. TBL has helped to make a clear link
between the classroom and real-life, prompting reflection on the role of
tasks in the language classroom and on the broader benefits of their use.
The action-oriented approach promoted by the Common European
Framework of Reference (CEFR) encompasses, and goes beyond, the
communicative approach and TBL in the way that it further defines and
develops the concept of tasks. The following points summarize this:
If language is action-based then tasks are not simple activities,
rather they put students into action. It is not just a question of
placing students in a communication situation - students become
autonomous users of the language.
Tasks are real; they are not simply an excuse for communication,
even less for simply learning grammar or vocabulary. Tasks
recreate what people do in everyday life.
Tasks require students to make choices. In order to achieve
specific goals, students need to think and act strategically: “What
am I expected to do? How best can I do that? What language
do I need? What do I already know that will help me? How can I
proceed? ...”
To accomplish a task successfully means performing a set of
purposeful actions. Students do not do a series of disconnected
exercises; they perform actions that point toward a clearly
defined goal.
To accomplish a task successfully means to perform a set of
actions that are varied in nature. Actions that students do while
preparing to perform the task may be very different in nature to
the task itself, but they all contribute to reaching the goal(s).
The steps involved in task preparation and the actions done by
the students may require more or less language. Sometimes
language skills play a central role, sometimes only a marginal one.
Some tasks are very simple, others are more complex. More
complex tasks involve creating a series of steps that make it
possible for students to achieve the goals.
An International Perspective Dr. Enrica Piccardo
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Tasks in the action-oriented approach often involve the creation of a
product. This product may be a restaurant review, an invitation to a
social event, a blog entry, a resume, or an application for a health card.
However, it is not only the product that counts, but also the process.
How students get to the final results, what choices they make, how
they interact with the other students, how they negotiate what needs
to be done and how they select useful materials and resources builds
competencies.
In the action-oriented approach, the path is not clearly marked and the
result is not fully predictable. Students are engaged in critical thinking
as they need to do the following:
Judge what is needed to accomplish the task (what language and
what knowledge).
Quickly size up the tools at their disposal “What do I know about this?
What language can I use that I feel at ease with? What can I use to
help me be successful?” and the tools that they need but do not have.
Think about how to use all this and how to best achieve the goal(s)
Working with tasks means providing a real-life scenario and all real-
life scenarios involve constraints (time, space, money, more or less
predictable issues, etc.).
Tasks make learning tangible and meaningful. Students do not learn a
language so that maybe one day they can use it. Rather, they perform
real-life tasks and, while doing that, learn the language. The action-
oriented task breaks down the walls of the classroom and connects
it with the outside world. In the classic communicative approach, tasks
served communication; in the action-oriented approach, communication
is one means at the learner’s disposal for accomplishing the task.
Strategy, reflection, and critical thinking also play an important role.
In this way, students acquire an attitude and an expertise that is key
for them to thrive in society. They become effective social agents
capable of integrating in the community and pursuing their personal and
professional goals.
Obviously, this is not a straightforward process; students may
encounter difficulties along the way. They need to be guided through
the steps in a complex task. Instructors have an essential role to play.
They do not limit themselves to transmitting knowledge and have
students do exercises. Most of the time they are a blend of coach,
resource person, advisor, organizer, and facilitator. Certainly, they will
also have to explain content and how to use tools (for example, some
vocabulary or how to use a verb form) but they will do that in the same
way as an athletic coach would explain the function of a muscle or the
consequences of a motion. The goal is not to accumulate knowledge
or do exercises, the goal is that students perform the task, just as
for athletes the goal is to perform in the best possible way during the
competition...and eventually win the championship. On top of all the
other roles, instructors need to be good planners.
The authentic, community-based resources on a municipal immigration
portal, together with their pedagogical organization through tasks that
support and enhance the language learning process, respond perfectly
to recent shifts in language education, focussing on meaningful
communication and on real-life, practical tasks. Using content from a
municipal immigration portal to anchor tasks allows learners to interact
with essential resources in a facilitated environment. This, in turn, helps
develop the confidence and competence necessary in the real world.
