CITY OF MADISON
DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING,
ENGINEERING AND BUILDING
DIVISION OF ENGINEERING
CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS
MANUAL FOR PUBLIC
IMPROVEMENTS
Third Edition
Reissued June, 1996
As Amended through October, 2001
First Edition (1992) Written by Henry P. "Bud" Darstein, Engineering Inspector
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Page
1 Definitions 4
2 General Terms 7
3 Specification 8
4 Control of Work 11
5 Clearing and Grubbing 14
6 Sanitary Sewers & Water Systems 16
7 Reserved 24
8 Storm Sewers 25
9 Curb Inlets and Drop Inlets 31
10 Curb Inlet Covers and Frames 34
11 Street and Drainage Excavation 35
12 Embankment 40
13 Subgrade 45
14 Dense Graded Aggregate Base Course 48
15 Curb and Gutter 52
16 Asphalt Bituminous Plant Mix 56
17 Concrete Sidewalks 61
18 Utilities 64
19 Drainage Retention / Detention 66
20 Enforcement, Administration, Appeals 67
Addendum I Concrete 68
Addendum II Reinforcing Steel 95
Addendum III Lift Stations (Reserved) 98
Addendum IV Fences 99
Appendix Construction Detail Exhibits…Following 105
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CITY OF MADISON
CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION
1. DEFINITIONS
Whenever in the specifications or in any documents or
instruments in construction operations where these
specifications govern, the following terms, or pronouns in place
of them are used, the intent and meaning shall be interpreted
as follows:
AASHTO The American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials
AGA The American Gas Association
AHD State of Alabama Highway Department Standard
Specifications for Highway Construction, latest
edition
A.N.S.I. American National Standards Institute
API The American Petroleum Institute
ASTM American Society for Testing of Materials
Board City of Madison Water and Wastewater Board
CHIEF INSPECTOR Chief Building Inspector of the City of Madison
CITY ENGINEER The duly designated engineer for the City of
Madison
CITY INSPECTOR An authorized representative of the City of
Madison assigned to make detailed inspections of any portion of
or all materials furnished or work performed by the contractor.
CIVIL ENGINEER An engineer whose training or occupation is in
the practice of civil engineering and who is a Registered
Professional Engineer in the State of Alabama
CIVIL ENGINEERING The application of the knowledge of the forces
of nature, principles of mechanics and the properties of
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materials to the evaluation, design and construction of civil
works for the beneficial use of mankind.
CONTRACT The written agreement between the owner and the
contractor, covering the performance of the work and the
furnishing of the labor, equipment and materials in the
construction.
CONTRACTOR Any person, firm or corporation named as the party
of the first part in the contract.
DIRECTOR The Director of the Community Development Department
EASEMENT A piece of land dedicated to the City for use as a
corridor for utilities and/or drainage.
EMPLOYEE Any person working on the project to which these
Specifications apply and who is under the direction or control of
or receives compensation from the contractor or a sub-contractor.
ENGINEER Any person representing or being paid by the
engineering firm that has been employed to design, supervise or
inspect the construction of the project.
ENGINEER OF RECORD The civil engineer registered and in good
standing with the State of Alabama State Board of Registration
for Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors and permitted to
practice in the City and County of Madison and who is responsible
for the completeness and correctness of the information provided
on the plans and specifications submitted for approval on behalf
of the owners.
EQUIPMENT All machinery, machines, livestock and tools, together
with the necessary supplies for upkeep, maintenance and
protection, and all apparatus necessary for the proper
construction and acceptable completion of the work.
EXTRA WORK Work authorized in writing by the engineer and
performed by the contractor in order to complete the job in an
acceptable manner. Such work will be supported by a "Change
Order" signed by the City Engineer.
FSS Federal Specifications and Standards, General Services
Administration
INSPECTOR An authorized representative of the engineer assigned
to make detailed inspection of any portion of or all materials
furnished and work performed by the contractor.
OWNER The public body, organization, board, district, corporation
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or individual having responsibility for the furtherance of the
project.
PLANS The drawings, or reproductions thereof, which show the
location and general detailed design of the contemplated
improvements.
PROJECT One or any number of separate but correlated improvements
covered by the work requirements.
STREET Any or all portions of any street, avenue, alley, road
or public highway which has been dedicated to the City.
STRUCTURE Any portion of the existing, completed, partially
completed, or proposed construction. Buildings, piping, conduits,
cables, wiring, utilities and any and all other man-made objects,
whether above ground or underground, shall be considered as
structure.
SUBCONTRACTOR Any person, firm or corporation who has, with the
approval of the engineer, contracted with the primary
contractor to execute and perform in his stead any part of the
project.
SUPERINTENDENT The executive representative of the contractor,
present on the project at all times, authorized to receive
and fulfill instructions from the engineer and who is capable
of efficiently superintending the work.
TYPICAL SECTION That cross-section established by the plans
which represents the lines to which the contractor shall work in
the execution of the project.
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2. GENERAL TERMS
2.1 AVOIDANCE OF REPETITION. Wherever the terms
"contemplated", "required", "directed", "authorized", "considered
necessary", "permitted", " approved", "suitable", "unacceptable",
"designated", or terms of like import are used in these
specifications, they shall be construed to mean "to" or "by the
engineer" or "director" unless the context clearly indicates
otherwise.
2.2 PARTS OF THE SPECIFICATIONS. The divisions,
sections and articles, or sub-headings of the specifications
are intended for convenience of reference only and shall not
be considered as having any bearing on the interpretation
thereof.
2.3 NOTIFICATION. The contractor shall notify the City
of Madison Office of Community Development prior to beginning
any work and, through the engineer of record, at the normal
inspection points during work.
2.4 CONTROL OF WORK. The City engineer will decide all
questions which may arise as to quality and acceptability of
materials furnished and work performed.
The City engineer shall have the authority to
suspend the work wholly or in part due to failure of the
contractor to correct unsafe conditions, for failure to carry out
orders, for unsuitable weather, or for any other reason or
condition he deems to be in the public interest.
2.5 PERMITS. It shall be the responsibility of any
contractor, sub-contractor, public utility or City department
to obtain permission from the Public Works Department prior
to beginning any work on or affecting present or future
streets, rights-of-way or easements.
In an emergency, work may be performed outside of
normal business hours and permission obtained at the beginning of
business on the next business day.
2.6 APPLICABILITY. These specifications shall apply to
all work performed in the City of Madison, including work
performed by City employees and contractors employed by the City.
They shall apply to all work, whether or not that work is
intended to be dedicated to the public or to any public entity.
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3. SPECIFICATION
3.1 INTENT OF PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS The work to be done
shall consist of the complete construction of each and every
unit described in the plans, these Standard Specifications, the
Supplemental Specifications, and the Special Provisions together
with all authorized alterations.
3.2 SPECIAL WORK Construction and conditions which have
not been anticipated by the plans and these specifications, or
changes, additions or amendments thereto, will be covered by
special provisions, and shall be considered a part of the
project.
3.3 ALTERATION OF PLANS AND CHARACTER OF WORK The engineer
may make alterations in the plans or in the nature of the work
which he may consider necessary or desirable during the progress
of the work to complete fully and acceptably the proposed
construction. To accomplish such alterations, the engineer shall
submit any such change as a CHANGE ORDER to the City Engineer
and, upon approval by the City Engineer, may direct the
contractor to proceed.
3.4.1 MAINTENANCE OF DETOURS No highway, road or street or
section thereof shall be closed to traffic except with the
written permission of the City engineer and the owner or
Agency governing or maintaining that road, street or highway.
3.4.2 DETOURS ALONG PROJECT The contractor shall maintain
all detours for traffic along or over the work. Unless otherwise
provided, the road, street or highway upon which the improvement
or installation is being made shall, except at times deemed
impractical by the City engineer, be kept continuously open to
public traffic and in passable and safe condition. All entrance
trails, roads and highways intersecting it shall be kept open and
passable.
Temporary approaches and crossings, including crossings over
surfacing and pavements, shall be provided and maintained in safe
condition. It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to
maintain all roads, streets and highways free of mud and in safe
condition. Where the work to be constructed follows the general
route of an existing road which is wholly or in part used by the
traveling public the contractor shall repair and maintain in
safe, passable and convenient condition all such part or parts
of such existing roads as are being used between extreme limits
of the work during the entire time from initiation of work
until final acceptance of the work hereunder. He shall
road-machine the traveled way as soon as possible after rains
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and at all other times when directed by the engineer and shall
operate a drag over it whenever the City Engineer deems it
necessary.
3.4.3 ROADS USED BY THE CONTRACTOR The contractor shall, at
his expense, repair any damage to existing streets which is
caused by his equipment. Should the contractor wish to use a City
street as a haul road, he shall meet with representatives of the
City prior to starting. They shall review the condition of the
street and reach an agreement as to the maintenance or
restoration thereof.
Roads used by the contractor for hauling materials
and equipment shall be constructed and maintained by him. When
the contractor hauls materials over any detour or public road,
he shall so regulate his loads that the capacity of the road and
its structures is not exceeded and he shall be responsible for
any specific damage that may result to the road or its structures
from failure to observe regulations governing traffic thereon.
Resulting damage shall be repaired, without delay, by the
contractor. It shall be the responsibility of the contractor
to maintain all public streets and roads adjoining the work in
safe and passable condition and free of mud and debris.
3.4.3 CONVENIENCE OF TRAFFIC The contractor will be required
to carry traffic over the roads or streets with the least
inconvenience to traffic within the limits of the right-of-way
and on detours for which he is responsible as hereinabove
provided.
3.4.4 NO MUD TO BE DEPOSITED ON PUBLIC ROADS. The contractor
shall not permit any mud from any construction site to be carried
onto or deposited on any public road by construction vehicles or
by any other means.
3.5 REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL OF STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS
3.5.1 GENERAL The contractor shall remove any existing
structure or part of structure, fence, building or other
encumbrance or obstruction that interferes in any way with the
new construction, but only with the written permission of the
owner of the structure, and only after a demolition permit has
been obtained from the City, if required.
3.5.2 PUBLICLY OWNED MATERIALS Any publicly owned materials
in structures removed shall be salvaged without damage if deemed
proper by the City Engineer and shall be piled neatly and in an
acceptable manner at accessible points. Any publicly owned
property shall remain the property of the original owner. When
publicly owned materials are stored on or beyond the right-of-way
the contractor shall be held responsible for their care and
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preservation for a period of ten (10) days following the day the
last or final increment of materials is placed thereon. The
contractor shall remove all discarded material, rubbish or trash
from the right-of-way and project site and shall dispose of it as
approved or directed by the engineer.
3.5.3 LOCAL MATERIAL SOURCES If the contractor elects or is
required to excavate from pits, quarries or deposits beyond the
project site or right-of-way he shall trim up such pit, quarry or
deposit in a neat and workmanlike manner, remove debris and level
surplus material, provide necessary drainage if feasible and
perform other work necessary to prevent unsightly appearance.
This work will be required as a condition to the use of local
material and shall be done in an approved manner.
3.5.4 It shall be the responsibility of the contractor to
obtain any necessary grading permits from the Community
Development Department prior to beginning any excavation or other
earth-moving operation for which a grading permit is required.
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4. CONTROL OF WORK
4.1 AUTHORITY OF ENGINEER All of the work shall be done
under the supervision of the engineer. To prevent
misunderstandings, disputes and litigation, the engineer shall
decide any and all questions which arise concerning the quality
and acceptability of materials furnished and work performed,
and interpretation of plans and specifications, subject to
the approval of the City Engineer. Explanations concerning the
meaning of the plans and specifications, all directions
necessary to complete or make definite the plans and
specifications and give them due effect will be given by the
engineer and his findings shall be final and binding. The
authority granted in this section shall not, however, be
construed to permit the engineer to authorize work not permitted
by this manual, or by construction plans approved by the City.
4.2 PLANS AND WORKING DRAWINGS
4.2.1 GENERAL Drawings, showing such details as are
necessary to give a comprehensive idea of the construction
contemplated will be included in the set of plans. The
plans will be supplemented by such working drawings as are
necessary adequately to control the work. All authorized
alterations affecting the requirements and information given on
the approved plans shall be in writing and signed by the City
engineer.
4.2.2 ROADWAY PLANS Roadway plans will show title sheet,
alignment, profile, typical cross-section of improvements,
drainage and other information pertinent to the project.
4.2.3 STRUCTURE OR BRIDGE PLANS Structure or bridge plans
will in general show the location of and dimensions of the work
contemplated. When the structure plans do not show all
dimensions in detail, they will show the general features and
such details as are necessary to give a comprehensive idea of the
structure. The engineer shall submit to the City at least three
(3) sets of such detailed working drawings as may be required for
the construction of any part of the work. One set of
these supplementary drawings shall be returned to the
contractor, one set shall be provided to the City Inspector,
and one shall be retained by the engineer of record, and
the remaining set shall be maintained in the City files.
4.2.4 WORKING DRAWINGS FOR STEEL STRUCTURES Working drawings
for steel structures shall consist of shop details, erection and
other working plans showing details, dimensions, sizes of
materials and other information necessary for the complete
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fabrication and erection of the metal work, including applicable
welding, riveting or other fastening specifications.
Working drawings for concrete structures shall consist of such
detailed plans as may be reasonably required for the successful
prosecution of the work and which are not included in the
plans furnished by the engineer. These may include plans
for false-work, bracing, cribs, cofferdams, centering and
formwork, masonry layout and bending diagrams for
reinforcement.
4.2.4.1 DRAWINGS FOR DRAINAGE STRUCTURES All drainage plans
shall depict all drainage structures, the direction of water
flows, the topography of the land, and the drainage basins within
the plat. The drawings shall clearly depict the flow of water in
each basin to a collection point, and the flow of water from each
collection point to a point or points where water leaves the
subdivision. Calculations and other information concerning the
flow of water downstream from the subdivision, until said water
reaches Waters of the United States, shall also be shown, and the
impact of such increased flows as will result from the presence
of the project shall be described mathematically. A grading plan
will be prepared to demonstrate positive drainage off each
individual lot, and all such grading shall be completed prior to
final acceptance of the subdivision into the maintenance program.
4.2.5 FURNISHING WORKING DRAWINGS The Engineer shall furnish
the City Inspector with such blueprints or similar copies of the
working drawings as may be required for approval and construction
purposes and upon completion of the work shall provide three (3)
copies of "AS BUILT" drawings to the City Engineer.
4.2.6 CONFORMITY WITH PLANS AND ALLOWABLE DEVIATIONS
Finished work in all cases shall conform with lines, grades,
sections, details and dimensions of the work contemplated as
shown on the approved plans except as modified by the written
order of the engineer of record and approved by the City
Engineer. Any deviation from the approved plans and working
drawings that may be required by the exigencies of the
construction will be determined by the engineer and approved by
the City Engineer.
4.2.7 COORDINATION OF PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS These
specifications, the supplemental specifications, the plans and
all supplementary documents are essential parts of the work
contemplated and a requirement occurring in one is as binding as
though occurring in all. In case of discrepancy, figured
dimensions, unless obviously incorrect, shall govern over scaled
dimensions.
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4.2.8 ERRORS The contractor shall not take advantage of
errors or omissions in the plans or discrepancies between the
plans and the specifications. The engineer will make such
corrections and rectify such omissions as may be necessary and
his determination shall be reviewed by the City Engineer.
4.3 COOPERATION WITH UTILITIES The owners or operators of
private or public utilities shall have access to the work for the
installation, adjustment or repair of main line and service
facilities.
4.4 COOPERATION OF THE CONTRACTOR
4.4.1 GENERAL The contractor shall have available on the
work site at all times one copy each of the plans,
specifications, and supplemental specifications. He shall give
the work the constant attention necessary to facilitate the
progress thereof and shall cooperate with the engineer,
inspectors, and other contractors, if any, in every way
possible.
4.4.2 CONTRACTORS REPRESENTATIVE The contractor shall at all
times have a competent representative on the work, capable of
reading and thoroughly understanding the plans and
specifications, as his agent on the work, with full authority
to execute the orders or directions of the engineer, or the
City engineer or his designated representative without delay.
Such representative shall be present on site irrespective of
the amount of work sublet and shall have full authority over
all sub-contract work.
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5. CLEARING AND GRUBBING
5.1 DESCRIPTION This item shall consist of clearing the
entire area within the limits of the right-of-way and grubbing
that portion of the right-of-way which will be occupied by the
street, except as otherwise directed by the engineer. Clearing
and grubbing shall consist of cutting, removing, burning and
disposing of all trees, trash, stumps, limb wood, grass, weeds,
roots, pole stubs, rubbish, old pavement and all other
obstructions resting on or projecting through the surface of the
original ground. All fill areas shall be grubbed to a depth of at
least one foot below the natural ground. Any required burn
permits must be obtained by the contractor from the City Fire
Department prior to initiating any burn activities.
This item shall also include the removal and satisfactory
disposal of all buildings, fences, structures, or other
obstructions.
5.2 CONSTRUCTION METHODS All the area of the right-of-way or
so much thereof as the engineer may direct shall be completely
cleared of all trees, logs, brush, stumps, grass, weeds,
roots, pole stubs, rubbish and other perishable or
objectionable matters. Placing the material on abutting property,
with or without the consent of the property owners, will not be
considered satisfactory disposal. Burial, except in ADEM-approved
landfills, is not considered satisfactory disposal.
All clearing and grubbing shall be performed far enough in
advance of the grading operations so as to avoid possible delay.
Before grading operations start, the area cleared and grubbed
must be approved by the contractor and the City engineer.
Special care shall be taken to preserve and protect all trees and
shrubs from injury or defacement that are designated to
remain in place. Trees that are to be removed shall be felled
within the right-of-way and in such manner as will not injure
trees that are to remain. All trees cut shall be disposed of
as directed by the contractor.
Within the areas where excavation will be made, all logs, roots,
stumps, et cetera, more than two inches in diameter shall be
pulled or otherwise removed to a depth of not less than two (2)
feet below the finished surface of the subgrade and the entire
area grubbed free from heavy vegetation, grass, roots and other
perishable matter. Trees and stumps outside the construction
limits that are not to remain shall be cut off even with the
ground surface. Branches of trees extending over the street shall
be cut and trimmed as directed by the engineer.
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In areas where backfilling is required to bring property to a
workable level, the engineer shall provide detailed information
showing the impact on drainage and shall provide plans showing
the proposed method of handling drainage and runoff.
All cavities, stump holes and areas excavated below grade shall
be refilled with suitable material sufficiently in advance of
grading to provide ample time for settlement and shall be
brought to the same degree of compaction as the surrounding area.
If deemed necessary the engineer shall require that the backfill
material be flooded or puddled.
Timber, brush, et cetera shall not be burned except with
permission of the engineer and after obtaining proper burn
permits from the Fire Department.
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6. SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS FOR
INSTALLATION OF SANITARY SEWERS
AND POTABLE WATER TRANSMISSION LINES
The Regulations in this Chapter are supplemental to those
published and enforced by the Water and Waste Water Board of the
City of Madison. In case of a conflict between these regulations
and those of the Board, the Planning Commission will be the
ultimate arbiter. However, once approved by the Planning
Commission, construction specifications may be changed only by
Engineering Change Order.
6.1 PAVEMENT REPLACEMENT
6.1.1 Reserved
6.1.2 Where paved streets, sidewalks, curbs and/or
gutters are damaged or removed, within or without the
construction limits, they shall be replaced in accordance with
these Specifications.
6.1.3 Where chert, gravel, slag, or other unpaved street
or driveway surfaces are removed or damaged, they shall be
replaced with the same type of materials as were removed.
6.1.4 In replacing pavements and unpaved surfaces, the
materials used and the construction methods employed shall comply
with these specifications.
6.1.5 Where shown on plans, service lines and small
diameter pipe (eight inches in diameter or less) located across
paved surfaces shall, where feasible, be installed by boring or
other approved methods that will not require cutting or removing
pavement.
6.1.6 All concrete pavement replaced shall not be less
than four inches thick, or equal to the original if greater than
four inches.
6.1.7 Pavements replaced shall be the same type of
construction as was removed, except that no asphalt surface
replaced shall be less than three inches thick and shall consist
of two inches of binder and one inch of wearing surface.
Wearing surfaces shall utilize siliceous aggregate.
6.1.8 All road cuts shall be permanently repaired within
30 days after the cut is first made.
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6.2 TEMPORARY ROADWAY PAVING REPAIRS
6.2.1 Temporary cold or permanent hot asphalt patching
will be required for both longitudinal and transverse roadway
cuts upon completing backfilling requirements at the end of each
day's work if the road is to be opened for local traffic while
work has stopped, unless waived by the City engineer and the
Board.
6.3 CONTROLLED TEMPORARY FLOW DIVERSION
6.3.1 During construction, flows in sections of the
existing sewer being rehabilitated by removal and replacement
shall be accommodated by temporary flow diversion.
6.3.2 The contractor shall use the construction easement
for flow diversion if not otherwise shown on the plans. The
contractor shall lay diversionary pipe in temporary trenches
within the construction easement. The contractor shall use
ingenuity and skill to develop a flow diversion program. The
program must keep the sewer flowing without discharge or spills.
The contractor will seek and obtain inspection of each section of
newly laid sewer before taking the diversion out of service and
placing the newly laid section in service. Each section of the
new sewer shall be tested and accepted by the Board before being
put into service.
6.3.3 The material used to construct the temporary
line will be the choice of the contractor,subject, however, to
Board approval. The material shall be such that no breaks, stream
pollution or other nuisance conditions ensue. The temporary line
shall be the responsibility of the contractor.
6.3.4 In sections of an existing trunk sewer being
rehabilitated by laying a new line parallel to the existing
trunk, the existing trunk shall be used to accommodate the
existing flow, and no flow diversion will be necessary if the
existing trunk is not damaged or its use restricted by the
contractor's operations.
6.3.5 The contractor shall provide a temporary closure in
all cases practical to insure that in the event of temporary line
failure or, in the opinion of the Board, a high likelihood of
failure, flows may be directed through the existing permanent
line.
6.3.6 The contractor shall provide an approved system of
shutoff gates on the temporary diversion line to insure that
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alternative flow routing is possible.
6.4 EXISTING UTILITIES
6.4.1 The contractor shall take every possible precaution
to minimize the hazards of working in proximity to gas lines and
shall be solely responsible for any damage to them or for any
injury to persons or damage to property arising from or caused by
his operations.
6.4.2 GAS LINE LOCATIONS WITHIN SUBDIVISIONS SHALL BE ON
THE EAST OR SOUTH SIDE OF STREETS AND SHALL BE FOUR (4) FEET
BEHIND THE BACK OF CURB AND THREE (3) FEET BELOW THE TOP OF CURB.
6.4.3 No excavation or other work shall be done by the
contractor within ten feet of a gas transmission line until the
owner of the gas pipeline has been notified not less than 72
hours in advance of such work and until the gas line has been
exposed by the contractor sufficiently to determine its exact
horizontal and vertical location. In addition, the owner of the
gas line shall be allowed to keep a qualified
representative present while any such construction which could
damage such line is being done. Methods of excavation specified
by the owner of the utility must be adhered to by the contractor.
6.4.4 The same terms and conditions apply to medium and
low pressure gas distribution systems.
6.4.5 No structure shall be constructed over or
immediately adjacent to a gas pipeline or gas facility, or within
the gas line easement. Gas pipelines shall not pass through
manholes or other sewer structures. When sanitary sewer lines
cross over gas lines, the minimum cover shall be ten inches, or
as specified by the owner of the gas line (Cover is the vertical
distance between the outside top and outside bottom of the two
pipelines). When sanitary sewer lines cross under or below gas
lines, the minimum cover shall be four inches. In both cases the
cover space shall be carefully backfilled with thoroughly
compacted selected soil. Where gas lines cross pipe trenches, the
excavated space below such gas lines shall also be carefully
filled with thoroughly compacted selected soil.
6.4.6 In the event that interference with any existing
utility is imminent, the contractor shall so notify the
appropriate utility agency 72 hours in advance of any
construction activities so that the service may be relocated or
otherwise preserved and protected.
6.4.7 Should any utility be damaged during the
construction work, the following minimum precautions shall be
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taken by the contractor:
(1) Immediately notify the appropriate utility
office of the utility of the nature and
location of such damage.
(2) Stop all construction work that could cause
further damage to the utility or hazards to
other persons or property.
(3) Give adequate warning to any persons who
could be injured or owners of any property
which could be damaged.
(4) Permanent repairs shall be made by the owners
of the utility involved or, with their
permission, by the contractor. Any repairs
made by the contractor shall be made in
accordance with the U.S.A. Standard Code for
Gas Piping USAS B 31.8, latest edition. The
Board Representative will not supervise or
approve repairs to damaged gas facilities.
6.4.8 Other utilities, such as steam lines, electrical
lines, telephone lines, TV cable and telegraph lines, whether
underground or overhead, shall be carefully preserved.
6.4.9 In the event that any interference with any
existing utility is imminent, the contractor shall notify the
utility seventy-two hours in advance of any construction
activities so that service may be relocated or otherwise
preserved and protected. The contractor shall contact the Board
Service Operations office in the event a conflict with a water
line appears imminent. The contractor is to cooperate fully with
the representative of the utility company to the extent necessary
to accomplish the work.
6.5 WORK WITHIN RIGHTS-OF-WAY OF HIGHWAYS, RAILWAYS OR STREETS
6.5.1 In the event the sewer crosses, runs parallel to or
alongside of any State highway, County road, City street or
railroad right-of-way, the contractor shall obtain the necessary
permits from the governing body affected.
6.5.2 A City license and blasting permits are required
for utility work. ALL BLASTING SHALL BE IN CONFORMANCE WITH THE
CITY'S BLASTING ORDINANCE.
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6.6 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION
6.6.1 Where the work requires special stream or railroad
crossings or any other extraordinary conditions exist, or where
alternate construction methods are used that are not covered by
this specification, the materials and construction methods shall
be as shown in the plans.
6.7 RIGHT-OF-WAY CLEAN UP
6.7.1 After the sewer is installed and backfilled and a
sufficient amount of time has elapsed for backfill to settle, the
disturbed area shall be machined to a smooth surface matching the
adjacent or adjoining ground surfaces and ground profiles shown
on the plans.
6.7.2 The contractor shall remove all stumps, fallen
trees, uprooted trees, dead trees, trash and debris from the
right-of-way and the adjoining property.
6.7.3 The ground preparation before seeding shall
consist of cultivation to a loose depth of approximately four
inches minimum and the application of lime to the soil at a rate
of two tons per acre. The plowing, harrowing, cultivating and all
other operations shall be performed with proper equipment and in
such a manner as to break up all clods, lumps or earth balls, and
remove all boulders, stumps, large roots or other particles which
would interfere with the work and which will result in a smooth,
uniform, loose, well-broken and fine grained soil, thus
providing a suitable bed for seed grass. The ground shall be
plowed to the required depth, then cultivated with a rotary
tiller and/or disc harrow in both directions, if feasible, until
approved. In small or inaccessible areas, the use of hand tools
will be permitted. The contractor shall add sufficient water to
wet the soil in order to prepare the ground to be seeded.
Nine hundred and twenty pounds of 13-13-13 commercial grade
fertilizer per acre of ground shall be spread uniformly into the
areas to be planted. The fertilizer shall be well pulverized
and free of lumps when applied. In no case shall full
strength fertilizer be permitted in direct contact with the
seeds. When fertilizers are applied hydraulically they must be
diluted sufficiently as directed so that no damage is done to
either seed or established grasses or legumes.
Page 20 of 155
6.7.4 Work area seeding mixtures shall be as follows:
SEPTEMBER THRU MARCH
Kentucky Blue Grass 6 lb/acre
Pensacola Bahia 20 lb/acre
Reseeding White Clover 30 lb/acre
Kentucky 31 Fescue 20 lb/acre
APRIL THRU JUNE
Pensacola Bahia 20 lb/acre
Kentucky 31 Fescue 20 lb/acre
Common Lespedeza (TN) 10 lb/acre
Bermuda Grass (H) 12 lb/acre
JULY THRU AUGUST
Bermuda Grass (H) 5 lb/acre
Pensacola Bahia 20 lb/acre
Reseeding White Clover 30 lb/acre
Kentucky 31 Fescue 20 lb/acre
6.7.5 Sowing of seed shall, in general, follow promptly
after incorporation of fertilizer in a uniform manner at the
rates specified for each seed specie. Sowing shall be done by
approved mechanical seeders. No sowing shall be done during windy
weather, when the prepared surface is crusted, or when the
ground is frozen, wet, or otherwise in a non-tillable condition.
Unless otherwise directed, after the seed has been sown the
seedbed shall be compacted immediately by means of a cultipacker,
light roller or approved drag. Rolling or covering of seed may
be omitted when seeding is done hydraulically and mulched. Straw
mulch shall be applied at the rate of two and one-half tons per
acre within forty-eight hours after seed has been first applied.
6.7.6 Straw and hay mulch shall be applied with a
mechanical mulch spreader designed to break up balls or clusters
of mulch and apply it evenly over the surface so as to provide
adequate shading from sunlight. If an asphalt adhesive is used on
the mulch the mulch spreader shall be so designed and equipped to
apply the asphalt adhesive effectively to the mulch and form a
uniform porous and stable mulch blanket held in place by the
adhesive over the designated area.
6.7.7 Hay or straw material which contains an excessive
quantity of matured seeds or noxious weeds or a species which
would constitute a menace to the planted species and to
surrounding farmland will not be acceptable. Mulch which is too
fresh or is excessively brittle or so decomposed as to retard
growth of grass will not be acceptable.
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6.7.8 The contractor may, at his option, employ
additional measures other than those specified to prevent loss of
or damage to the work resulting from the effects of wind and/or
water. The erosion control work shall cover all disturbed areas
within the sewer right-of-way and/or easement along which the
sewer has been installed. Erosion control work shall not be
limited to the easement but shall include all disturbed areas as
necessary to complete the grassing of the project.
6.7.9 Solid sod may be used if specified. The preparation
of the ground will be the same as for seeding.The sod will be
placed so as to give a smooth and uniform surface to the area.
6.7.10 Fescue may be substituted for Bahia in work areas
adjacent to lawns, as directed by the Board and approved by the
engineering inspector.
6.7.11 The contractor shall remove all stumps, fallen
trees, uprooted trees, dead trees and debris from the right- of-
way. All right-of-way cleanup and grassing on property owned by
the City, either in fee simple or easement interest shall be
approved by the City engineer or the engineering inspector.
6.8 SPECIAL SLOPE PROTECTION
6.8.1 The work covered by this section consists of
furnishing all materials, equipment and labor and performing all
operations necessary in connection with the installation of rip-
rap or other special slope protection.
6.8.2 Areas to receive rip-rap or special slope
protection materials shall be graded to the lines and slopes
shown on the plans. Any loose materials shall be compacted by the
use of hand or mechanical tampers.
6.8.3 Stone for rip-rap shall be of the size and weight
designated on the drawings. In addition, the stones shall be
durable and of a suitable quality to insure permanence in the
structure and in the climate in which it is to be used. It shall
be free of cracks, seams and other defects that would tend to
unduly increase its deterioration from natural causes. Not more
than five percent of the stones shall have shale seams which
would tend to separate when exposed to weathering. The inclusion
of objectionable quantities of dirt, sand, clay, or rock fines
will not be permitted.
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6.8.4 Just prior to placing rip-rap or other slope
protection material, the contractor shall install a non-woven
plastic filter cloth. The filter cloth shall be approved by the
Board and the City engineer and then shall be installed in strict
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions for installation
and use. Only then, and with the approval of the Board
representative and the City engineer, shall the slope protection
material be installed on the filter cloth. Where the engineer
can demonstrate that conditions are appropriate, the filter cloth
may be eliminated.
6.8.5 Precast concrete grids, "Monoslabs" or approved
equals, may be used in lieu of rip-rap stone for slope
protection, if approved in writing by the Board and the City
engineer.
6.9 TUNNELING
6.9.1 Tunneling operations and the installation of liner
plates shall be conducted in accordance with the recommendations
of the liner plate manufacturer. Tunneling operations shall begin
at the low end of the conduit line and proceed up-grade. Care
shall be exercised to install the liner to the proper line and
grade as shown on the plans. Care shall be taken to avoid loss of
ground beyond the tunnel lining and to insure bearing against the
ground all around the tunnel. Any spaces between the tunnel liner
plates and the earth or rock surface of the tunnel shall be
pressure grouted as the work progresses. Brick bulkheads shall be
erected at each end after completion of the tunnel and insertion
of the carrier pipe. The carrier pipe shall be bedded and
restrained within the tunnel in accordance with the plans.
6.9.2 Only personnel thoroughly experienced in performing
jacking and tunneling operations shall be employed. Construction
operations must not interfere with highway or railway traffic.
6.9.3 Tunnels under railroads may involve special
insurance requirements by the railroad company.
6.9.3 The contractor shall notify the railroad company,
the Highway Department, or other utility affected prior to
beginning any work so that said utility may have a representative
present if desired.
6.9.4 The excavation or pit at each end of the tunnel or
bore shall be stabilized, using sheeting, shoring, bracing or
other means to prevent slides, settlement,movement or erosion of
the embankment being tunneled or bored.
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7. RESERVED
Page 24 of 155
8. STORM SEWERS
8.1 - 8.2 Reserved
8.3 TRENCH EXCAVATION Trench excavation or excavation
for pipe lines shall consist of the excavation necessary for
the construction of storm sewers and other pipe lines and all
other appurtenant facilities therefor, including manholes,
saddles, sand or crushed stone cushion, boxes, and pipe
protection as called for in the plans. It shall include clearing
and grubbing where necessary, backfilling and tamping of pipe
trenches and around structures, and the disposal of waste
material.
8.4 UNSUITABLE MATERIAL When muck, quicksand, soft
clay, swampy or other material unsuitable for foundations or
subgrade are encountered which extend below the limits of the
excavation, such material shall be removed and replaced with
suitable materials.
8.5 LIMIT OF EXCAVATION pipe trenches shall not be
excavated more than 300 feet in advance of pipe laying. Temporary
bridges or crosswalks shall be constructed where required to
maintain vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
8.6 PROTECTION In all cases where materials are
deposited along open trenches they shall be placed so that in the
event of rain no damage will result to the work and/or adjacent
property.
8.7 STORING EXCAVATED MATERIAL Material excavated is
to be laid compactly on the side of the trench and shall be kept
trimmed up so as to occasion the least practicable
inconvenience to the public traffic and to neighboring residents.
Where excavation is made in a dedicated street, there shall be
maintained an 8 ft.width of roadway and 3 ft. width of sidewalk
on the street trenched. To prevent obstructing traffic, only so
much of the materials of construction as are actually needed
are to be piled along the line. All streets, sidewalks,
crossings, fire hydrants, water valves and other similar public
utilities are to be kept open or accessible for their intended
use. Neither the materials excavated nor those used for
construction will be stored upon the street.
8.8 DRAINAGE Every drain, gutter, culvert or sewer for
surface drainage encountered is to be kept open for temporary and
permanent flow, or, if necessarily closed, other adequate
provision is to be made.
8.9 TUNNELING Pipe trenches for storm systems may be
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constructed by tunneling methods for relatively short distances
for crossing major streets or highways or railroads provided the
manner of excavating, bracing, and backfilling are approved by
the City engineer.
8.10 NATIONAL POLLUTION DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM
(NPDES)
8.10.1 The contractor and/or his engineer shall provide
the City of Madison Community Development Department copies of
permit applications (except for disturbances of less than
five acres of total land area which are not part of a larger
common plan of development or sale), in compliance with 40 CFR
Parts 122, 123, and 124, titled "NATIONAL POLLUTANT
DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM PERMIT APPLICATION REGULATIONS FOR
STORM WATER DISCHARGES, FINAL RULE". The failure of the
contractor to adhere to limiting conditions in the NPDES permit,
or in the City's NPDES Municipal Separate Stormwater System
Permit, shall constitute cause for the City to stop work in
progress and contact the Alabama Department of Environmental
Management for technical assistance.
8.11 - 8.15 RESERVED
8.16 MATERIALS
8.16.1 ROADWAY PIPE
8.16.1.1 REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE shall conform to ASTM
Specifications Serial Designation C 76-57T, Class III
8.16.1.2 EXTRA STRENGTH REINFORCED PIPE Extra strength
reinforced concrete pipe shall conform to ASTM Specifications
Serial Designation C 76-57T Class IV.
8.16.1.3 STANDARD STRENGTH NON-REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE
Standard strength non-reinforced concrete pipe 24 inches or less
in diameter shall conform to ASTM Specification Serial
Designation C 1457 Table I.
8.16.2 SIDE DRAIN PIPE
8.16.2.1 PLASTIC PIPE The term "plastic pipe" shall cover
polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile butadiene
styrene. In addition, High Density Polyethylene pipe and
installation, when permitted by the City Engineer, shall meet the
requirements of AASHTO M 294, or the manufacturer's
specifications (whichever is most restrictive), along with the
following restrictions:
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(a). The minimum parallel plate stiffness when
tested in accordance with ASTM D2412 shall be as follows:
Diameter Minimum Stiffness
4" - 12" 50 psi
15" 42 psi
18" 40 psi
24" 34 psi
30" 28 psi
36" 22 psi
42" 19 psi
48" 17 psi
(b) Fill heights will be restricted to 20 feet
maximum.
(c) Pipe cover shall be 12 inches minimum and shall
be installed per ASTM D2321.
(d) Application and use of all plastic pipe shall
be approved by the City Engineer.
(e) All joints shall be soil-tight as per the
manufacturers recommendation.
(f) Pipe shall be used only in non-traffic areas as
approved by the City Engineer.
(g) In addition to these general requirements,
pipes shall meet the requirements listed
hereinafter for the type plastic used:
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe shall meet one of the
following specifications: ASTM D-2241, F-789, D-1785, D-2665, D-
3034, D-2680, F-794, F-949, or F-679.
Polyethylene (PE) pipe shall meet the requirements
of AASHTO M-294, Type C or S. When Type S pipe is used, the inner
liner shall have a minimum thickness of 0.05 inches and be fused
to the outer shell.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) pipe shall
meet the requirements of ASTM D-2751 or D-2680.