This is especially important for newcomers settling and
integrating
within their new community.
An International Perspective Dr. Enrica Piccardo
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Frameworks of Reference for Languages – The CLB/NCLC
and the CEFR
Not only is the approach (i.e., action-oriented) important in language
learning, but so is transparency and comparability. As global mobility
continues to increase, so does the need for tools that provide
clear and consistent description of language proficiency as well as
evidence-based guidelines that support language learning. These
tools can provide a common point of reference for learning, teaching,
program planning and assessment of languages.
The Synergies project incorporates the most relevant tools in the
Canadian context, the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) /
Niveaux de compétence linguistique canadiens (NCLC) and the
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).
The former, developed in Canada, was published in 1996 and revised
in 2012. It exists in two parallel versions, in English (CLB) and in
French (NCLC). The CEFR, developed at the same time in Europe, was
published in 2001 and translated into 40 languages since. It is used
worldwide and is language neutral, meaning it does not apply to only
one particular language.
The CLB/NCLC represent all stages of learner language proficiency.
They consist of 12 benchmarks divided into three levels (beginner,
intermediate and advanced), with four benchmarks per level. They
cover the four language skills (listening and reading, speaking and
writing). The CLB/NCLC provide a national standard for English and
French programs in a variety of contexts. They are widely used in adult
ESL/FSL programs serving newcomers.
The CEFR also covers the entire range of language proficiency,
however, it is organised into six general levels (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1,
C2). These levels are expressed using global and specific scales of
descriptors. Each scale describes communicative language activities
that learners perform through meaningful, real-life tasks. These
descriptors focus on what the learners ‘can do’ in the language. Other
positive descriptor scales focus on the quality of the language (i.e.,
how well learners perform each activity). The CEFR provides principles
and support for the development of language curricula, textbooks, and
programs, as well as for assessment. The CEFR’s core objective is to
provide a common way of talking about language learning in order to
assist professionals involved in the teaching and learning of languages
in their various contexts.
As described above, the CLB/NCLC has adopted 12 rather than
6 levels like the CEFR. A finer granulation of levels is important to
determine where exactly adult immigrants are in the process of their
linguistic integration. This may be, for instance, in order to see if
their language proficiency is adequate for their chosen career, or
to pass the citizenship test. It can also help to determine whether
language training for settlement in the host community or for seeking
employment is needed. The CEFR also recommends subdividing its
levels according to specific contexts and needs.
These frameworks are highly compatible and complementary in regard
to content and vision.
An International Perspective Dr. Enrica Piccardo
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The Synergies project draws upon the characteristics of both the
CLB/NCLC and the CEFR. Its content aligns with these frameworks
as it is task-based, it expresses levels of proficiency that outline
what a learner can do, it allows for fine granulation and it adopts a
real-life perspective that is learner-centred. Using descriptors from
both frameworks allows instructors to provide a clear snapshot of
learners’ level at a given moment but also for learners to modulate
and describe their accomplishments in the different language skills.
The Synergies project is an example of best practice in second
language education. Anchored in the action-oriented approach
and task-based learning, the Synergies project fuses a municipal
immigration portal and ESL/FSL instruction in a way that embraces
real-life, practical language learning designed to enhance the
settlement and integration of newcomers. Through the use of the
CLB/NCLC and the CEFR, this project dovetails seamlessly into
language classes in Ontario and other locations in Canada, as well
as on an international stage. Everyone benefits when newcomers
succeed. Language learning is a vital factor in this success. The
Synergies project supports language learning for newcomers and as
a result strengthens communities.
An International Perspective Dr. Enrica Piccardo
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MEASURING
OUTCOMES
APPENDICES
95
STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATING INSTRUCTORS
Research Project: Settlement, Integration and Language Learning: Possible Synergies
Dear ESL Instructor,
We would like to invite you to participate in a study that will explore the use of task-based learning in the ESL classroom,
as well as how integrating community information from www.durhamimmigration.ca into learning tasks might impact
the learner’s integration into the community and acquisition of English.
This study is a partnership between The University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), the
Durham District School Board (DDSB), and the Region of Durham.
We anticipate that this study will be of benefit to your professional development as this study is anchored in the most
current research in second language education pedagogy. This study will also allow for the opportunity to co-plan and
co-create task-based lessons with a mentor teacher and to receive support as needed throughout the study. Instructors
would be remunerated for their participation in meeting times scheduled by the researchers, outside of their current
classroom instruction obligations, at the regular rate stated in the Collective Agreement. This remuneration would be
paid by the DDSB in a manner to be determined. All materials developed during this study would be the property of the
DDSB and may be shared and duplicated as determined by the DDSB, without further consent.
Upon consent, instructors would participate in a professional development (PD) in-service on task-based learning, the
Durham Immigration Portal Website, and the curriculum program “Living in English, Discovering Durham: Exploring the
Region of Durham Through Task-based Learning.” Instructors would also participate in planning sessions to identify and
develop the teaching materials necessary for learners to successfully complete the task. Instructors would then
implement these lessons during their regular classroom time at Durham Continuing Education. Instructors would also
participate in a qualitative research interview before the PD session, after the PD session, as well as in a focus group at
the end of the student learning block, all of which may be video recorded. Researchers may also be present during
instruction time and may take photographs and/or video recordings during that period. It is anticipated that this study
will happen over a two month period, beginning January 2016.
We would like to assure you that you are under no obligation to participate in this study; that you may decline to answer
any questions in the interviews; and have the right to withdraw without negative consequence. Please note that
withdrawal will not, however, be possible from the focus group discussions once they have taken place, given the nature
of the format. Also, once research findings have been reported and/or published, withdrawal is not possible. This study
is not an evaluation of your performance. All content gathered as part of this study may be used for teaching and
presentation purposes, and may be published. A summary of the research will be made available to you at your request.
All information obtained during this study will be kept private and confidential. You will be assigned a code number, and
all information about you will be identified only by this code. Data will be kept in a secure cabinet and/or in password-
protected electronic files. The only people who will have access privileges to the data will be the Principal Investigator
and the members of the research team. After a period of no longer than five years, all records will be erased, and all
notes will be shredded and disposed of.
Should you have questions about this study, please contact _______________________________________________.
Name:
Phone Number:
Email:
YES, I agree to participate in the research
NO, I do not agree to participate in the research
Signature:
Date:
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STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATING ADULT LEARNERS
Research Project: Settlement, Integration and Language Learning: Possible Synergies
Dear Adult Learner,
We would like to invite you to participate in a study that will explore:
task-based learning in the ESL classroom,
how learning about the community using www.durhamimmigration.ca may improve integration into the
community and help to learn English.
This study is a partnership between The University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), the
Durham District School Board (DDSB), and the Region of Durham.
We hope that this study will help you learn more about your community and help you to learn English.
If you consent to participate in this study, you would be asked to participate as a volunteer in a written interview as well
as a video-recorded interview before the learning block in your Durham Continuing Education classroom and at the end
of the learning block. You may also be recorded throughout the study in your classroom. It is anticipated that this study
will happen over a three month period, beginning January 2016.
We would like to assure you that you are under no obligation to participate in this study; that you may decline to answer
any questions in the interviews; and have the right to withdraw without negative consequence. Please note that once
the research findings have been reported and/or published, withdrawal is not possible. All content gathered as part of
this study may be used for teaching and presentation purposes, and may be published. A summary of the research will
be made available to you at your request.
All information obtained during this study will be kept private and confidential. You will be assigned a code number, and
all information about you will be identified only by this code. Data will be kept in a secure cabinet and/or in password-
protected electronic files. The only people who will have access privileges to the data will be the Principal Investigator
and the members of the research team. After a period of no longer than five years, all records will be erased, and all
notes will be shredded and disposed of.
Should you have questions about this study, please contact _________________________________________________.