8.16.3 CORRUGATED METAL PIPE Corrugated metal pipe (CMP),
whether or not coated with asphalt or any other substance, is
not permitted to be used for drainage structures, unless the
City Engineer determines in writing that, due to special
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conditions, CMP is the optimal choice of material for a
particular application.
8.16.4. Drainage conveyed within side yards in residential
districts shall be confined to pipe systems. No open ditches for
the conveyance of stormwater shall be permitted in such side
yards. The City Engineer or Director of Community Development
shall have the authority to grant exceptions to this policy in
cases where large volumes of stormwater must be conveyed through
a side yard.
8.17 TESTING All storm sewer pipe and materials used in
its manufacture shall be tested and inspected by an approved
commercial testing laboratory prior to delivery to the site and
all materials which fail to conform to these specifications shall
be rejected. After delivery to the site any materials which have
been damaged in transit or are otherwise unsuitable for use in
the work shall be rejected and removed from the site. Certified
copies in duplicate of the inspection and acceptance reports of
the testing laboratory shall be supplied to the engineer prior to
use of the materials. Each joint of pipe delivered to the work
shall be stamped or marked to indicate the testing laboratory's
acceptance or approval.
8.18 PIPE LAYING
8.18.1 GENERAL Before storm pipe is placed in position in
the trench the bottom and sides of the trench shall be carefully
prepared and the necessary bracing and sheeting installed.
Each pipe shall be accurately placed to the exact line and grade
called for in the plans. Each piece of pipe and special
fitting shall be carefully inspected before it is placed and no
defective pipe shall be laid in the trench. Pipe laying shall
proceed upgrade, starting at the lower end of the grade and
with the bells uphill. Trench bottoms found to be unsuitable
for foundations after pipe laying operations have been started
shall be corrected and brought to exact line and grade with
compacted earth where necessary. When so directed by the engineer
sand cushion shall be installed to provide a satisfactory
bearing surface.
8.18.2 BELL HOLES Bell holes shall be of sufficient size
to allow ample room for properly making the pipe joints. Bell
holes shall be cut not more than five joints ahead of pipe
laying. The bottom of the trench between bell holes shall be
carefully graded so that the pipe barrel will rest on a solid
foundation for its entire length. Each joint shall be laid so
that it will form a close concentric joint with the adjoining
pipe and so as to avoid sudden offsets or inequalities in the
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flow line.
8.18.3 JOINTS Joints shall be prepared in the manner
specified below. As the work progresses the interior of all pipe
in place shall be thoroughly cleaned. After each line of pipe
has been laid it shall be carefully inspected and all earth,
trash, rags, and other foreign matter removed from the interior.
8.18.4 BACKFILLING Backfilling of trenches shall be
started immediately after the pipe is in place and the joints
completed and inspected and approved.
8.19 JOINT CONSTRUCTION
8.19.1 CLEANING The inside of all bells and the outside
of all spigots shall be wiped to remove all dirt, water or other
foreign matter so that their surfaces are clean and dry when the
pipes are joined.
8.9.2 MORTAR JOINTS Joints and lift holes in concrete
pipe shall be filled with cement mortar. In larger pipe sizes a
bed of mortar shall be placed in the lower quadrant of the bell
before the spigot is inserted.
8.19.3 PROTECTION After the joints have been completed
they shall be inspected by the engineer before they are covered
up. Any leaks or defects discovered at any time after completion
of the work shall be repaired immediately. All pipe in place
shall be carefully protected from damage until the backfilling
operations have been completed. Any pipe which has been disturbed
after the joint was completed shall be taken up, the joint
cleaned and remade and the pipe relaid.
8.19.4 DEWATERING Water shall not be allowed to run or
stand in the trench while pipe laying is in progress or before
the joints are completely set or before the trench has been
backfilled. The contractor shall not open up at any time more
trench than his available pumping facilities are able to handle.
8.19.5 MANHOLES AND INLETS Manholes and inlets shall be
constructed to the size, shape and dimensions and at the
locations shown on the plans.
8.19.6 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION Where the work requires
special railroad or roadway crossings or any other extraordinary
conditions, or where alternate types of construction are
used that are not covered by these specifications, the
materials and methods shall be as shown on the plans.
Page 29 of 155
Page 30 of 155
9. CURB INLETS, DROP INLETS, HEADWALLS
9.1 GENERAL This section shall cover the
construction of curb inlets and drop inlets complete with the
necessary metal frames and covers.
Inlet walls may be "cast-in-place" concrete, brick
masonry or, with the prior approval of the City engineer, hollow
core blocks filled with concrete after laying.
9.2 MATERIALS
(a) Concrete material shall conform to the
requirements of ADDENDUM I entitled "Concrete".
(b) Reinforcing steel shall conform to
the requirements of ADDENDUM II entitled
" Reinforcing Steel".
(c) Brick masonry materials shall be as follows:
(1) Brick shall conform to ASTM Designation C 32
Grade MA.
(2) Cement shall meet the requirements of ASTM
Designation C 150 for Portland Cement
(3) Sand for mortar shall consist of hard,
strong, durable, uncoated mineral or rock
particles, reasonably free from injurious
amounts of organic or other deleterious
substances. Gradation shall be as follows:
Percentage passing No. 8 No.50 No.10
by weight 100 15-40 0-100
(4) Water for mortar shall be obtained from the
City water system. Any other source of water
shall be approved by the engineer.
(5) Curb inlet covers and frames and drop inlet
gratings shall conform to the requirements
of Section 10 of this Specification.
(6) Inlet and outlet pipe shall conform to
the appropriate requirements of the
Section of the Specifications covering the
kind of pipe with which they are to connect.
Page 31 of 155
9.3 EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL Excavation and backfill
shall be performed in accordance with the appropriate
requirements as set forth under Section 6.4 of this
Specification.
9.4 CONCRETE MASONRY All concrete masonry used in curb
inlets and drop inlets shall be Class A and shall be
constructed in accordance with the appropriate requirements set
forth under addendum I of this Specification.
9.5 BRICK MASONRY The foundation on which brick are to
be laid shall be firm and dry. All brick shall be damp at the
time of laying. Bricks shall be laid in courses in full, close
joints of mortar. The courses shall be level in all places,
except where otherwise directed. All exposed surfaces shall be
smooth and clean. Broken or chipped bricks shall not be used in
the exposed faces of the masonry. Joints shall be cleaned and
pointed in a neat workmanlike manner before the mortar sets.
9.6 MORTAR The mortar shall be composed of one part of
cement and two parts of sand by volume, on the basis of dry sand,
and sufficient water to make a mortar of such consistency that it
can be easily spread and handled with a trowel. Mortar shall be
mixed only in quantities required for immediate use. Unless an
approved mortar mixing machine is used, the sand and cement shall
be mixed dry in a tight box until the mixture assumes a uniform
color, after which water shall be added as the mixing continues
until the mortar attains the proper consistency. Mortar which is
not used within 45 minutes after water has been added shall be
discarded. Retempering of mortar will not be permitted.
9.7 INLET AND OUTLET PIPE Pipe shall be laid in
accordance with the appropriate requirements of the
specifications covering the kind of pipe used. Pipe placed in
masonry for inlet or outlet connections shall extend through the
walls and beyond the outside surface of the walls a sufficient
distance to allow for connections, and the masonry shall be
carefully constructed around them so that there will be no
leakage.
9.8 PLACING CASTINGS Castings shall be set in full
mortar beds or otherwise secured as shown on the plans.Castings
shall be set to correct elevation.Castings set within the surface
of paved streets or streets to be paved shall be set even with
the paved surface. (Castings need not be set level but must be
graded to fit paving grade.)
9.9 CLEANING all inlets shall be cleaned of all form
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material, excess mortar, silt, debris or foreign matter of any
kind.
9.10 HEADWALLS
9.10.1 All materials furnished shall conform to the
requirements of ADDENDUM I, Concrete and ADDENDUM II, Reinforcing
Steel of this Specification.
9.10.2 The concrete mix used for headwalls shall be Class
"A", Type 2 unless authorized by the City engineer.
9.10.3 Foundation excavation shall be of the size and
depth conforming to the outline of the structure. Unsuitable
foundation material below the normal design elevation shall be
removed as directed by the engineer. Where rock, gravelly soil,
hardpan or other unsuitable material is encountered, it shall be
removed as ordered by the engineer for a depth of at least 12
inches below the designated grade.
9.10.4 Foundation backfill shall be deposited uniformly
for the full width of the excavation in layers not exceeding 6
inches in depth with each layer compacted.
9.10.5 Construction, forming, placing, etc. of headwalls
shall be in accordance with the appropriate requirements of AHD
5.01.03.
9.10.5 All surfaces will receive a Class 1 surface finish
and all exposed surfaces will receive a Class 2 surface finish.
In order to permit proper surface finishing, forms may be removed
as soon as the concrete has set sufficiently that form removal
will not damage the green concrete, but in no case less than 12
hours after completion of the placing. Immediately after pouring
is completed, surfaces not covered by forms shall be covered
with one of the curing materials specified in AHD Section 830.
Finishing shall begin immediately after removal of the forms, and
curing continued for at least 72 hours after finishing.
9.10.6 The finished concrete shall be within reasonably
close conformity to the line, grades and dimensions shown on the
plans, and free from objectionable cavities or projections.
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10. CURB INLET COVERS AND FRAMES
10.1 DESCRIPTION Curb inlet covers and frames shall be
gray iron castings. The castings shall be boldly filleted at
angles and the arises shall be sharp and perfect. They shall be
true to pattern in form and dimension and shall be free from
cracks, pits, blowholes or other defects.
10.2 MATERIAL All frames, covers and gratings shall
conform to the requirements of Class No. 20 for Gray Iron
Castings, ASTM Designation A 48.
10.3 CLEANING All castings shall be sand blasted or
otherwise effectively cleaned of scale and sand so as to present
a smooth, clean and uniform surface.
10.4 IDENTIFICATION All frames and covers shall be
identified with the name of the foundry and the date of casting.
Identification shall be in raised or indented letters in the
surface of the casting. Identification on lids and frames shall
be on the underside.
10.5 GUARANTEE The manufacturer shall guarantee all
castings against defects in material or workmanship for a period
of 18 months after date of casting.
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11. STREET AND DRAINAGE EXCAVATION
11.1 CONSTRUCTION METHODS
11.1.1 All necessary clearing and grubbing shall be done
in proper sequence with excavation and construction. All
excavation shall be conducted in such manner and by such methods
and equipment as will insure against removing or loosening any
material outside of the street right-of way.
11.1.2.0 The following criteria shall be used in the design of
all open channels:
1. Open channels shall be designed based on a 25 year
storm event.
2. A minimum of 20% depth shall be added for
freeboard.
3. Design shall be based on documented, acceptable
engineering
methods.
4. Sufficient design calculations shall be provided
to the City Engineer.
Linings shall meet the following minimum criteria:
Vegetative:
1. Maximum side slope of 3: 1.
2. Minimum slope of 0.75%.
3. Maximum velocity of 5. 0 fps and minimum velocity
of 2 fps.
4. Not allowed where continuous flow or standing
water is present.
5. All channel bottoms shall be sod and must be
pinned and staggered.
6. Design shall address stability (new ditch)and
capacity(established
ditch).
7. 10' of easement shall be provided along the top of
one side of the channel for maintenance purposes.
Riprap:
1. Maximum side slope of 2: 1.
2. Minimum velocity of 5.0 fps.
3. Shall be constructed in accordance with design.
4. Filter Blanket is required, either gravel or
fabric.
5. 10' of easement shall be provided along the top of
one side of the channel for maintenance purposes.
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Rigid Linings:
1. Shall consist of either concrete or grouted
riprap.
2. Maximum side slope of 1: 1.
3. Slope above linings shall be 3:1 and sodded
adjacent to linings and
seeded and mulched above sod.
4. Concrete shall be used where slope is less than
0.75% and velocity less than 2.0 fps.
5. Channel shall be constructed in accordance with
design.
6.
Consideration shall be given to downstream
conditions and potential erosion problems in
design of ditch system. Use of check dams,
boxes, and similar devices may be required.
7. 10' of easement shall be provided along the
top of one side of the channel for maintenance
purposes.
8. Grouted riprap channels shall be designed and
constructed such that voids are eliminated
that can result in spaulding and failure of
channel.
11.1.2.1 Gutters, ditches, channels and channel changes
shall be constructed only when and as shown on the plans or when
and as directed by the engineer to lines, grades and cross-
sections established by him, in proper sequence with other work
and when and as he directs. Excavation for channels shall
preferably be made before the excavation for structures is
started. When necessary in order to provide proper gradient of
flow line, the engineer may direct that channels be extended
beyond the limits of the street.
11.1.2.2 Changes of direction in open channels shall
have the channel protected from erosion on the bottom and
both banks for a sufficient distance upstream and downstream of
the directional change. The City Engineer may require
calculations to verify the adequacy of channel protection in
these areas.
11.1.2.3 Intersections of open channels shall be protected
from erosion and scouring by placing concrete on the bottom
and both banks of the channels upstream and downstream for a
sufficient distance to ensure that the channel is protection from
erosion.
11.1.2.4 Headwalls shall be constructed at all points where
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underground drain pipes exit into open channels and where open
channels enter into sub-surface drains.
11.1.3 Intersecting ditches or dikes shall be constructed
as soon as practicable after clearing and grubbing operations are
completed and prior to excavating the cuts.
11.1.4 All suitable materials removed from the excavation
shall be used as far as practicable in the formation of the
embankment, subgrade, base course, shoulders, slopes, bedding and
backfill or for such other purposes and at such other places as
directed. No excavated material shall be discarded without
written permission and when such material is to be discarded
it shall be disposed of as prescribed in Section 6.8.1.
11.1.5 The materials excavated from channels, channel
changes, waterways and ditches shall be utilized in the
construction of embankments, the widening and sloping of
embankment slopes, the backfilling of abandoned ditches and
channels or otherwise disposed of as directed by the engineer. No
excavated material shall be left in unsightly piles but shall be
spread in uniform layers, neatly leveled and shaped. No waste or
surplus excavation from a ditch or channel shall be deposited or
left within 3 feet of the edge of the ditch or channel.
11.1.6 All rock or boulders encountered in the roadway
shall be excavated to the lateral limits shown on the plans and
to a depth of at least 9 inches below subgrade, and the resulting
space backfilled to proper grade with suitable material as
directed by the engineer. In blasting rock, a reasonably uniform
face shall be left. The engineer, the City engineer or the City
fire marshal shall have authority to require cessation of any
method of blasting which leads to overshooting or is dangerous to
the public or destructive to property or to natural features.
11.1.7 Attention is directed to the possible existence of
pipe lines or other public utilities which may be buried within
the limits of the work or adjacent thereto, and which may or may
not be shown on the plans. The contractor shall be responsible
for and take all necessary precautions to protect and preserve
any and all existing drains, sewers, surface drains, pipes,
conduits and other underground structure or parts thereof which
may be affected by his operations on the work and which, in the
opinion of the engineer, may properly be continued in use without
any changes. The contractor shall assume full responsibility for
reimbursing the owners for any damage or injury to property or
interference with other services.
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11.1.8 The contractor shall repair, replace, relocate,
extend, reconstruct or make any other changes in any tile drain,
sewer or other subsurface drain, or water, gas line, or other
utility line encountered in the prosecution of the work.
11.1.9 Grading operations shall not be performed to the
prejudice of the work of blading and maintaining the street bed
and subgrade and base course. The engineer or the City engineer
shall have full authority to order the suspension of other
contract operations pending the adequate and proper performance
of such maintenance work.
11.1.10 While the excavation is being done and until the
work is finally accepted, the work shall be protected and the
loss of material from the street by erosion shall be held to a
minimum.
11.2 SOD
11.2.1 Where sod is disturbed in grading lawns between
curb and walks, in terracing property, in setting or resetting
curb, or in other work it shall be carefully removed, relaid and
watered. New sod will be laid where the old sod dies before the
acceptance of the work. Sod destroyed by piling of materials or
tools shall be replaced with new sod.
11.3 PIPES
11.3.1 The City and those under contract with or having
franchise rights from the City shall be permitted to construct or
lay sewers, water or gas pipes, and other conduits in those
portions of the street or easements where there is a fill before
the filling is commenced. The remainder of the street shall be
brought to subgrade as soon as possible and the above mentioned
parties given an opportunity to lay such pipes or other conduits
before the base course is laid. On completion of the laying of
pipes in any block or part of a block the grading shall be
completed as soon as possible. All parties excavating in streets
shall backfill cuts in accordance with Paragraph 6.6.2 of this
Specification.
11.3.2 Utilities under streets or in easements adjoining
streets shall be installed in strict accordance with Section
18 of this Specification.
11.4 SIDEWALK AND LAWN
11.4.1 The sidewalk and lawn space shall be graded to the
lines given by the engineer. Where dirt is removed for curb and
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gutter and is thrown in the street or in the sidewalk space or on
the sidewalk, the contractor will remove it therefrom prior to
the close of work that day.
11.5 MONUMENTS
11.5.1 Engineer's monuments, bench marks, stakes and all
meter boxes, manhole rims and covers and other castings will be
preserved.
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12 EMBANKMENT
12.1 DESCRIPTION
This section shall cover the placing in embankments
suitable material excavated under other sections of this
Specification in conformity with the lines, grades and cross-
sections shown on the plans. Embankment construction shall
include the preparation of the area upon which the embankment is
to be constructed, the preparation and selection of materials,
the formation, compaction and stability of the embankment and the
disposal of surplus and unsuitable material.
12.2 MATERIALS
Only suitable materials shall be used in the
construction of embankments and backfills. No brush, roots
(larger than 1" in diameter), rubbish, limbs, logs, stumps,
heavy vegetation or other unsuitable material shall be
incorporated or placed in the embankments or backfill. All
unsuitable material shall be disposed of. Grading operations in
street and drainage excavation shall be so conducted that all
suitable material shall be used where required for the formation
of embankments, subgrade, shoulders, approaches, intersections,
and for backfilling around structures. The work shall be done in
such a manner and sequence that the most suitable soil shall be
reserved for topping as far as practicable.
12.3 EQUIPMENT
12.3.1 Rolling Equipment
The rolling equipment shall consist of adequate
sheepsfoot tamping rollers or other mechanical compacting
equipment and, if required, pneumatic tired rollers of an
approved design.
12.3.2 Other Equipment
A blade grader and/or bulldozer shall be kept on
the work and shall be used to keep each lift of the fill machined
at all times while the embankment is being constructed and
tamped.
12.4 PREPARATION
12.4.1 General Before beginning embankment construction,
clearing and grubbing shall be performed as provided in Section 5
of this Specification.
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12.4.2 Natural Ground Slopes and Old Embankments
12.4.2.1 Where embankments occur adjacent to natural ground
which slopes more than 20 degrees from horizontal, such slopes
shall be:
(a) scraped of topsoil
(b) plowed or loosened to a depth of at least 6
inches before backfilling is commenced and
(c) the topsoil removed, stored or placed under
embankment slopes
12.4.2.2 In cases where widening of embankments is
necessary, the slope of the old embankment shall be stepped and
plowed before placing additional material. embankment shall be
placed to a sufficient height and width so that after full
shrinkage, settlement and subsidence, and sloughing of the side
slopes, the fills will be at the required grade and have the
specified cross-section at all points. When the widening on
either side of the center line is less than 6 feet measured
horizontally by cross-sections, stepping, parallel
layer construction and density as specified herein will be
required only in the 2 feet next below subgrade elevation.
12.4.2.3 When the embankment is to be superimposed on old
pavements or pavements having concrete bases, (so-called rigid
types), the procedure shall be as follows:
(a) If the depth of new embankment (exclusive of
new paving material and base course) is less than 1
foot, the old pavement shall be removed and
disposed of.
(b) If the depth of the new embankment (exclusive
of new material and base course) exceeds 1 foot but
is less than 3 feet, the old pavement shall be
broken with a drop hammer of suitable weight into
pieces less than 2 square feet in area, at the same
time pounding or forcing such pieces into the
subgrade. Broken pieces shall be subsequently
covered with sand in an amount sufficient to fill
all cracks
(c) If the depth of embankment (exclusive of new
paving material and base course) is 3 feet or over,
the old pavement shall not be disturbed.
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(d) When embankment is to be superimposed upon
any other type of pavement or surface the existing
pavement or roadway surface shall, (regardless of
the depth of the embankment to be placed thereon),
be scarified to such a degree as will provide ample
bond between old and new material.
12.5 FORMATION
12.5.1 General The material shall be deposited and
spread in successive uniform layers of not more than 8 inches in
depth loose measurement for the full width of the required cross-
section, and shall be kept level or parallel to the finished
subgrade by the use of blade graders, except that around bridge
ends and structures, leveling shall be done with bulldozers and
hand methods. Each layer of embankment shall be rolled and
compacted to specified density hereinafter provided. Embankments
and slopes shall be finished true and straight, in conformity
with the lines and grades of slope set by the engineer, and all
slopes, whether old or new, shall be maintained with true and
even surfaces.
12.5.2 Low Swampy Ground Unless specific preparatory
treatment is provided, where low swampy ground will not support
the vehicles, the thickness of the bottom layer may be increased
to a depth not greater than that required to support the said
vehicles while placing subsequent layers. Subsequent layers shall
be constructed and compacted as provided above.
12.5.3 Predominantly Rock Where embankments are being
constructed predominantly of rock, the stones, broken rock and
boulders shall be placed in layers and all voids shall be
completely filled with suitable earthy materials and thoroughly
compacted. No layer of such rocky material shall be placed within
9 inches of the subgrade or finished earth shoulders. Where rock
excavation is used in embankments, all excavation, of whatever
class in the vicinity, shall be managed so that all coarse rock
will be placed and embedded in the embankment before any fine
rock and earth shall be used.
12.5.4 Over, Under and Around Structures Embankments
over, under and around pipes, culverts, arches, bridges and other
structures shall be of selected embankment materials placed and
tamped and compacted in a manner and by methods that will avoid
unbalanced loading, and that will not cause movement or place
undue strain on any structure. The embankments that are placed
against or immediately adjacent to bridge abutments, retaining or
wing walls, open end bents and culverts shall be built in
horizontal layers not exceeding 6 inches loose and must be
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compacted by mechanical tamping and/or rolling. This method of
building embankments will be required for such distance from
these structures until rollers can effectively tamp embankments.
12.5.6 Erosion Control Suitable coarse rock will be
used in constructing the stream side of all embankments which are
adjacent to or parallel to streams. Materials deposited in any
stream channel that in any way whatsoever obstructs or impairs
the flow of the stream or endangers a roadway or stream bank
shall be removed as directed by the engineer or the City
engineer. Side ditches or gutters emptying from cuts to
embankments or otherwise shall be so constructed as to avoid
damage to embankments by erosion.
12.6 EMBANKMENT COMPACTION
12.6.1 General Embankments shall be rolled as
stipulated herein unless otherwise specified by the engineer. The
density of each layer (except the top 6" or subgrade layer) shall
be not less than 95% of the relative maximum density as
determined by AASHTO compaction test T99. The top 6" or subgrade
layer shall be as provided by Section 13 of this Specification.
Each layer of embankment material which does not contain
sufficient moisture to compact thoroughly shall be sprinkled and
mixed with water as directed by the engineer. Watering may also
be done before material is removed from cuts or pits. Material
containing excess moisture shall be allowed to dry out to the
proper consistency before compacting is attempted. Successive
layers shall not be placed until the layer under construction has
been compacted.
12.6.2 Very Sandy Material When the embankment
material is of a very sandy nature and it is impractical to
compact it with rollers, the material shall be spread in 6"
maximum loose layers and each layer watered, then rolled with the
tracks or treads of a 10-ton tractor which shall cover the entire
surface of the layer.
12.7 SPECIAL SLOPE PROTECTION
12.7.1 The work covered by this section consists of
furnishing all materials, equipment and labor and performing
all necessary operations in connection with the installation of
rip-rap or other special slope protection, as called for in the
plans.
12.7.2 Areas to receive rip-rap or special slope
protection materials shall be graded to the lines and slopes
shown on the plans, or as directed by the City engineer. Any
loose material shall be compacted by the use of hand or
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mechanical tampers.
12.7.3 Stone for rip-rap shall be of the size and weight
designated on the Standard Drawings. In addition, the stones
shall be durable and of a suitable quality to insure permanence
in the structure in which it is to be used. It shall be free of
cracks, seams and other defects that would tend to unduly
increase its deterioration from natural causes. No more than five
percent of the stones shall have shale seams which would tend to
separate when exposed to weathering. The inclusion of
objectionable quantities of dirt, sand, clay or rock fines will
not be permitted.
12.7.4 Just prior to placing rip-rap or other slope
protection material, the contractor shall install a non-woven
plastic filter fabric as described in the Standard Drawings. The
filter fabric shall be approved by the City engineer for
installation and shall then be installed in strict accordance
with the manufacturer's specifications for installation and use.
Only then, and after approval by the City engineer, shall the
slope protection material be installed on the filter fabric.
Attention is called to the standards contained in Section 6.8.4
above.
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13 SUBGRADE
13.1 DESCRIPTION
The subgrade shall be considered as that portion of
the street bed on which the base course or curb and gutter is to
be placed. After the earth work is substantially completed and
after all drains have been laid and after all utilities under the
pavement are in place, the subgrade shall be brought to the
lines, grades and cross-sections shown on the plans, and finished
in accordance with the plans.
Subgrade material shall meet the requirements of Soil
Classifications A-1, A-2, A-3, or A-4 as determined by AASHTO
specification M-145 within the following limitations:
a) materials in the A- I or A-3 classification will
not require consideration of a CBR value.
b) materials in the A-2 or A-4 classification shall
have a CBR value of not less than 10.
c) Materials of the cherty or float gravel type which
have a minimum 500/o metal retained on the number
8 sieve, 100% passing the 4" sieve, and CBR value
of at least 25 will not be required to conform to
the soil classification noted above.
Certification by the developers geotechnical engineer
shall be submitted to the City addressing the subgrade
material.
13.2 PREPARING SUBGRADE
13.2.1 The subgrade shall be so constructed that it will
have, as nearly as practicable, uniform density throughout. No
base course, surfacing or pavement shall be placed on the
subgrade until specified density is obtained, and until the
subgrade conforms to the grade and cross-section shown on the
plans and until the subgrade has been checked and approved.
13.2.2 Before placing any material on a subgrade, it shall
be firm and compacted and shall have passed an inspection for
compaction in accordance with Section 13.2.4 of this
Specification. When necessary, the subgrade shall be sprinkled.
The subgrade shall be constructed so that it will be uniform
in texture and have as nearly as possible uniform density
throughout. Subgrade material shall be placed in maximum 8"
lifts. No base course or sub-base course shall be placed
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on the subgrade until the specified density is obtained, and
until the subgrade conforms to the lines, grades and cross-
sections shown on the plans. The density of the top 6 inches
of subgrade shall be not less than 100% of the maximum density
as determined by AASHTO Compaction test T-99. In no case shall
any roadbed material, base course, pavement or surface
course be placed on a frozen, muddy or excessively dirty
subgrade. Storing or stockpiling of material on the subgrade
will not be permitted.
13.2.3 All boulders, brick, concrete or similar solid
items or ledge rock appearing in the earth excavation shall be
removed or broken off to a depth of not less than 9 inches below
the subgrade. The depressions left by such excavation shall be
filled with suitable material. All soft and unstable material
and other portions of the subgrade which will not compact readily
or serve the intended purpose shall be removed. The resulting
areas and all other low sections, holes or depressions shall be
brought to profile grade with satisfactory selected material and
the entire subgrade shaped to line, grade and cross-section.
The entire subgrade, both in cut and in fill, shall be compacted
to a density of not less than I 00% of the maximum density in the
top 6" layer as required in section 13.2.2 above and 95% of the
maximum density below 6" in depth as detemiined by AASHTO
Compaction Test T-99. Moisture content at the time of the in-
place density test shall be within + or - 2% of the optimum
moisture content established during the control density test.
Density test shall be performed at a minimum of 3 00' intervals
or at least once on short streets less than 300' in length.
Developer shall provide the City with results of in-place density
test.
13.2.5 Particular attention shall be paid to compaction
around manholes, over sewer lines and laterals, and over other
utility and drainage crossings. Where deemed necessary by the
engineer or the City engineer or his representative, hand tamping
shall be required.
13.2.6 Where the plans indicate that a base course, surface
course or pavement is to be placed, any requirements as to
subgrade contained in the specifications for such base course,
surface course or pavement shall be performed accordingly.
Subgrade rolling shall be performed with a double axle truck with
a minimum net load of 20 tons.
13.2.7 After rolling, the subgrade shall be checked and
all portions not at true elevation shall be corrected and
compacted to correct elevation. The subgrade shall be tested
after rolling and sufficient material shall be added or removed
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to bring all portions of the subgrade to proper elevation.
13.2.8 All intersecting public streets or highways shall
be graded as shown on the plans, and acceptable materials used on
the surface so that a commodious, smooth riding and satisfactory
intersection shall be produced. Grading of the subgrade shall be
conducted so that berms of earth or other material do not prevent
immediate drainage of water to the side ditches or gutters.
Gutters, ditches and drains along subgrade shall be so maintained
at all times as to drain effectively. When hauling results in
ruts or other objectionable irregularities, the subgrade shall be
rerolled before the surfacing is placed.
13.3 PROTECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF SUBGRADE
13.3.1 The subgrade shall be maintained free from ruts and
other depressions, in a smooth and compacted condition true to
lines and grades and to density requirements until the base,
surfacing or pavement is placed.
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14 DENSE GRADED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE
14.1 Description
14.1.1 This item shall consist of dense graded crushed
limestone base course composed of one or more well controlled
aggregate sizes, water mixed with and without calcium chloride,
as directed, placed and compacted in accordance with these
Specifications and in conformity with lines, grades and cross-
sections shown on the plans. All material shall conform to the
requirements set forth in Section 14.1.2 of this Specification.
14.1.2 Coarse Aggregate
(a) Coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed
stone,free from adherent coatings and conforming to the
requirements of this Specification.
(b) Deleterious Substances in coarse aggregates
shall not exceed the following limits:
1. Soft fragments ................................. 6.0%
2. Coal and lignite ............................... 0.25%
3 Clay lumps ..................................... 0.25%
4. Material passing a #200 sieve .................. 2.0%
5. Thin or elongated pieces (Length greater than
5 times average thickness) ..................... 10.0%
6. Other local deleterious substances ............. 2.0%
7. Total of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 6 above............ 8.0%
14.1.3 Crushed Stone
(a) Crushed stone shall consist of clean, tough,
durable fragments of rock conforming to the class and gradation
specified.
(b) Crushed stone shall meet the following
requirements for the respective physical tests:
TEST LIMITS FOR TYPE CONSTRUCTION
Concrete Bituminous Other
Percent wear, Los Angeles
Test (AASHTO T-96) 50 Max 48 Max 60 Max
Percent sound, Soundness
Test (AASHTO T-104) 90 Min 90 Min 90 Min
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14.2 Gradation
(a) Coarse aggregate shall be graded within the
limits specified and the size or sizes designated shall conform
to the limits shown in the Coarse Aggregate Gradation Table
provided in AHD Specification for Highway Construction
(AHDSSHC), Subarticle 801.11(d).
(b) The dense graded mixture as processed shall
contain moisture within 2% of the optimum moisture content of
the aggregates, and the aggregates shall be blended together in
such a manner that if sampled and tested, it shall meet the
following gradation without abrupt variation:
TOTAL PASSING PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT
2" sieve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
1.5” sieve. . . . . . . . . . . . . .90-100
1" sieve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75-98
1/2" sieve . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 60-85
No. 4 sieve . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-65
No. 8 sieve . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-54
No. 16 sieve . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-42
No. 50 sieve . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
No. 200 sieve . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
14.3 CONSTRUCTION METHODS
a) General
The roadbed must be in an approved condition before
placement of any base or subase will be permitted.
Approval shall be based on satisfactorily completion of
the roadbed in accordance with the requirements of
Section 13.
b) Equipment
In general, it shall be the Contractor's responsibility
to select and furnish the proper size and amount of
equipment that will produce and deliver to the roadbed,
mix, spread, shape and compact the base material.
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14.4 MIXING BASE COURSE AGGREGATES
(a) Premixing of the materials for the base course
will be required. They shall be mixed by an approved mechanical
mixer, either at point of use or at a central mixing plant. Water
shall be added during the mixing operation in an amount to make
the total moisture content of the mixture not less than 5% by
weight, and sufficient to make a workable mixture. At no time
during the mixing operation shall the moisture content exceed
the designated optimum by more than 2%. In case the material
becomes too dry before compaction, water shall be added. For the
top layer only, calcium chloride may be added during the mixing
operation at the rate of 10 pounds of flakes per loose cubic yard
of mixture.
14.5 PLACING MATERIAL
(a) In mixing, handling and placing the base
material, care shall be taken to prevent segregation. The base
course material shall be placed in not more than 6 inch compacted
layers on an accepted subbase or subgrade. The minimum nominal
thickness of the base material in place shall be 5", unless
otherwise approved by the City Engineer. Reference is made to the
typical sections for local and minor collector streets in the
Appendix.
14.6 COMPACTING AND MACHINING
(a) The surface of the base course material
shall be immediately and continuously machined with motor
graders, maintaining the required section and compacted with
steel wheel rollers. The base course shall be compacted until
it reaches 100% proctor density. The base course shall be rolled
with a double-axle dump truck with a minimum net load of 20 tons.
Steel wheel rolling shall extend beyond the curb line where curb
and gutter is to be placed on the base material, and to the
curb and gutter where the curb is placed on subgrade. When
compaction is complete, the base course shall be smooth, hard,
dense, unyielding and well bonded. The contractor shall provide
density tests for the base if requested by the City.
14.7 MAINTENANCE
(a) The entire roadway shall be maintained, and
areas found defective shall be corrected and, if necessary, the
subgrade and base shall be replaced. Maintenance shall include
maintaining the shoulders (where they exist) to a uniform grade
and slope, keeping all drainage ditches free from loose earth or
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other objectionable material, and keeping the roadbed drained at
all times until the surface coat is applied. The base shall be
machined as often as necessary to maintain it smooth and to grade
and cross-section until the wearing surface is applied. The
maximum speed of trucks when hauling or traveling any part of the
base course under construction shall be 20 miles per hour.
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15 CURB AND GUTTER
15.1 GENERAL
(a) This section shall cover the work of
constructing portland cement concrete combination curb and
gutter.
15.2 MATERIALS
(a) All materials shall conform to the requirements
of AHD Specifications Division III. Concrete shall conform to the
requirements of Addendum I of this Specification.
15.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
(a) Concrete mixes shall be as provided by Addendum
I of this Specification, with a Class A mix being used with
standard forms and a Class A mix, modified as deemed necessary by
the engineer to fit the type curbing machine being used.
(b) Foundation shall be constructed or excavated to
the required depth below the finished surface in accordance with
the cross-section shown on the plans. All soft or other
unsuitable material shall be removed and replaced with suitable
material in layers not to exceed 4 inches compacted. The
foundation shall be proof rolled with a two-axle truck with a
minimum 20 ton net load.
15.4 FORMS
(a) General The contractor shall use standard
type metal forms as noted hereinafter or an approved automatic
extrusion type curb-and-gutter machine.
(b) At each street or driveway crossing where
there is to be sidewalk, the curb shall be modified to provide a
ramp from the sidewalk to the street.
(c) Combination curb and gutter shall be 24 inches
wide at the base
(d) Standard Forms Standard forms shall be
metal, except for radial sections. They shall be straight and
free from warps and of sufficient strength, when staked, to hold
the concrete true to line and grade without distortion. They
shall provide the approved typical section and depth of the
section shown on the plans. Radial or curved forms may be of
flexible metal, or a wood form of approved design may be used.
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Bent or damaged forms shall not be used. All forms shall be
securely staked, braced and held together to the line and grade
established and shall be kept sufficiently tight to prevent
leakage of mortar. All forms shall be cleaned and oiled with a
suitable oil immediately before concrete is placed against
them.
(e) Machine formed Any automatic extrusion
type curb-and-gutter machine must produce a section conforming
to the dimensions, cross-section, lines and grades shown on the
plans within the tolerances provided in Paragraph 15.8(b) of
this Specification for formed curb and gutter. All curb and
gutter shall be placed in one operation to the depth of
cross-section shown on the plans. The use of a two-stage
operation will not be permitted.
15.5 SECTIONS
(a) Combination curb and gutter shall be
constructed in sections of the lengths shown on the plans. The
length of sections may be reduced when necessary to form closure.
Sections shall be formed with expansion joints not more than 60
feet apart, and with contraction joints spaced at 10 foot
intervals.
15.6 MATERIAL HANDLING, PROPORTIONING AND MIXING
(a) the handling, storing, proportioning and
mixing of concrete shall conform to the requirements of ADDENDUM
I.
15.7 JOINTS
(a) All expansion, contraction and construction
joints shall be constructed as shown on the plans and in
accordance with the requirements of ADDENDUM I, Section I-13 of
this Specification. If not shown on the plans, joints shall be
placed as follows:
(b) Expansion joints shall be placed in curb and
gutter to match those in concrete pavement where the two are
adjacent, but in no instance shall there be more than 60 feet
between expansion joints.
(c) Expansion joints 3/4 inch wide shall be placed
where curb and gutter terminates against rigid objects.
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(d) Expansion joint filler and sealer shall meet
the requirements of ADDENDUM I, Paragraph I-3.8 of this
Specification. Expansion joint filler shall extend from the
bottom of the curb and gutter to within 1 inch of the top and the
sealer shall be 3/4 inch thick and shall be recessed 1/4 inch
from the top.
(e) Contraction joints shall be placed in curb-
and-gutter to match those in concrete paving where the two are
adjacent, but in no instance shall there be more than 10 feet
between joints. Contraction joints shall be sawed or otherwise
cut 2 inches deep by 1/8 inch wide and shall extend 2 inches
below the pavement surface.