Name:
Phone Number:
Email:
YES, I agree to participate in the research
NO, I do not agree to participate in the research
Signature:
Date:
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STATEMENT OF INFORMED CONSENT FOR PARTICIPATING COMMUNITY MEMBERS
Research Project: Settlement, Integration and Language Learning: Possible Synergies
Dear Community Member,
We would like to invite you to participate in a study that will explore the use of task-based learning in the ESL classroom,
as well as how integrating community information from www.durhamimmigration.ca into learning tasks might impact
the learner’s integration into the community and acquisition of English.
This study is a partnership between The University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), the
Durham District School Board (DDSB), and the Region of Durham.
We anticipate that this study will be of benefit to your organization as it will provide data on the use of the Durham
Immigration Portal and the curriculum program “Living in English, Discovering Durham: Exploring the Region of Durham
Through Task-based Learning” as well as study the impact community focused, task-based ESL learning has on the
integration of newcomers to the community.
Upon consent, you would be asked to volunteer in a written interview as well as a video-recorded interview relating to
the Durham Immigration Portal. This study will also include the participation of ESL Instructors at Durham Continuing
Education as well as the participation of ESL adult learners. It is anticipated that this study will happen over a three
month period, beginning in January 2016.
We would like to assure you that you are under no obligation to participate in this study; that you may decline to answer
any questions in the interviews; and have the right to withdraw without negative consequence. Please note that once
the research findings have been reported and/or published, withdrawal is not possible. All content gathered as part of
this study may be used for teaching and presentation purposes, and may be published. A summary of the research will
be made available to you at your request.
All information obtained during this study will be kept private and confidential. You will be assigned a code number, and
all information about you will be identified only by this code. Data will be kept in a secure cabinet and/or in password-
protected electronic files. The only people who will have access privileges to the data will be the Principal Investigator
and the members of the research team. After a period of no longer than five years, all records will be erased, and all
notes will be shredded and disposed of.
Should you have questions about this study, please contact _________________________________________________.
Name:
Phone Number:
Email:
YES, I agree to participate in the research
NO, I do not agree to participate in the research
Signature:
Date:
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PRE-TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE ESL INSTRUCTOR
Thank you for participating in this study. Please complete the following questionnaire:
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
First Language (L1): _________________________________________________________________________________
Additional language(s) acquired: _______________________________________________________________________
Years of experience as an Adult Education ESL instructor: ___________________________________________________
Number of years with your current employer: ____________________________________________________________
CLB levels taught: ___________________________________________________________________________________
Number of times teaching the CLB level that will receive the intervention as part of this study: ____________________
TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
Highest level of education completed (circle): High School / College / University / Masters Level / Doctorate Level
ESL certifications completed: __________________________________________________________________________
On the scale below, please indicate how much you know about the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB):
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how much you know about the Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages (CEFR):
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how comfortable you are using technology in your instruction:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how much you know about task-based learning:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how familiar you are with the Durham Immigration Portal:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how familiar you are with the resource “Living in English, Discovering Durham:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
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PRE-TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE ESL INSTRUCTOR (PAGE 2)
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE (CONTINUED)
On the scale below, please indicate how often you use task-based learning as part of your instruction:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Never
Always
On the scale below, please indicate how often you make learning connections to the community in your instruction:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Never
Always
PERSONAL EXPECTATIONS
What do you expect from this training?
Prompts:
How do you think this training will contribute to your professional development/professionalism?
What motivated you to participate in this training?
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POST-TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE ESL INSTRUCTOR
Thank you for participating in this study. Please complete the following questionnaire after having completed the
training session:
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
On the scale below, please indicate how much you know about the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB):
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how much you know about the Common European Framework of Reference for
Languages (CEFR):
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate what you feel to be the level of similarity between the Canadian Language
Benchmarks (CLB) and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR):
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how much you know about task-based learning:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how familiar you are with the Durham Immigration Portal:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate how familiar you are with the resource “Living in English, Discovering Durham”:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
REACTION TO THE MATERIAL
What is your initial reaction to the learning project that will be piloted in your ESL class?
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POST-TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE ESL INSTRUCTOR (PAGE 2)
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
REACTION TO THE MATERIAL (CONTINUED)
What type of students do you feel could benefit from this learning project?