15.8 PLACING AND FINISHING - STANDARD METHOD
(a) Placing The subgrade and forms shall be
checked and approved just prior to placing concrete against them.
All debris or other foreign material shall have been removed from
the space to be occupied by the concrete. The subgrade shall be
moist but not wet or muddy. The concrete shall be placed in the
forms and shall be tamped, spaded or vibrated sufficiently to
produce a dense homogeneous mass and to bring the mortar to the
surface. Particular attention shall be given to spading and
placing the concrete along and against the surface of the forms
to prevent honeycombing and to secure a smooth, uniform surface.
(b) When the forms are filled, the concrete
shall be struck off with a template cut to the curb edge design.
The exposed concrete surface shall then be finished smooth with a
wooden float in a manner that will compact the mass and produce a
true, even top surface. Plastering with mortar to build up or
finish will not be permitted. The surface of the gutter and the
top and face of the curb will be checked with a 10 foot
straightedge and any irregularities more than 1/4 inch in 10 feet
shall be corrected. The alignment and grade shall not at any
point vary more than 1/2 inch from that established by the
elevation control stakes. Excessive troweling with a steel trowel
will not be permitted. A textured finish shall be provided on the
exposed surface just before the concrete becomes non-plastic by
the use of a burlap or cotton fabric drag, brush or broom which
will produce a uniform gritty texture along the length of the
curb and gutter. The upper edges of curb shall be rounded with an
edging tool to the radius shown on the plans. Joint templates
shall be set during the placing of the concrete and allowed to
remain in place until the concrete has set sufficiently to hold
its shape, but shall be removed while the forms are still in
place.
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The forms shall be left in place until concrete has set
sufficiently so that they can be removed without damage to the
work but, unless otherwise directed, they shall be removed within
24 hours after the concrete has been placed. Immediately after
removal of the forms, any minor defects shall be repaired.
15.9 PLACING AND FINISHING- MACHINE METHOD
(a) Placing and finishing machine laid curb and
gutter shall be in accordance with Paragraph 15.4 of this
Specification except that fixed forms are not required.
15.10 CURING AND PROTECTION
(a) Immediately after the finishing operation is
completed, the concrete shall be cured as provided in ADDENDUM I,
Paragraph I-3.7.
15.11 BACKFILLING
(a) After the concrete has set sufficiently,
spaces along the front and back sides of the curb and gutter
shall be backfilled to the required elevation with suitable
material which shall be compacted by tamping with approved metal
tamps or mechanical tamps in layers not more than 4 inches thick
until firm and solid.
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16 ASPHALT BITUMINOUS MATERIAL PLANT MIX
16.1 DESCRIPTION
This Section pertains to a two step plant mix
bituminous application with the mix prepared at a stationary
plant.
16.2 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE BINDER LAYER
(a) The work covered by this Section shall consist
of a hot bituminous plant mixed binder layer placed on a prepared
surface and to be covered by a bituminous wearing surface in
accordance with these Specifications and in reasonable close
conformity with the lines, grades, and typical cross-section
shown on the plans and required by these Specifications.
(b) The materials furnished shall conform to the
requirements of AHDSSHC Section 414 and the following:
The minimum VMA for mixes in this section is
12.
Fine aggregates shall be sand or crushed
aggregate or a mixture of these, meeting the
requirements of AHD. Coarse aggregate shall
be gravel, crushed gravel, crushed slag,
crushed stone, crushed sandstone or
combinations thereof, meeting the
requirements of AHD. When gravel is used as
the aggregate for a mix, at least 50% by
weight of material retained on the No.8 sieve
shall be crushed material passing the 3/4 inch
sieve. When gravel is used in a blend
with other aggregates, at least 50% by weight
of material retained on the No.8 sieve shall
be slag or stone passing the 3/4 inch sieve.
The coarse and fine aggregates shall be combined
in a total blend that will produce an acceptable
job mix within the following gradation limits.
The job mix shall be designed by the Marshall
Method to produce a minimum of 1400 pounds
stability.
Mix A shall be used unless otherwise noted on
the plans or ordered by the engineer.
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(c) For a Local Street, the binder shall consist of
a 2” compacted hot bituminous plant mix binder layer, Mix A
according to these specifications. Binder layer shall be
installed according to Section 410 of the Alabama Highway
Department Standard Specifications for Highway Construction
(AHDSSHC) and shall meet the density requirements of Section 306
of AHDSSHC.
For a Minor Collector Street, the binder shall consist of a 2.5"
compacted hot bituminous plant mix binder layer, Mix A according
to these specifications. Binder layer shall be installed
according to Section 410 of the AHDS SHC and shall meet the
density requirements of Section 306 of the AHDSSHC.
GENERAL COMPOSITION
SIEVE PERCENT PASSING BY WEIGHT
Square mesh type Mix A Mix B
_________________________________________________________________
1-1/2 inch sieve 100 100
3/4 inch sieve 80-95 94-100
1/2 inch sieve 75-90
3/8 inch sieve 54-76 64-80
No. 4 sieve 40-58 46-64
No. 8 sieve 28-46 34-50
No. 50 sieve 8-22 10-22
No.100 sieve 5-15 6-16
No.200 sieve 3-10 4-10
Unless the type of bitumen is specified on the
plans, the contractor may select for use either asphalt cement,
grade AC-20, AC-30 or AC-40, or tar of a grade approved by the
engineer. The proportion of bitumen to total sample by weight
shall be 3.5% to 6.0% for Mix A and 3.5% to 6.5% for Mix B. The
exact proportion shall be fixed by the job mix formula.
16.3 BITUMINOUS CONCRETE WEARING SURFACE
(a) The work covered by this Section shall consist
of constructing a hot bituminous concrete wearing surface on a
prepared surface in reasonable close conformity with the lines,
grades, and typical cross-section shown on the plans and
required by these Specifications.
(b) The materials furnished shall conform to the
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requirements of AHD Section 410 and the following:
(c) All mixes in this Section, regardless of the
type aggregate used, will require the use of an anti-strip agent.
All gravel aggregates shall be washed prior to crushing. All
mixes in this Section shall be designed on the fine side of the
Maximum Density Curve on the No. 8 sieve.
(d) Aggregates shall meet the requirements of AHD
Sections 801 and 802, with particular attention directed to
Article 802.04 and the following:
(e) Coarse aggregates for an actual wearing surface
shall be limited to siliceous aggregates such as gravel, granite,
slag, sandstone, or a combination of the proper sizes of these
materials that will produce a mix within the required gradation
limits. Carbonate stone, such as limestone, dolomite or
aggregates which tend to polish under traffic will be permitted
only in underlying layers, shoulder paving, or widening.
(f) All coarse aggregate shall be crushed aggregate
meeting the requirements of AHD Section 801.
(g) Fine aggregate such as round, pea or shot
gravel, defined as an uncrushed gravel passing the 3/8 inch sieve
with more than 50% retained on the No. 8 sieve will not be
permitted as a material to be blended in this mix. A sand
stockpile may be rejected if it appears that this type of gravel
has been blended with a natural sand.
(h) Naturally fine aggregate used in this mix
shall be reasonably clean, free from a coating of injurious
material, lumps of clay, loam, organic matter or other foreign
matter and uniformly graded. All of the aggregate shall pass
the 3/8 inch sieve and at least 85% shall pass the No. 4 sieve.
(i) Manufactured fine aggregate used in the mix
shall have 100% passing the 3/8 inch sieve with 95% of the
material retained on the No. 8 sieve and shall have at least one
freshly fractured face.
(j) The aggregates shall be combined in a blend in
which at least 80% of the total material retained on the No. 4
sieve shall have at least two freshly fractured faces, and will
produce an acceptable job mix within the gradation limits shown
below. The job mix shall be designed by the Marshall Method to
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produce a minimum stability of 1600 pounds, and a minimum VMA of
15 for Mix A , 14 for Mix B, and 16 for Mix C.
(k) Unless noted on the plans or ordered by the
engineer, Mix B shall be used for all layers.
(l) Deleted
GENERAL COMPOSITION
SIEVE PERCENT PASSING BY WEIGHT
(Square Mesh Type) Mix A Mix B Mix C
_________________________________________________________________
1 inch sieve 100
3/4 inch sieve 100 95-100
1/2 inch sieve 95-100 76-90 100
3/8 inch sieve 80-95 66-84 90-100
No. 4 sieve 54-74 46-66 65-82
No.8 sieve 38-56 34-50 45-62
No. 30 Sieve 16-36 16-30 22-38
No. 50 sieve 10-26 10-22 14-28
No. 100 sieve 6-18 5-14 8-20
No. 200 sieve 4-12 4-10 4-14
(
m) For a Local Street, the wearing surface shall
consist of a 1.5" compacted hot bituminous concrete wearing
surface Mix B according to these specifications. The wearing
surface course shall be installed according to Section 410 of the
AHDSSHC and shall meet the density requirements of Section 306 of
the AHDSSHC.
For Minor Collector Street, the wearing surface shall consist of
a 1. 5" compacted hot bituminous concrete wearing surface Mix B
according to these specifications. The wearing surface course
shall be installed according to Section 410 of the AHDSSHC and
shall meet the density requirements of Section 306 of the
AHDSSHC.
(n) Construction requirements shall be as specified
in AHD Articles 410.03 through 410.07. In the event the subgrade
material and compaction standards cannot meet the standards
specified, the design engineer shall present an alternate design
for the road section. This design shall meet the following
minimum traffic requirements of
Local Street: 2000 vpd
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Minor Collector Street: 2500 vpd
The design shall be in accordance with the AASHTO Method of
Flexible Pavement Design, Caltrans Method of Flexible Pavement
Design, or a method approved by the City Engineer.
In no case, however, shall the pavement section used be less than
that required in these specifications.
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17 CONCRETE SIDEWALKS
17.1 RAMPS Where sidewalks intersect cross streets
or driveways, ramps shall be constructed from the sidewalk to the
street or driveway. Ramps shall have a maximum slope of 1 foot in
8 feet.
17.2 MATERIALS All materials furnished for use shall
comply with the requirements of AHD Division III, Materials and
the following:
Concrete shall meet the requirements for a Class A,
Type 2 mix as provided in Addendum I of this Specification.
Reinforcing steel, if required, shall meet the
requirements of Addendum II of this Specification
17.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
17.3.1 The contractor may use forms or, upon approval of
the engineer, an approved automatic extrusion type paving
machine.
17.3.2 Forms shall be of wood or metal and shall be
sufficiently staked to hold them true to line and grade while
concrete is being deposited against them. If of wood, they shall
be of 2 inch or 3 inch stock lumber surfaced on all sides. If of
metal they shall be of approved section having a base width of at
least 4 inches and shall have a flat surface on top. The depth of
the forms shall equal the depth of the sidewalk. Adequate means
shall be provided for securely fastening the ends of forms
together.
17.3.3 Any automatic extrusion machine considered must be
demonstrated to produce a consolidated concrete section
conforming to the dimensions, cross-section, line and grades
shown on the plans.
17.4 SUBGRADE All soft or otherwise unsuitable material
in the subgrade shall be removed and replaced with suitable
material. All fills and filling material shall be placed and
compacted with an approved roller or hand tamped in layers not
exceeding 6 inches in thickness.
17.5 FOUNDATION BACKFILL Where provided by the plans,
foundation backfill shall be placed and constructed as provided
in AHD Section 214.
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17.6 SETTING FORMS Forms shall be set to true line and
grade and rigidly held in place by stakes or braces. Ends of
adjoining form sections shall be flush. Forms and division plates
shall be cleaned and oiled before placing concrete against them.
Unless otherwise shown on the plans, the finished surface of the
sidewalk shall slope toward the roadway pavement at the rate of
1/4 inch per foot.
17.7 PLACING CONCRETE A template resting upon the side
forms and having its lower edge at the exact elevation of the
subgrade shall be drawn along the forms and the subgrade shaped
true before any concrete is deposited. The subgrade shall be
moist and shall be free of debris and all foreign material when
concrete is deposited upon it. The freshly mixed concrete shall
be placed promptly on the prepared subgrade to the depth
required to complete the sidewalk in one course. It shall then
be vibrated and/or tamped and struck off with an approved
straightedge resting on the side forms and drawn forward with a
sawing motion. The concrete shall then be floated with a wooden
float until the surface is true. Concrete laid during cold
weather shall conform to the requirements of AHD Section
501.03(d).
17.8 JOINTS Unless otherwise shown by plan details, the
surface of sidewalks shall be marked in squares or rectangles not
exceeding 36 square feet in area by using an approved marking
tool. The marking tool shall provide a groove approximately 1/2
inch in depth and with rounded edges.
17.8.1 Expansion joints a minimum of 3/8 inch wide
shall be placed as follows:
(a) where the walks join other concrete units
(b) to line up with expansion joints of adjacent
curbs, drives, etc., but in no instance more than 80 feet between
joints.
(c) where continuous runs of walks or drives are
80 feet or longer, transverse expansion joints shall be provided;
one joint for each 80 feet or fraction thereof of length.
(d) where walks are confined longitudinally by
other concrete units and the width of the walk is in excess of 15
feet, one longitudinal expansion joint shall be required for each
additional 15 feet or fraction thereof of width.
(e) expansion joints shall be formed using a filler
and sealer specified in ADDENDUM I, Paragraph I-3.8.
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(f) Unless shown otherwise by plan details, the
joint filler shall be from the bottom of the walk to within 1
inch from the top. The sealer shall be 3/4 inch thick and
shall be recessed 1/4 inch from the top.
17.9 CURING AND PROTECTING Immediately after the
finishing operations have been completed,the entire surface of
the newly laid concrete shall be protected against rapid drying
out. No vehicles shall be permitted on the new concrete for 7
days and pedestrians shall not be permitted thereon for at least
72 hours.
17.10 BACKFILLING After the concrete has set
sufficiently, the side forms shall be removed and the spaces on
both sides shall be backfilled with suitable material. This
backfill shall be compacted to a level one inch below the walk
and left in a neat and workmanlike condition.
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18. UTILITIES
18.1 All utilities shall be installed within the right-
of-way unless prior written authorization of the engineer and the
City engineer is obtained.
18.2 Utilities shall be installed in accordance with
the locations shown in this specification, unless written
authorization is obtained from the City Engineer for variation
from these specifications. It is understood that the
dimensions in back of curb in cul-de-sacs may vary, however the
depth from top of curb shall be maintained.
Any variation from the dimensions shown shall be shown on the
"As Built" drawings.
18.3 Each utility shall be responsible for repair of any
damage it creates to other utilities or to the installed
improvements. It shall be the duty of any utility installer to
report any damage discovered by him in the course of his work. In
the event damage is unreported and is later discovered, the City
engineer shall determine responsibility and shall cause repairs
to be made and costs to be assessed against the contractor
determined to be responsible.
18.4 UTILITIES SHALL BE INSTALLED ONLY IN THE FOLLOWING
LOCATIONS:
Underground electric shall be installed eight feet
behind back of curb and forty-two inches below top of curb, on
either side of the street.
Underground telephone shall be installed six feet
behind back of curb and thirty inches below top of curb on either
side of the street.
Underground television cable shall be installed
eighteen inches behind back of curb and eighteen inches below
top of curb on either side of the street.
Water shall be installed four feet behind back of
curb and thirty-six inches below top of curb on the NORTH or WEST
side of the street.
Gas shall be installed four feet behind back of
curb and thirty-six inches below top of curb on the SOUTH or EAST
side of the street.
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Sewer taps shall be extended twenty-four inches
behind back of curb and not more than sixty inches below top of
curb.
18.5 Before any utility is installed, the entire width
of the right-of-way shall be rough graded.
18.6 In general, the deepest utilities should be
installed first to minimize any possible interference with
laterals or service lines.
18.7 In cul-de-sacs the dimensions from the back of curb
may vary.
18.8 Anyone digging in the right-of-way shall call the
appropriate utility to have utilities located.
18.9 Each utility shall be responsible for repair of any
damage they create to other utility lines or to the street
improvements within the right-of-way. No utility shall be
responsible for damage to another utility which is located
outside their assigned space.
18.10 Once the road base has been placed, all further
installation of utilities under the roadway shall be bored or
otherwise shall comply with the street cut requirements of the
subdivision regulations.
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19 DRAINAGE RETENTION / DETENTION
19.1 The following drainage level of service standards
shall be met by all developments:
-Lowest Floor Residential: 100 Year
-Required Yards 25 Year
-Local Streets and drainage structures 10 Year
-Collector and Arterial Roads
and drainage structures
serving to collect water
from more than one subdivision 25 Year
-Open Channels 25 Year
All levels of service are based on a Type II Storm.
19.2 Where a lake or pond is created or exists within 50
feet of the closest edge of the right-of-way of any street, road
or alley, there shall be a suitable shrub barrier
19.3 Approach slopes for ponds and wet basins shall be
at least 6:1, but more than 3:1 and shall be at least four ft.
wide and slope gently toward the basin. The side slopes shall be
of a nonerosive material with a slope of 1:1 or flatter. The
ledge shall be between four and six ft. wide and shall slope
gently toward the shore to prevent people or objects from sliding
into deep water. There shall be a freeboard of twelve to
eighteen inches above the high water elevation on all retention
basins. Alternative designs may be approved by the City Engineer
where special circumstances make this necessary.
19.4 Fences, where provided, shall be constructed in
accordance with the requirements of ADDENDUM IV of this
specification, except for height.
19.5 All drainage shall be designed to guidelines
applicable to the particular basin, and shall be based on the
City's Drainage Master Plan, latest edition. In the event the
Drainage Master Plan calls for additional downstream
infrastructure or, alternatively, zero net post-development
discharge for future development in a particular location, it
shall be the responsibility of the developer/owner to provide for
such drainage features as are needed to achieve compatibility
with the Drainage Master Plan.
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20. ENFORCEMENT, ADMINISTRATION, APPEALS
20.1 Violation of this ordinance shall be punishable according to
the terms and provisions of Section 1-8, Madison Code of
Ordinances, as may be amended from time to time.
20.2 The City Engineer or Director of Community Development, or
their authorized designees, may impose a “STOP WORK” order
whenever they find that
any facility under construction and subject to these
regulations is unsafe, and must be corrected promptly to
ensure the public safety, or
any work subject to these regulations is being performed
in a manner that may reasonably be expected to create
harm to the public (e.g., inadequate or unsafe traffic
control, improper diversion of sewer flow, etc.)
Upon imposition of a “STOP WORK” order, all work on the site will
stop and all workers leave the site, except for those workers
necessary to correct the condition giving rise to the order. The
individual issuing the STOP WORK order, the City Engineer, or the
Director of Community Development, shall rescind the order when
he/she finds that conditions on the site warrant such rescission.
Appeal of a “STOP WORK” order shall be administered according to
Section 20.3 below.
20.3 No “STOP WORK” order or citation shall be issued for a
violation of this Section unless a written notice of the
violation has been provided to the project engineer, the
contractor, or the authorized representative of one of these,
with a 24-hour period given to cure the violation. Provided,
however, that no notice is required prior to the imposition of
a “STOP WORK” order should the City Engineer, Engineering
Inspector, Fire Chief, Police Chief, or Chief Building
Official determine that the violation poses an imminent danger
to life or property.