What kind/type of challenges may present themselves and how might they be solved?
What are possible advantages of this approach to learning?
What are possible disadvantages of this approach to learning?
On the scale below, please indicate how eager you are to implement this approach to learning in your class?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Eagerness
Highly
Eager
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POST-TRAINING QUESTIONNAIRE ESL INSTRUCTOR (PAGE 3)
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
REACTION TO THE MATERIAL (CONTINUED)
What supports do you think you would need to implement this approach to learning for this project?
Do you have other questions/concerns at this time?
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PRE-QUESTIONNAIRE (PRE LEARNING BLOCK) ESL LEARNER
(RESPONSE FORMAT MAY BE WRITTEN AND/OR ORAL DEPENDING ON LANGUAGE NEEDS)
Thank you for participating in this study. Please complete the following questionnaire:
PERSONAL INFORMATION
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
Age: _________________________________________Gender: ______________________________________________
Country of Origin: _____________________________________ Amount of Time in Canada: ______________________
First Language (L1): _________________________________________________________________________________
Additional language(s) acquired: _______________________________________________________________________
CLB Level: _________________________________________________________________________________________
Have you taken ESL classes in Canada before? No Yes
If yes, Please indicate what classes you have taken: ________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
LEARNER PROFILE
On the scale below, please indicate how comfortable you are using technology:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, please indicate your level of English skills:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, how comfortable are you speaking English?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, how comfortable would you be ordering at a restaurant?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, how much do you enjoy learning English at school?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Not at all
Very much
On the scale below, indicate how familiar you are with the Durham Immigration Portal:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
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PRE-QUESTIONNAIRE (PRE LEARNING BLOCK) ESL LEARNER PAGE 2
(RESPONSE FORMAT MAY BE WRITTEN AND/OR ORAL DEPENDING ON LANGUAGE NEEDS)
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
What are topics that you would like to learn about in class that would help you when interacting with the community?
How can we help you learn English?
What should we know about you as a learner?
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POST-QUESTIONNAIRE (POST LEARNING BLOCK) ESL LEARNER
(RESPONSE FORMAT MAY BE WRITTEN AND/OR ORAL, VIDEO RECORDED, DEPENDING ON LANGUAGE NEEDS)
Last Four Digits of Phone Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
LEARNER PROFILE
On the scale below, please indicate your level of English skills after the learning block:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, how comfortable are you speaking English after the learning block?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, how comfortable would you be ordering at a restaurant?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Limited
Extensive
On the scale below, how much do you enjoy learning English at school?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Not at all
Very much
On the scale below, how familiar are you with the Durham Immigration Portal?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Not at all
Very much
On the scale below, how did you enjoy learning using a task-based approach?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Not at all
Very much
On the scale below, indicate how likely you are to use the Durham Immigration Portal on your own in the future:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Not likely
Very likely
What are the advantages of task-based learning?
What are the disadvantages of task-based learning?
What suggestions would you give to future instructors to help you learn English?
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FOCUS GROUP ESL LEARNERS
POST-CLASSROOM INTERVENTION
RESPONSE FORMAT: ORAL INTERVIEW (VIDEO RECORDED)
Possible Questions:
How did you enjoy this learning block? What did you like/didn’t like about it?
Was this a helpful way to learn English? Why or why not?
Do you feel more comfortable ordering at a restaurant? Why or why not?
What did you learn about eating out in Durham Region?
What did you think about the Durham Immigration Portal?
Would you visit the Durham Immigration Portal website again on your own?
What suggestions would you make to your instructors to help you learn English?
What do you think is important information to have on an Immigration Portal website?
Do you have other comments at this time?
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FOCUS GROUP ESL INSTRUCTORS
(POST-CLASSROOM INTERVENTION)
RESPONSE FORMAT: ORAL INTERVIEW (VIDEO RECORDED)
Possible Questions:
How did you enjoy teaching using task-based learning?
How do you think your students enjoyed learning using this approach?
What observations did you make in the classroom during this project?