20.4 Appeals from the administrative rulings of the City
Engineer or the Director of the Community Development
Department shall be to the Planning Commission, which shall
make the final administrative determination concerning those
matters controlled by this Ordinance.
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ADDENDUM I
CONCRETE
I-1 CLASSIFICATION AND USES
Concrete shall be classified as Class A or Class B. Each class of
concrete shall be used in that part of the structure as provided
on the plans or where directed. The following shall govern unless
otherwise directed.
CLASS A concrete shall be used in all ordinary reinforced work
such as cantilever footings, walls, piers, diaphragms, columns,
caps, braces, reinforced footings, concrete slabs, girders,
reinforced concrete culverts, reinforced headwalls and inlets,
concrete pavement, concrete sidewalk and other areas as directed.
Unless otherwise noted, all concrete work shall be Class A.
CLASS B concrete shall be used in all mass footings, massive pier
shafts, gravity walls and other mass construction, and leveling
courses.
I-2 COMPOSITIONING AND PROPORTIONING
I-2.1 COMPOSITIONING Concrete shall consist of Type I
Portland cement, additives (if any), fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate and water. Slag cement may be used in the proportion of
approximately one part slag cement to two parts Portland cement
with the approval of the engineer. The contractor may, at his
option and with the approval of the engineer, substitute Type
III Portland cement in the construction of concrete.
The contractor shall put into each batch the designated number
of bags of cement and amount of water, and weigh into each batch
the respective weights of fine and coarse aggregate designated
for the particular job and class of concrete being used,
provided, however, that for batching aggregates for structures
15 yards or less, the contractor may use approved volumetric
measuring devices, in which case the volumes of aggregates
in each batch will be designated.
I-2.2 PROPORTIONING The following requirements have
been designed to give the most economical and practical
combination of materials which will produce the necessary
workability in the fresh concrete and the required qualities in
the hardened concrete.
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(a) The maximum size of aggregate that can be used
will depend on the size and shape of the concrete structure and
the amount and distribution of reinforcing steel. The maximum
size shall not exceed 1/5 the minimum dimension of the member,
nor 3/4 of the clear spacing between reinforcing bars.
_________________________________________________________________
COARSE AGGREGATE WATER IN GAL. THEORETICAL
CONSISTENCY
CLASS SIZE PER SACK OF CEMENT FACTOR SLUMP IN
CEMENT IN BAGS PER C.Y. INCHES
OF CONCRETE
_________________________________________________________________
A 1 1/2" to No.4 6 6.35 4-6
A 1" to No.4 6 6.70 4-6
A 3/4" to No. 4 6 6.87 4-6
B 2" to No. 4 8 4.77 6-8
B 1 1/2" to No. 4 8 5.04 6-8
_________________________________________________________________
The relative proportion of fine and coarse aggregate shall be set
to produce a workable mix of the consistency above specified with
the least amount of water. The quantity of sand may vary from 33
to 50% of the total aggregate quantity in an absolute volume
basis considering the aggregate to be in a saturated surface dry
condition. Since the data in the above table has been based on
aggregate in a saturated surface dry condition, it will be
necessary in calculating batch weights and mixing water to make
corrections for any other moisture condition of the aggregates as
delivered to the measuring bins. Once fixed, the total weight of
aggregates on a saturated surface dry basis shall not be changed
during the progress of the work except under the following
conditions:
(b) If during the progress of the work the specific
gravity of one or both of the aggregates changes, the batch
weights shall be changed to conform to the new specific gravity
by absolute volume calculations.
(c) In case the maximum net content of water
specified is not needed for proper consistency, solid volumes
of combined aggregates may be substituted for an equal volume
of water omitted in order to insure as constant cement factor
as possible.
(d) In the event that the proportions of the
concrete mixture, as established by this specification, do not
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produce concrete of a strength desired, the right is reserved to
the engineer to increase the quantity of cement in the mixture as
may be required to secure the desired strength.
I-3 MATERIALS
I-3.1 CEMENT
(a) Portland Cement shall meet the "Standard
Specifications for Portland Cement", ASTM Serial Designation C
150 for Type I and Type III Cements.
(b) Slag Cement shall meet the U.S.Army Corps of
Engineers Specifications for Slag Cement CRD-C 248-52.
I-3.2 FINE AGGREGATE
(a) Fine aggregate shall consist of natural sand
having clean, hard, durable, uncoated particles meeting the
physical requirements of this sub-section and conforming to the
gradation shown hereinafter.
(b) The maximum weight of deleterious substances
shall not exceed the following percentages:
Removed by decantation 2.0%
Shale 1.0%
Coal and/or lignite 0.5%
Clay lumps 0.5%
Cinders & clinkers 0.5%
Other local deleterious substances such as alkali,
mica,coated grains, soft and flaky particles 1.0%
Total shale, coal and/or lignite,clay lumps, cinders
and clinkers and other deleterious substances 3.0%
The percentage of clay lumps shall be determined by examining the
various fractions which remain after the test for grading. Any
particles that can be broken up with the fingers shall be
classified as clay lumps and the total percentage by weight of
all clay lumps shall be determined on the basis of the total
original weight of the sample.
The diameter of deleterious substances shall not exceed the
maximum size of aggregate.
(c) Organic Impurities All fine aggregate shall
be free from injurious amounts of organic impurities. Aggregates
subject to the colorimetric test for organic impurities and
producing a color darker than the standard shall be rejected
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unless they pass the mortar strength tests as outlined below.
(d) Soundness When subjected to five cycles of
the "Soundness Test of Fine Aggregate" by the use of sodium
sulfate, the weighted percentage of loss shall not be more than
10% by weight when tested by AASHTO T-104. In lieu of the
soundness test, satisfactory evidence may be provided that the
fine aggregate has been exposed to natural weathering, either
directly or in concrete for a period of at least five years
without appreciable disintegration.
(e) Mortar Strength When tested in accordance
with ASTM Serial Designation C 87, fine aggregate shall have
compressive strength of not less than that of standard sand at 3
days and 28 days with the use of Type III Portland cement or at
7 days and 28 days with the use of Type I Portland cement.
(f) Gradation Uniformity Fine aggregate shall
be well graded between the following specified limits,
which limits shall be considered the extreme limits in
determining suitability for use from all sources of supply.
Sieve % passing by weight
3/8" 100
No. 4 95-100
No. 8 80-100
No. 16 60-90
No. 50 12-30
No.100 2-10
_________________________________________________________________
Tests Limits
Percent wear, Deval Test 23 Max.
(AASHTO T-4)
Percent Sound, Soundness
Test (AASHTO T-104) 90 Max
I-3.3 (a) CRUSHED SLAG Crushed slag shall consist of
clean, tough, durable pieces of air-cooled blast furnace slag,
reasonably uniform in density and quality, free from thin or
elongated pieces and free from deleterious substances. The unit
weight of crushed slag shall be not less than that indicated in
the Coarse Aggregate Table.
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Physical tests for crushed slag shall be the same
as provided hereinbefore for crushed stone.
(b) Gradation Coarse aggregate of the size or
sizes designated shall be well graded between the following
limits and the size or sizes shall conform to the limits shown.
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Designated Size 1 1/2 to No.4 1" to No.4 3/4" to No.4
Min. Wt.
per C.F.
(ASTM C-29) 70 lb 70 lb 70 lb
| 2" 100 --- ---
| 1 1/2" 95-100 100 ---
Percent | 1" 40-90 90-100 100
passing | 3/4" 35-70 90-100
sieves by| 1/2" --- 25-60 ---
weight | 3/8 10-30 --- 20-55
| No. 4 0-5 0-10 0-10
| No. 8 --- --- 0-5
I-3.4 USE, CARE AND HANDLING
(a) Transporting Vehicles: Railway cars,
barges, or any other equipment used for transporting aggregate
must be clean when the aggregate is placed therein. Trucks or
other vehicles used in transporting aggregate must be kept clean,
free from all foreign matter, in proper working condition and
must have strong substantial bodies which will prevent the loss
of materials during transit.
(b) Storage: Unless the weather and site
conditions are favorable, aggregates shall be stored on suitable
platforms at satisfactory locations. Unless platforms of wood or
metal are used, stockpile sites shall be cleared of all grass,
weeds, brush, debris and other foreign material before storing
the aggregate, and the bottom parts of the stockpile of aggregate
that are in contact with the ground surface shall be rejected up
to the level where it is practical to remove the aggregate
without including dirt or foreign materials.
(c) Stockpiling Stockpiling shall be so
conducted that segregation is avoided and the aggregate
throughout the piles is of uniform grading.If aggregates are
stored in stockpiles either at the unloading point or at the site
of the work, stockpiles shall be at least 6 feet in height built
up in layers not over 3 feet in thickness. Each layer shall be
completely in place before beginning the next, which shall be
allowed to "cone" down over the lower layer.
(d) Gradation Gradation from any one source
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shall be reasonably uniform and not subject to the extreme
percentages shown above. For the purpose of determining the
degree of uniformity, a Fineness Modulus determination shall be
made upon representative samples from such sources as are
proposed to be used. Fine aggregates from any one source having a
variation in Fineness Modulus greater than 0.02 either way from
the Fineness Modulus of the representative sample submitted may
be rejected, or may be accepted subject to such changes in the
proportions used as may be directed by the engineer.
I-3.5 COARSE AGGREGATE
(a) General Coarse aggregate shall consist of
crushed or uncrushed gravel, crushed stone, or crushed blast
furnace slag, having hard, strong, durable pieces, free from
adherent coatings and conforming to the requirements of these
specifications.
(b) Deleterious Substances The amount of
deleterious substances in coarse aggregate shall not exceed the
following limits:
(1) Soft fragments 2.00%
(2) Coal and lignite 0.25%
(3) Clay lumps 0.25%
(4) Material passing a No. 200 sieve 0.50%
(5) Thin or elongated pieces (length greater
than 5 times average thickness) 10.00%
(6) Other local deleterious substances 2.00%
(7) Total (1) thru (6) not greater than 3.00%
(c) Crushed stone Crushed stone shall consist
of clean, tough, durable fragments of rock meeting the following
requirements for the physical tests:
Percent wear, Los Angeles
test (AASHTO T-96) 50 Max
Percent sound, Soundness
test (AASHTO T-104 90 Min
(d) Gravel Gravel shall consist of natural
rounded or crushed fragments of clean, tough, durable stone, free
from coatings of any character.
(e) Storage Different sizes of aggregate and
aggregate from different sources shall be stored in separate
stockpiles sufficiently removed from each other so that the
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material at the edges of the piles will not become intermixed.
Any material or mixture of fine or coarse aggregate which
segregates so that the grading no longer conforms to that
specified shall be rejected for use until screened to the proper
grading.
(f) At the time of their use, the aggregate shall
be free from all foreign materials such as burlap, paper, wood,
straw, dirt, etc. When more than one size aggregate is required,
either coarse or fine, for use, they shall be maintained in
separate stockpiles and combined in proper proportions at the
mixer or plant. Aggregates stored in proportioning bins shall be
protected from rain by waterproof coverings.
I-3.6 WATER Water used in concrete shall be fresh, free
from oil, and shall not contain impurities in excess of the
following limits:
Acidity or Alkalinity Calculated in terms of
Calcium Carbonate 0.05%
Total Organic Solids 0.05%
Total Inorganic Solids 0.05%
A comparison of the given water with distilled water can be
obtained by making standard soundness, time of setting, and
mortar strength tests with standard Ottawa sand, using the same
cement of standard quality with each water. Any indication of
unsoundness, marked change in time of setting, or a variation of
more than 10% in strength from results obtained with mixtures
containing the distilled water shall be sufficient cause for
rejection of the water under test.
Water from City water supplies may be accepted
without being tested.
Water used in curing cement concrete or mortar
shall be free from any substance which may be injurious to, or
discolor concrete when applied to the surface as a curing agent.
I-3.7 CONCRETE CURING AGENTS
(a) Preliminary curing fabrics shall be burlap 8
to 10 ounces weight per 10 square feet, (or two layers of burlap
6 or 7 ounces per ten square feet may be used).
(b) Cotton mats shall meet the requirements of
AASHTO Designation M 73
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(c) Paper Blankets shall meet the requirements of
ASTM Designation C 171.
(d) Earth used in curing cement concrete pavement
shall be free of sticks, stones, or other ingredients which may
be detrimental to the surface of the concrete and shall be of
such nature as to retain moisture.
(e) Straw shall be cured hay suitable for the
purpose intended and approved each time used.
(f) Liquid Membrane Curing Compound shall be of a
consistency suitable for spraying, shall contain a fugitive dye
(unless a colorless type is available), be relatively nontoxic,
and adhere satisfactorily to a vertical or horizontal surface of
damp concrete when applied immediately after the disappearance of
surface water sheen. It shall not react harmfully with the
components of concrete, or contain waxes, oils or other
materials which would for more than 30 days tend to prevent
bonding of reflectorized strips or other traffic marking paints.
The resulting film shall be continuous, uniform, moisture
impermeable, and free from pinholes.
The nonvolatile material in the curing compound
shall be not less than 40% by weight.
The curing compound, when applied to the surface of
the mortar specimens in the determination of water loss shall dry
to the touch in one hour and shall dry through in not more than
four hours. When used in the field, it shall show satisfactory
drying properties.
The curing compound shall not permanently darken
the natural color of the concrete. The fugitive dye shall have a
color strength sufficient to render the film distinctly visible
for at least one hour after application. The color of the
fugitive dye shall disappear within seven days after application.
The membrane shall not peel. It shall disappear
from the surface by gradual disintegration from exposure to the
elements over a period of not less than 30 days or more than one
year, leaving the concrete hard and without discoloration. It
shall be of such viscosity that it may be readily applied by
approved pressure spraying equipment at temperatures above 40
degrees F.
When applied by pressure spray to the troweled
surface of a vertical, damp concrete specimen one foot square at
the rate provided herein, the curing compound shall adhere to the
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surface in a continuous tenacious film without running off or
appreciably sagging.
The liquid membrane curing compound, when tested in
accordance with the method prescribed in ASTM C 156 shall provide
a film which will retain within the specimen at the end of 7 days
at least 85% of the original water used or contained when the
compound was applied.
The curing compound shall have satisfactory
resistance to early rainfall and early abrasion. To test for
these qualities, at the end of a two hour preliminary hardening
period, place the mortar specimen, previously sprayed with the
required coating of the compound in such a position that its
surface presents a 45 degree angle to water drops. The dropping
apparatus shall be capable of permitting 150 drops of water of
approximately 0.1 cc per minute to impinge upon a selected spot
on the specimen. Fall of drops shall be 7 feet. If after 2
minutes (or 300 drops) the point of impingement shows no breaks,
the compound shall be regarded as satisfactorily resistant to
early rainfall and early abrasion.
I-3.8 JOINT FILLER
(a) Bituminous Premolded Filler shall consist of
preformed strips which have been formed from asphalt or tar, felt
and mineral filler to make a coherent matrix. It shall be of such
character as not to be deformed or broken by twisting, bending or
other ordinary handling after having been subjected for 12 hours
to a temperature of 125 degrees F., or when subjected to freezing
temperatures.
The dimensions shall be as shown on the plans and
tolerances of + or - 1/16 inch thickness, + or - 1/8 inch depth
and + or - 1/4 inch length shall be permitted.
Absorption shall not be more than 5% by weight.
Distortion shall not be more than 1 inch.
It shall not crack or shatter when subjected to a brittleness
test.
A specimen 3/4 inch or more in thickness shall compress to 50% of
its original thickness under a pressure of not less than 100 psi,
nor more than 1500 psi. The material after compression shall not
show a loss of more than 3% of its original weight.
The material shall be tested in accordance with AASHTO T-42.
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(b) Poured Bituminous Filler shall be blown asphalt
cement, and shall meet the requirements of Grade AF-1 or AF-2.
(c) Premolded Cork Filler shall meet the
requirements of ASTM Designation D544, Type I.
(d) Self Expanding Cork Filler shall meet the
requirements of ASTM Designation D544, Type II.
(e) Sponge Rubber Filler shall meet the
requirements of ASTM Designation Type III.
(f) Cork Rubber Filler shall meet the requirements
of ASTM Designation D544 Type IV.
(g) Hot poured rubber sealing compound shall meet
the requirements of Federal Specifications SS-F 336a.
(h) Metal used in expansion joints and as water
stops in construction joints shall be 24 ounce copper sheets
conforming to the requirements of ASTM Designation B-11.
I-3.9 READY-MIXED CONCRETE
(a) Ready-Mixed Concrete shall be understood to
mean any concrete which is proportioned and mixed in a central
plant and hauled to the site of the work in approved types of
agitator trucks, or concrete which is proportioned and partially
mixed in a central plant and transported to the site of the work
in approved transit-mix trucks, the mixing being completed en
route, (Called shrink mixing), or concrete which is proportioned
in a central plant and mixed in approved transit-mix trucks en
route to or at the site of the work. Ready-mix concrete shall
not be used if it shall prove impossible, because of the time
concrete is in transit, to finish the placed concrete properly
before initial set takes place. Load tickets, stamped so as to
prevent alteration, shall indicate load quantity and time of
departure of each batch of concrete from the central plant.
I-4 FORMS
(a) General Forms shall be substantial and
unyielding and so designed and constructed that the finished
concrete will conform to the plan dimensions and contours. All
forms shall be designed so that they may be removed without
damage to the concrete and as little damage to the forms as
possible. Forms shall be so constructed that portions where
finishing is required can be removed for that purpose without
loosening supports or disturbing portions of forms that must
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still remain in place. Sectional forms shall not be used unless
securely braced and constructed in a manner that will prevent
bulging, settlement or unsightly joints. In forming circular
concrete structures or curved portions of structures, the maximum
chord of the form at the concrete surface shall be 6 inches.
(b) Materials All forms shall be of material
sufficient in strength to hold the concrete without bulging
between supports. Ample studding, walling and ties shall be used
to effectively prevent bulging and misalignment of the forms.
Special attention must be paid to bracing. If, at any stage of
the work, during or after placing of concrete in any structure,
the forms sag or bulge or show signs of sagging or bulging to
such an extent that the concrete will extend below the elevation
of the required permanent chamber, or outside the true lines of
the form, the concrete affected shall be removed and forms
reconstructed to proper elevation or line and new concrete
placed.
(c) All lumber used in forms shall be properly
sized and dressed. The forms shall be built of air seasoned,
selected, matched, tongue and groove or shiplap lumber of
sufficient thickness and strength to maintain accurate lines and
planes. All form lumber shall be free from large or loose knots,
decay, rot, splits, wind shakes or other defects which will
mar the appearance of the finished work.
(d) Forms shall be mortar tight and shall be
placed and maintained true to lines and grades designated until
the concrete has hardened. Forms shall be protected from
shrinkage, warping, curling and other distortions during erection
and before placing concrete.
(e) Forms shall be filleted and chamfered at all
sharp corners unless otherwise directed by the engineer. and
shall be given a bevel or draft in the case of all projections,
with coping sufficient to insure easy removal, but not such as
will reduce the thickness of the concrete. All joints shall be
driven tight and shall be securely nailed. Forms shall be
securely spiked to stud uprights. The equal sides on triangular
moldings or chamfers shall be 3/4", except that for light
construction the width shall be 1/2".