How did you find working with the Durham Immigration Portal?
How do you think this project impacted learners’ integration into the community?
How do you think this project impacted language learning?
What challenges did you face while using the portal, if any? How did you solve them?
What are the advantages of this approach to learning?
What are the disadvantages of this approach to learning?
Describe your professional growth during this project.
What suggestions would you make to other instructors looking for replicate this study?
Do you have other comments at this time?
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FOCUS GROUP / QUESTIONNAIRE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION/MIIO SITE
Thank you for participating in this study. Please respond to the following questions in writing. Prompts are included
to help guide your reflection. These questions will also form the structure of a subsequent video-recorded interview.
1) What is your name and title? For what organisation do you work?
2) How did you get to the idea of creating a portal for Newcomers?
Prompts:
How did the idea for a Durham Immigration Portal come to be?
What are the main objectives of the portal?
3) How did you conceptualize the portal?
Prompts:
Who was consulted in conceptualizing the portal?
How did you determine what elements to include in the portal?
Who is the intended audience of the portal?
4) How did you develop the portal?
Prompts:
How did you move forward in building the web platform?
5) How did you pilot or test the portal? Were modifications needed?
Prompt:
What learning happened along the way?
6) How do you address the maintenance of the portal?
Prompt:
How do you keep the content of the portal current?
7) How do you measure the outcomes?
Prompts:
Do you have any protocols?
8) Are there any other aspects you would like to mention?
Prompts:
Were there any struggles or “aha!” moments that you can share?
Would you like to add anything else?
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DURHAM DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD
EXTERNAL RESEARCH APPLICATION
Name:
Date:
Address:
Tel. (Res.):
Tel. (Bus.):
Position:
Institution or Agency:
Tel.:
Please check one:
Undergraduate Thesis Master’s Thesis
Doctoral Thesis Externally-Sponsored Project
Other:
1. Title of Research Proposal:
2. Objectives of Research:
3. Practical Benefits of Research and/or Contribution to:
a) Durham District Sch
ool Board:
Accountability and Assessment - Durham District School Board - External Research Application
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b) Educational Knowledge:
4. Data Collection:
a) Subjects: Students Grade Number Time Required
Grade Number Time Required
Grade Number Tim
e Required
Teachers
Other Staff
b) Facilities required:
c) Equipment required:
d) Assistance required:
e) Other resources required:
f) Other Boards involved:
g) Instruments (list all test
s, questionnaires and measures to be used and attach copies):
h) Particular schools preferred (if applicable):
Accountability and Assessment - Durham District School Board - External Research Application
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i) Other special arrangements, facilities or circumstances:
5. Method of Investigation/Study:
a) Method/Process:
b) Information required from schoo
l records:
c) Obtaining parental consent (describe):
d) Provisions for preparing subjects
:
e) Type of analysis:
Accountability and Assessment - Durham District School Board - External Research Application
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6. Timeline:
a) Commence Data Collection:
b) End Data Collection:
c) Expected Date of Report to External Rese
arch Committee:
7. Provision for Feedback:
a) To participants and/or participating schools:
b) To parents (if applicable):
c) To educational officials and/or school system:
d) Publication plans:
Accountability and Assessment - Durham District School Board - External Research Application
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I have received and read the Durham District School Board’s Research Procedure and agree to follow its requirements if
my application is accepted.
___________________________________________________
___
Signature of Researcher
This is to certify that the
above-described research proposal has been vetted for its academic soundness. I have given
consideration to ethical, legal and moral questions arising from the proposal.
_______________________________________________________
Contact Person (e.g. sponsoring professor, director of organization)
___________________________________________________
____
Name of Organization
RETURN TO:
Attn: Administrative Secretary
Accountability & Assessment Department
Durham District School Board
First Floor, 400 Taunton Road East
WHITBY, ON L1R 2K6
PLEASE INCLUDE SEVEN (7) COPIES PLUS THE ORIGINAL OF THE APPLICATION
INCLUDING ALL SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION
Accountability and Assessment - Durham District School Board - External Research Application
114
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