(f) Forms shall be cleaned of all chips, dirt,
sawdust and other extraneous material immediately prior to
placing concrete.
(g) For narrow and/or inaccessible walls or
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sections precast, concrete struts or approved steel struts shall
be used for spacers. No wooden struts shall be used in such wall
sections.
(h) Approved types of bolts or ties shall be used
to prevent forms from spreading. All such bolts or ties shall be
arranged so that at least one inch of that part adjacent to the
concrete surface can be screwed out.
(i) Where indicated on the plans, concrete
surfaces shall be cast against plywood, masonite or other
approved form liner. Form liner shall be used in large sheets
and shall have tight fitting joints. Patchwork and illogical
location of joints shall be avoided. All joints shall be backed
to prevent leakage. Edges of abutting sheets shall be
sufficiently nailed to the same stud.
(j) Forms to be reused or forms previously used
shall be maintained at all times in good condition as to accuracy
of shape, strength, rigidity, water tightness and smoothness of
surface. Any warped, damaged or cupped lumber or section of form
shall be carefully re-sized, repaired or replaced before being
reused.
(k) Prior to placing reinforcing steel the inside
of all forms shall be coated with a non-staining oil or other
approved material to prevent the concrete from adhering to them.
Tarpaper or oil that will stick to or discolor the concrete shall
not be used. The forms shall be inspected before placing
reinforcing steel and the interior dimensions checked for
conformity with the plans. The inside faces of the form shall be
thoroughly examined and any projections, ridges, depressions,
offsets or other unevenness corrected so that the surface of the
concrete will be smooth, even and true.
(l) All forms shall be drenched and saturated
with water sufficiently in advance of placing concrete against
them to swell the lumber in order to remove shrinkage cracks
between boards and shall be wetted immediately prior to placing
the concrete, but no excess water shall remain in the form.
(m) The forms shall be inspected immediately
before placing concrete in them and any bulging or warping shall
be remedied. At the time of placing the concrete, the forms shall
be watertight and have smooth interior surfaces.
(n) The foregoing portions of this Addendum
primarily pertaining to wooden forms shall apply with equal force
to metal forms. The metal used for forms shall be of such
thickness that the forms will remain true to line, grade and
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shape. All bolts and rivet heads shall be countersunk and smooth
with the surface. Clamps, pins or other connecting devices shall
be designed to hold the forms rigidly together, and to allow
removal without injury to the concrete. Metal forms which do not
present a smooth surface or which do not align properly shall not
be used. Special care shall be exercised to keep metal forms free
from rust, grease and other foreign matter such as will discolor
the concrete.
I-5 FALSEWORK
(a) All falsework shall be designed and
constructed to provide the necessary rigidity and to support the
loads without appreciable settlement or deformation. Screw jacks
and/or hardwood wedges shall be used to take up any settlement in
the form work either before or during the placing of concrete.
(b) Falsework which cannot be founded on a
satisfactory footing shall be supported on piling which shall be
spaced, driven and removed in an approved manner. Framed
falsework bents on earth will not be permitted.
I-6 INSPECTION
The contractor shall give the engineer sufficient
advance notice before starting to place concrete in any section
of the structure to permit the inspection of forms, placing of
steel reinforcement and of preparation for placement. Inspection
shall be made before concrete is placed in any portion of the
structure. Any concrete placed in violation of this provision
shall be removed and replaced if so directed by the engineer.
I-7 TIME AND WEATHER LIMITATIONS
(a) All concrete shall be placed in daylight, and
the placing of concrete in any portion of the work shall not be
started unless it can be completed in daylight, unless written
permission to the contrary is received. Such permission shall not
be given unless an adequate lighting system is provided.
(b) No concrete shall be placed when the
temperature is below 35 degrees F., or below 40 degrees F. and
falling, without written permission of the engineer. Under
extreme curing conditions at low temperature when directed, the
contractor shall enclose the structure and furnish the necessary
heat in such a way that the air within the enclosure and the
concrete can be kept above 60 degrees F. for a period of 10 days
after placing the concrete, and above 40 degrees F. for an
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additional 4 days. Heating shall then be discontinued, but the
protective covering shall remain in place until the temperature
reaches that of the surrounding atmosphere.
I-8 MIXING
(a) For Job Mix Concrete, The aggregates and the
cement shall be thoroughly mixed in an approved batch mixer for a
period of not less than 1 1/2 minutes, during which time the
mixer drum shall be operated at a speed as indicated on the
manufacturer's nameplate on the mixer. The mixing water shall
start entering the drum ahead of the other materials and shall
continue for a short time after the skip is completely emptied.
The additional time required for discharging the water into the
mixer after the skip is emptied up to 10 seconds will not be
included in the period specified for the mixing time.If
necessary, the mixing time shall be increased to obtain
thorough mixing and uniform consistency. Any concrete
mixed less than 1 1/2 minutes shall be rejected and disposed
of. The entire contents shall be removed from the drum before
the succeeding batch is introduced.
(b) Ready Mix Concrete shall be in accordance with
Article I-3.9 of this Addendum.
(c) Hand mixing of concrete shall not be permitted
except with written permission of the engineer in an emergency.
In the event hand mixing must be done, the procedure shall be as
follows:
The sand shall be spread evenly on watertight
platforms and the cement spread on it. Then the dry sand and
cement shall be thoroughly mixed by square point shovels until
the mixture is uniform in color. It shall then be formed into a
crater and enough water added to produce the proper consistency
of mortar. The mortar shall be uniformly spread on the platforms.
The coarse aggregate shall be wetted and uniformly added to the
mortar and the entire mass turned and re-turned at least 6 times
and/or until all the coarse aggregate particles are thoroughly
covered with mortar and the mixture has a uniform color and
appearance. Hand mixed batches shall not exceed 1/2 cubic yard
in volume. Hand mixing shall not be used for concrete to be
placed under water.
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I-9 CONSISTENCY
(a) The exact quantity of mixing water to be used
shall be determined and fixed by the proportions of the other
materials. In general, a mixture shall be used which contains the
minimum amount of water consistent with the required workability.
(b) In general, the use of a finer coarse aggregate
will be required in thin and heavily reinforced sections rather
than a wetter consistency.
(c) In general, the consistency of concrete
mixtures shall be such that:
The mortar clings to the coarse aggregate.
The concrete is not sufficiently fluid to segregate
when transported to the place of deposit.
The concrete, when dropped directly from the
discharge chute of the mixer, shall flatten out at the center of
the pile but shall stand up and not flow to the edges.
The mortar shall show no free water when removed
from the mixer.
The concrete shall settle into place when deposited
in the forms and, when transported in metal chutes at an angle
of 30 degrees with the horizontal, it shall slide and not flow
into place.
(d) In general, the concrete shall have a slump
conforming to the requirements of Article I-2.2 of this
Addendum.
Slump shall be measured by the truncated cone method, ASTM
Designation C-143-39.
I-10 HANDLING AND PLACING CONCRETE
(a) Job- and hand- mixed concrete shall be placed in
the forms within 30 minutes after water is first added to the
mix, except that where ready-mix concrete is used, the time
control shall be as provided in AHD 450.03(d) and AASHTO M-157.
The concrete in each integral part or between established
construction joints of the structure shall be placed
continuously.
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(b) All concrete shall be placed in the dry unless
otherwise provided on the plans. When it is necessary to pump
water from the excavation during the placing of concrete to
deposit the concrete in the dry, the sump for the intake hose
shall be located outside the forms. Pumping equipment shall in
all cases be of ample capacity to keep the excavation practically
free of water until all the concrete is in place.
Water that originates in the footing area or that
is necessary to come through or across the footing area shall be
handled in approved pipes or conduits to the sump pump. Pumping
from the interior of any foundation enclosure shall be done
in such manner as to preclude the possibility of any portion of
the concrete material being carried away.
(c) The concrete shall be placed in horizontal
layers and vibrated, rammed, tamped and spaded until free mortar
appears on the surface and it is thoroughly compacted and until
all voids are filled. Concrete shall be placed in horizontal
layers not more than 12 inches thick unless hereinafter provided.
Each layer shall be placed and compacted before the preceding
batch has taken initial set to prevent injury to the green
concrete and avoid surfaces of separation between batches. Each
layer shall be compacted in a manner that will entirely destroy
the effect of a construction joint between it and a preceding
layer.
(d) When the placing of concrete is temporarily
discontinued the concrete, after becoming firm enough to hold its
form, shall be cleaned of laitance and all other objectionable
material to a sufficient depth to expose sound concrete. To avoid
unsightly joints as far as possible upon exposed surfaces,
special precautions shall be taken either by inset form work or
other means to obtain uniform surfaces and lines. Where a
"feather edge" might be produced at a construction joint, inset
form work shall be used to form the preceding layer so that the
thickness of the edge shall be not less than 6 inches. Work shall
not be discontinued within 18 inches below the top of any face,
unless provision has been made for a coping less than 18 inches
thick, in which case the construction joint shall be made at the
underside of the coping.
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I-11 USE OF CHUTES, TROUGHS OR PIPES
(a) Concrete shall not be dropped a distance of
more than five feet and special care shall be taken to fill each
part of the form by depositing the concrete as near final
position as possible. Where placing operations would involve
dropping the concrete a greater distance, it shall be deposited
through adjustable vertical metal pipes in sections not greater
than 4 feet in length and not less than 4 inches in diameter.
Depositing large quantities at one point in the form and running,
flowing or working the concrete along the form will not be
permitted. A sufficient number of metal pipes shall be provided
to place the concrete in accordance with AHD 450.03(h).
(b) The use of chutes longer than 30 feet for
conveying concrete from the mixing plant to the forms will not be
permitted except as hereinafter provided. The use of short chutes
for conveying concrete from the mixer to the forms will be
permitted, provided there is no segregation of the concrete
materials. In case segregation of concrete is produced by the use
of chutes, their use shall be discontinued and a satisfactory
method of placing substituted. All chutes shall have a down-pipe
or tremis (at the discharge end) of minimum length of 24 inches.
(c) When open troughs and chutes are used they
shall be of metal or metal lined and where steep slopes are
required, the velocity of flow shall be retarded by the use of
baffles or chokers or a series of short chutes shall be used to
change the direction of movement. All chutes, troughs, pipes and
other placing equipment shall be kept clean and free from
coatings of hardened concrete by cleaning and flushing with water
after each use. Water used for flushing shall be discharged clear
of the concrete already in place. The inside surface of the forms
shall be clean and free from dried or hardened particles or
coatings of concrete immediately prior to placing concrete
against that part of the surface.
I-12 CLEANING STEEL REINFORCEMENT
See Article II-4(b) of Addendum II.
I-13 PLACING CONSTRUCTION JOINTS
(a) Construction joints shall be placed across
regions of low shearing stress, in locations which will be
hidden from view to the greatest possible extent, and at only
the location shown on the plans.
(b) Unless otherwise shown on the plans, concrete
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in structures shall be so placed that all construction joints
will be truly horizontal or vertical and, if possible, in
locations that will not be exposed to view in the finished
structure. Special care shall be taken to avoid construction
joints through paneled walls or other large surfaces which are to
be treated architecturally. When specified, triangular chamfers
will be placed at horizontal construction joints and at
designated intervals between joints.
I-14 PROTECTION OF FORMS
(a) During the placing of concrete the contractor
shall detail competent workmen to watch the alignment of forms
and to correct immediately any yielding of forms or falsework.
(b) After the concrete has initially hardened the
forms shall not be jarred nor shall any strain be placed on
reinforcing bars partially encased in concrete that will cause
damage to the bond.
I-15 CONTROL
(a) Placement of concrete shall be governed by
construction joints as shown on the plans or as directed by the
engineer.
(b) Concrete shall be deposited continuously for
each monolithic section of the work. In case of breakdown of
equipment necessitating suspension of placing of concrete for a
period in excess of 45 minutes, and that part of the work
involved is such that a construction joint will not be permitted,
all of the previously placed concrete shall be removed.
(c) Concrete in walls, columns, etc. shall be
placed in continuous horizontal layers extending from end to end
of the forms.
(d) All concrete floors shall be placed for full
thickness in one operation. The operation of placing the concrete
in any floor slabs shall be continuous between expansion joints
or approved construction joints.
(e) Concrete in structural slabs shall be placed
in one continuous operation unless otherwise directed. When cap
forms are not constructed with column forms the columns shall be
allowed to set at least 12 hours before the caps are placed
and/or before any forming for caps begins. No concrete shall be
placed in the structural slabs until sufficient column forms have
been removed to ascertain the quality of the concrete in the
column. The full load of the slab shall not be allowed to come
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upon the supports until so approved by the engineer.
I-16 PUMPING
(a) Direct placement of concrete by an accepted
and accredited pumping device will be permitted. The equipment
shall be so arranged that no vibrations result which might damage
freshly placed concrete. Where concrete is conveyed and placed by
mechanically applied pressure, the equipment shall be suitable in
kind and adequate in capacity for the work. The operation of the
pump shall be such that a continuous stream of concrete without
air pockets is produced. When pumping is completed the concrete
remaining in the pipeline, if it is to be used, shall be ejected
in such a manner that there will be no contamination of the
concrete or separation of the ingredients. After each placement
the entire equipment shall be cleaned to prevent improper results
on subsequent operations.
I-17 COMPACTING AND VIBRATING
(a) General Concrete, during and immediately
after depositing, shall be compacted and vibrated as provided
herein. Concrete shall be well puddled, all air expelled and the
mortar brought to the surface and sides of the forms and around
the steel reinforcement by working along and against the forms
and the reinforcement with concrete spades, steel slicing rods,
vibrators or other suitable tools constructed for the purpose.
Special care shall be taken to work the larger particles of
coarse aggregate away from the face of the forms and the surface
and to force the concrete under and around the reinforcement. If
directed, the forms shall be vibrated to secure desired puddling
and compaction. The compaction, except for handrail, shall be
done by mechanical vibration subject to the provisions set forth
below.
(b) Vibrator The vibration shall be internal
unless special authorization for other methods is granted by the
engineer.
(c) Vibration shall be applied at the point of
deposit and in the areas of freshly deposited concrete. The
vibrators shall be inserted and withdrawn out of the concrete
slowly. The vibration shall be of sufficient duration and
intensity to compact the concrete, but shall not be continued so
as to cause segregation. Vibration shall not be continued at any
one point to the extent that localized areas of grout are
formed.
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(d) Application of vibrators shall be at points
uniformly spaced and not farther apart than twice the radius over
which the vibration is visibly affected.
(e) Vibration shall not be applied directly or
through the reinforcement to sections or layers of concrete which
have hardened. It shall not be used to make concrete flow in
forms over distances so great as to cause segregation, and
vibrators shall not be used to transport concrete in the forms.
(f) Vibrators shall be manipulated so as to work
the concrete around the reinforcement and embedded fixtures and
into all parts of the form. Vibrating shall be supplemented by
such spading as is necessary to insure smooth surfaces and dense
concrete.
I-18 BONDING CONSTRUCTION JOINTS
(a) Prior to erecting forms for placement of
concrete to join concrete which has already set, the concrete in
place shall be scarified and chipped, removing all laitance and
foreign matter and exposing the granular surface of sound
concrete and shall be washed with clear water. The surface shall
then be kept drenched until the new concrete is placed.
Immediately before placing the new concrete, the forms shall be
drawn tight against the concrete already in place and the old
surface shall be completely covered with mortar of the same
cement-sand ratio as used in the concrete. Construction joints in
points of high shear shall be bonded by keys formed by the
insertion and removal of beveled wood strips which have been
saturated with water. Steel dowels may, with the approval of the
engineer, be used in lieu of keys. The size and spacing of keys
and dowels shall be as provided for in the plans
I-19 EXPANSION AND FIXED JOINTS
(a) Open joints shall be placed in locations
shown on the plans and shall be constructed by the insertion and
subsequent removal of a wood strip, metal plate or other approved
material. The insertion and removal of a template shall be
accomplished without chipping or breaking the corners of the
concrete. Reinforcement shall not extend across an open joint
unless so specified on the plans. Bolts used for placing angles
shall be cut as soon as concrete has hardened. Joints shall be
cleared of all mortar, obstructions, etc.
(b) Poured expansion joints shall be constructed
similar to open joints. When premolded types are specified the
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filler shall be placed in correct position as the concrete on one
side of the joint is placed. When the form is removed the
concrete on the other side shall be placed. Water stops shall be
placed as shown on the plans.
(c) Mortise joints shall be constructed as shown
on the plans and in general shall consist of a metal part sliding
in a concrete or metal socket. Construction shall be such as to
permit freedom of movement in two directions and, as far as
possible, be water tight and rustproof.
(d) Plates, angles or other structural shapes shall
be accurately shaped at the shop to conform to the section of the
concrete floor. The fabrication and painting shall conform to the
requirements of other sections of these specifications and/or
the plans. When called for on the plans the material shall be
galvanized in lieu of painting.Care shall be taken to insure that
the surface in the finished plane is true and free of warping.
Positive methods shall be employed in placing the joints to keep
them in correct position during the placing of the concrete. The
opening in expansion joints shall be that designated on the plans
at normal temperature and care shall be taken to avoid impairment
of the clearance in any manner.
(e) Water stops shall be molded rubber water stops
of the type indicated on the plans. Specifications of the
particular material to be furnished shall be submitted to the
engineer for his approval prior to ordering. Water stops shall
be installed at such places as shown on the plans or as directed
by the engineer.
I-20 REMOVAL OF FALSEWORK
(a) Falsework or centering supporting any concrete
work shall not be removed or wedges loosened without the consent
of the engineer. In general, centering shall not be removed for a
period of at least 28 days after the concrete is placed.
I-21 REMOVAL OF FORMS
(a) General To permit proper surface finishing,
forms shall, in general, be removed as soon after the concrete
has set as is practicable and safe. In the determination of the
time for removal of forms, consideration shall be given to the
location and character of the structure, the weather, and the
material used in the mix. Except as provided in Article I-4 (a),
the forms of any part of the structure shall not be removed until
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the concrete gives forth a clean sharp ring when struck upon a
flat surface with a small hammer and is strong enough to prevent
injury to the concrete when the forms are removed.
(b) Methods of form removal likely to cause
overstressing of the concrete shall not be used. In general, the
forms shall be removed from the bottom upwards. Supports shall be
removed in such a manner as to permit the concrete to uniformly
and gradually take the stresses due to its own weight.
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(c) If field operations are not controlled by
cylinder and/or beam tests, the following periods for removal of
forms and supports shall be used:
Falsework under beams and floor slabs 14 days
Walls, columns, sides of beams and all
other parts 1 to 7 days
THESE TIME PERIODS ARE EXCLUSIVE OF DAYS WHEN FOR 4 HOURS OR
MORE, THE TEMPERATURE IS 40 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT OR LESS.
I-22 DEFECTIVE WORK AND MATERIALS
(a) After the forms have been removed, any
defective work discovered shall be removed and renewed in a
satisfactory manner. If the surface of the concrete is sagged,
bulged, uneven or honeycombed to such an extent that it cannot be
satisfactorily repaired, the entire section shall be removed and
replaced.
(b) Adherence to these specifications will provide
a 28 day compression strength for Class "A" concrete considerably
in excess of 3000 psi.
(c) Class "A" concrete work covered by 28-day
compression tests that breaks at less than 3000 psi shall be
removed and replaced.
I-23 WATER TIGHTNESS
(a) The contractor shall make all concrete in all
structures water tight. Any cracks or imperfections developing at
any point of the work shall be repaired to the satisfaction of
the engineer and the City engineer.
(b) If deemed necessary by the engineer, an
approved waterproofing material shall be applied to the inside
face of the concrete in a manner set forth by the manufacturer of
said material.
I-24 CURING CONCRETE
(a) Concrete which has been placed shall be
protected against jarring or other movement which might injure
it before it has attained strength to resist.
(b) Careful attention shall be given to the proper
Page 91 of 155
curing of the concrete. All surfaces not covered by forms shall
be protected with membrane curing compound, dampened burlap, or
cotton mats as soon after placing the concrete as possible
without marring the surface. Unless membrane curing compound is
used, burlap or other approved covering material shall be kept
wet and shall remain in place for 10 days, except for portions
temporarily uncovered during finishing operations. Burlap or
cotton mats shall be securely anchored to the concrete face by
weights, ties, etc. for the 10 day period. The provision for
continuous wetting shall be strictly adhered to.
(c) No traffic or other superimposed load will be
permitted over structural slabs unless tests indicate that
compression STRENGTH of 3000 psi has been attained, or
until the expiration of 28 days exclusive of days when the
temperature has fallen below 40 degrees F. for 4 hours or more.
I-25 PROTECTION
(a) Before beginning operations in slab spans,
the contractor shall have on site an approved cover to enclose
and protect the concrete, if necessary, until satisfactorily
finished. The contractor shall protect the concrete from weather.
No aggregate, equipment or other material shall be stockpiled on
concrete slabs except as provided by Article I-24 of this
Addendum, and in no case shall the loading due thereto exceed 100
pounds per square foot.
I-26 FINISHING
I-26.1 General
(a) The finished work shall be true to form
indicated on the plans and wholly free from projections, swells,
ridges, depressions, holes, cavities, mortar deficiencies and
other defects. The line and grade of the top of all horizontal
surfaces shall be checked immediately after placing has been
completed and any irregularities corrected at once.
(b) All permanently exposed concrete surfaces
shall be given a Class I surface finish. Other surfaces shall be
given an ordinary surface finish.
(c) The contractor shall be required to make all
concrete in all structures watertight. Any cracks or
imperfections developing at any point of the work shall be
thoroughly repaired in a manner satisfactory to the engineer. If
deemed necessary, the engineer may require that an approved
waterproofing material be applied to the concrete.
I-26.2 Ordinary Surface Finish
Page 92 of 155
(a) As soon as the concrete has set sufficiently,
the forms shall be carefully removed and all cavities or
depressions resulting from the removal of metal ties or from
other causes shall be carefully filled and pointed with a mortar
of sand and cement in the same proportions which have been used
for the particular class of concrete treated and the surface left
smooth, even and uniform in color. The surface film of all such
pointed surfaces shall be carefully removed before setting
occurs. Cement wash will not be permitted. Any fins, ridges or
projections shall be struck off.
I-26.3 CLASS I SURFACE FINISH
(a) As soon as the pointing has set sufficiently to
permit it, the entire surface shall be wet with a brush and
rubbed with a number 16 carborundum stone or an abrasive of equal
quality. The rubbing shall be continued for a sufficient time to
remove all form marks and projections, producing a smooth dense
surface without pits or irregularities.
(b) The material which, in the above process, has
been ground to a paste shall then be carefully brushed or spread
uniformly over the entire surface and allowed to take a "reset".
The final finish shall be obtained by rubbing with a number 30
carborundum stone until the entire surface is smooth and of
uniform color. Portions which have been disfigured by the drip
from the abrasive shall be cleaned.
I-26.4 No cement wash or plaster coating will be allowed.
I-26..5 FINISHING
After proper screeding, the wearing surface shall
be given a float, trowel or broomed finish as indicated on the
plans.
(a) Floating
Soon after screeding and while the concrete is
still plastic, the surface shall be floated with wood, cork or
metal floats or by a finishing machine. The surface shall be
brought to true grade, any high spots cut down and low spots
filled in and sufficient mortar brought to the surface to produce
the desired finish. Where floating is done to provide a coarse
texture as the final finish, it may be necessary to float the
surface a second time after it has partially hardened so that
the desired finish can be produced and the concrete will retain
it.
Page 93 of 155
(b) Troweling
Where a smooth dense surface is desired, floating
shall be followed by steel troweling. This operation should be
delayed as long as possible, at least until after the concrete
has hardened enough so that water and fine material are not
worked to the surface. Spreading dry cement on the surface to
take up excess water will not be permitted.
The first steel troweling should be only sufficient
to produce a smooth surface free of defects. This may be followed
by a second troweling after the concrete has become hard enough
so that no mortar adheres to the edge of the trowel and a ringing
sound is produced as the trowel passes over the surface.
(c) Brooming
A scored surface shall be produced by brooming the
concrete before it has hardened thoroughly. A rough scoring is
produced by the use of a steel wire broom or one made from stiff
coarse fibers. The brooming shall be done after the surface has
been floated. A fine scoring is produced by troweling once to a
smooth surface then brooming transversely to the traffic
direction with a hair brush.
Page 94 of 155
ADDENDUM II
REINFORCING STEEL
II-1 DESCRIPTION
This item shall cover furnishing and placing
reinforcing steel of the quality, type, size and quantity
designated on plans. All bars above 1/4 inch round shall be
deformed. The deformation of the bars used must be approved and
shall be such as to provide a net section at all points
equivalent to that of a plain square or round bar of equal
nominal size. The use of cold twisted bars will not be permitted.
II-2 MATERIALS
(a) Billet Steel Reinforcement bars
Structural or intermediate grade new billet steel
concrete reinforcement bars shall conform to the requirements of
ASTM Serial Designation A-15-50T.
(b) Rail Steel Reeinforcement Bars
Rail steel reinforcement bars shall meet the
requirements of ASTM Serial Designation A-16-50T.
(c) Welded Steel Wire Reinforcement
Welded steel wire reinforcement shall meet the
requirements of ASTM Serial Designation A-185-37.
II-3 DRAWINGS AND IDENTIFICATION
(a) The drawings shall show fabrication,
identification, bar bending diagrams and placement of all
reinforcing steel.
II-4 HANDLING AND PLACING REINFORCEMENT
(a) Bending
Reinforcement shall be bent to the form and
dimensions shown without heating. The radius of bends shall be
three or more times the diameter of the bar. Abrupt bends shall
be avoided. Bars with kinks or bends and bars appreciably reduced
in cross-sectional area shall not be used.
(b) Cleaning
Metal reinforcement shall be cleaned of mill and
rust scale and of coatings of dirt, paint, oil, grease or any
other foreign substance. Before concrete is placed around any
part of the reinforcement, all mortar or other foreign matter
Page 95 of 155
shall be cleaned from that portion of the reinforcement and when,
during the deposition of the concrete, mortar splattered on the
reinforcement dries or hardens, all such mortar shall be removed
from the reinforcement immediately before any concrete is
placed against it.
(c) Placing
All reinforcing steel shall be accurately placed
and firmly held in position during the placing and hardening of
the concrete. Reinforcing steel generally shall be in the middle
third vertically in horizontal surfaces and in the middle third
horizontally in vertical surfaces.
(d) Wiring and supporting
All intersecting reinforcement shall be rigidly
wired or spot welded at each intersection. Reinforcement shall be
supported during the placement of concrete. Operations which tend
to bend or displace the reinforcement from its correct position
shall not be permitted. All reinforcement shall be placed and
securely wired, spaced and blocked before placing concrete. In no
case shall reinforcing steel be driven or forced into concrete
after it has hardened.
All reinforcing metal shall be maintained at the
proper distances from the forms by means of stays, mortar blocks,
metal ties, chains, hangers or other approved supports. Blocks
for holding reinforcement from contact with the forms shall be
precast mortar blocks of approved mix, shape, and dimensions.
Layers of bars shall be separated by approved metal spacers. The
use of pebbles, pieces of broken stone or brick, metal pipe or
wooden block as spacers will not be permitted.
II-5 SPLICING AND LAPPING REINFORCEMENT
(a) Splicing
Splices shall be avoided at points of maximum
stress. They shall, where possible, be staggered and shall be
designed to develop the strength of the steel without exceeding
the allowable unit bond stress. Bars shall be lapped 40 diameters
to make the splice. In lapped splices, the bars shall be placed
in contact and wired together in such a manner as to maintain a
clearance of not less than the minimum clear distance to other
bars and the minimum distance to the surface.of the concrete.
(b) Lapping
Sheets of mesh or bar mat reinforcing shall overlap
each other sufficiently to maintain a uniform strength and shall
be securely fastened at the ends and edges. The edge lap shall
not be less than one mesh in width.
Page 96 of 155
II-6 MINIMUM SPACING
(a) The clear distance between parallel rods shall
be not less than 1 1/2 times the diameter of round rods or twice
the side dimensions of square rods and in no case less than 1
inch.
(b) Groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in
contact to act as a unit may be used only when enclosed by ties
or stirrups. A maximum of four (4) percent deformed bars will be
permitted in a bundle. If full-length bars cannot be used
between supports, they shall be staggered a minimum of forty (40)
bar-diameters between any discontinuities. The lap length shall
increase 20% for three-bar bundles and 33% for a four-bar bundle.
In determining minimum distances between a bundle and parallel
reinforcing, the bundle shall be treated as a single bar of
equivalent area.
II-7 PROTECTIVE COVERING
(a) Minimum concrete covering over steel shall be
as follows:
Beams, girders, etc..................1 1/2" outside of main steel
Solid slabs..........................1" outside of steel
Walls................................2" outside of steel
Footings............................ 3" outs
i
de of steel on side
and top and bottom
Tied columns.........................2 1/2" outside of main steel
These dimensions are measured from the face of the reinforcement
to the face of the form.
Page 97 of 155
ADDENDUM III RESERVED
Page 98 of 155
IV FENCES
IV-1 LIFT STATIONS
Fences surrounding lift stations may be chain link
or wood. Fences shall be eight feet in height. Fences shall be
constructed with sufficient clearance so that in the case of an
above-ground station the access doors may be opened for their
full width without obstruction, and so that the housing may be
removed in either direction for its full length, and so that the
externally mounted electrical entrance panel and associated
equipment inside the fence are accessible.
The gate shall be so located that hoisting
equipment will have direct access to the pumps and motors when
the housing is removed in either direction, and so that one
access door is directly inside the gate when the housing is in
place.
In the case of an in-ground lift station, there
shall be sufficient clearance inside the fence so that the cover
can be rotated 360 degrees horizontally, and so that the
electrical entrance panel, the station control panel and
associated equipment are accessible, and so that hoisting
equipment will have direct access to the motors and pumps.
All lift stations shall have the area between the
fence and the lift station mounting pad paved with 2 inches of
bituminous paving over a 4 inch base course.
IV-2 CHAIN LINK FENCES
IV-2.1 MATERIALS
CHAIN LINK FABRIC
All chain link fence fabric shall consist of woven
wire in the form of approximately 2-inch uniform square mesh,
having parallel sides with horizontal and vertical diagonals of
approximately uniform dimensions in accordance with the
provisions of ASTM A-392. The wire shall not be less than 9 gauge
(coated). The fabric shall be 8 feet wide.
The base metal of the fabric shall be a good
commercial quality of steel wire coated with prime western
spelter or equal (AASHTO M-120) in accordance with the provisions
of ASTM A-392 for a Class 2 coating weight. The zinc coating
Page 99 of 155
shall be applied after weaving. The wire after treatment shall
have a minimum breaking load of 1290 pounds.
IV-2.1.1 MISCELLANEOUS WIRE
Wire used for bracing or as tension wires shall be
No. 9 gauge minimum. Wire used for tying and other purposes shall
be No. 11 gauge minimum. The wires may be steel or aluminum of
not less than 25,000 psi tensile strength All miscellaneous
steel wire shall have 0.7 oz zinc per square foot of uncoated
wire.
IV-2.1.2 FENCE SUPPORTS
GENERAL
The frame, including posts, rails, braces,
fittings, etc. shall include an acceptable expansion joint.
Fittings and connections may, in general, be of the fabricator's
design, provided posts, caps, tops, etc. shall be of the heavy
duty cast metal design of either malleable steel or
aluminum consistent with other parts of the material; line post
caps shall be of such design that the addition of barbed wire
arms can be accomplished, if necessary, by a standard arm which
is capable of being set at either a vertical position or at a 45
degree angle from the vertical on either side of the fence, all
of which can be accomplished without dismantling or removing the
post cap. Straps, bands or similar type connections, unless
otherwise noted, shall be fabricated from material of not less
than 0.125 inches thick.
STEEL
(a) General All steel elements used as fence
supports shall be classified as Type A or Type B according to the
following requirements. Unless specified on the plans, the
contractor shall have the option to use either type.
(1) Type A
All steel elements used in the framework shall be
of a good commercial grade steel, hot-dipped, galvanized in
accordance with the following: Tubular posts, braces, etc. --ASTM
A-120; Castings and miscellaneous hardware -- ASTM A-153. Minimum
sizes and weights of posts, rails and framing shall be as
follows:
Line posts 2.375" O.D. pipe @ 3.65 #/ft.
Corner and pull posts 2.875" O.D. pipe @ 5.79 #/ft.
Gate posts 4.0" O.D pipe @ 9.10 #/ft.
Top & middle rail 1.625" O.D. pipe @ 2.27 #/ft.
Gate frames 1.625" O.D. pipe at 2.27 #/ft.
Tolerances for steel tubing shall be +/- 1% of dimension and
+/- 5% of weight.
(2) Type B
All steel elements of this type shall be produced
from a lightweight high tensile/high yield strength steel. The
steel shall possess a minimum yield strength which when
multiplied by the section modulus of a particular pipe size shall
equal or exceed the minimum elastic bending moment of the same
outside diameter Type A steel pipe. Type B steel pipe shall meet
either or both of the following bending tests with a maximum
permanent deflection of not more than 0.25 inches:
O.D. PIPE SIZE ACTUAL MIN.LOAD BEARING CAPACITY (LBS)
10' free supported 4' cantilever
1 5/8" 327 204
2" 468 293
2 1/2" 814 508
The exterior surface of the pipe shall have a hot-dipped
galvanized coating, minimum 0.9 oz/sq. ft., followed by a
chromate conversion coating. The interior surface of the pipe
shall have either these same coatings or a zinc rich based
coating having a minimum zinc powder content of 80% by weight.
These coatings shall be capable of withstanding weathering in
accordance with ASTM A-623 for 250 hours, and humidity in
accordance with ASTM D-1735 for 500 hours.
In lieu of the galvanized coatings specified
elsewhere in this item, the coating on all surfaces of the fence
supports and framing shall be a hot-dipped aluminized coating.
The minimum weight of coating shall be 0.75 ounces per square
foot, triple spot test, 0.70 ounces per square foot, single spot
test, as measured in accordance with ASTM A-428. The external
and internal aluminum coating surface shall have a chromate
chemical treatment and a thin resin film to minimize galling and
provide wet storage stain resistance during storage and shipment.
Miscellaneous steel fittings and hardware shall be
of a good grade commercial steel, meeting the general
requirements noted for chain link fence, hot-dipped galvanized
after fabrication in accordance with ASTM A-153 or hot dipped
aluminized in accordance with this Addendum.
IV-2.1.3 GATES
Gates shall be swing gates as detailed or specified
on the plans. The gate frames shall be the height of the top of
the posts and covered with the same wire and fabric used on the
fence. The frames shall be formed from the tubular shapes noted
in this Addendum, with all joints welded or otherwise constructed
to form a rigid, tamper-proof unit.
All gates shall be furnished complete with approved
tamper-proof hinges, latches, auxiliary braces, and all other
necessary fittings. Gate openings shall have a width of 12 feet.
Gates shall be 2-panel, side hinged, with one side fastened in
the closed position by a drop pin in the center of the opening.
Locks shall be the responsibility of the City of Madison Water
And Wastewater Board.
IV-2.1.4 CONCRETE FOR SETTING POSTS
Concrete for bedding posts, etc., shall be Class A,
complying with the requirements of Addendum I, except the
concrete may be dry batched at a central mixing plant and
delivered to the project. Before the concrete is placed, water
shall be added. This may be done in small amounts as needed and
mixed on a mixing board or mortar box. After water is added, the
mix shall be used within sixty minutes or shall be wasted. Posts,
braces and brace struts shall be held in proper position until
the concrete hardens. The concrete for all corner, brace and line
posts shall have cured for 72 hours before any strain is placed
upon them.
IV-3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
IV-3.1 GENERAL
All construction methods and equipment employed in
the setting of fence shall be in accordance with the requirements
of the specifications of the manufacturer of the fence being used
and shall be such that the resulting structure will provide the
expected service and be durable and complete in every detail.
IV-3.2 CLEARING FENCE LINE
All brush, stumps, logs, large roots, humps of
earth, boulders or debris which would interfere with proper
construction of the fence in the required location shall be
removed before starting fencing operations. Sound standing trees
inside the perimeter of the fence shall be removed before
starting fencing operations. The clearing and/or grading of the
area inside the fence shall be accomplished prior to starting
fencing. The clearing and/or grading of the area outside the
perimeter and the disposal of all material removed shall be
accomplished in such manner that minimum damage will be done.
IV-3.3 SETTING POSTS
Posts and anchorages shall be set at intervals
shown on the plans. The posts shall be set plumb and true in
alignment on the side to which the fabric is to be attached. All
posts (end and corner posts, brace posts, pull posts, line and
gate posts) shall be set in concrete. Where unstable soil is
encountered, the use of longer posts, concrete anchorage or other
approved post stabilization methods shall be required.
IV-3.4 CONSTRUCTING FENCE
Chain link fence shall be stretched taut and
securely fastened to each post by means of approved metal bands
or No. 9 gauge wire spaced not more than 12 inches apart on posts
and not more than 15 inches apart on the rail. The method of
attaching at end posts, gates and corner posts shall be as shown
on the plans
If barbed wire is called for, the barbed wire,
barbed wire arms and methods of attachment shall be shown on the
plans. Wire shall be stretched taut and spaced as specified by
the engineer.
IV-4 WOOD FENCE
IV-4.1 MATERIALS
IV-4.1.1 GENERAL
All wood shall be treated . Treated wood shall mean
wood of the species called for by the plans,treated by a pressure
method to retain 8 pounds of No. 1 creosote oil with 2% by
weight of pentachlorophenol, empty cell treatment. In the event
that this treatment is not approved by local or federal
authorities, an equivalent pressure treated wood, as approved by
one of the wood grading authorities recognized by the Standard
Building Code, will be accepted.
IV-4.1.2 POSTS
Corner posts and line posts shall be 4x4 rough cut
timber extending 8 feet above ground.
Gate posts shall be 6x6 rough cut timber extending
8 feet above ground.
Top and bottom stringers shall be 2x4, either rough
cut or smooth.
Palings shall be either 1x6 or 1x8 rough cut
lumber, at the option of the contractor.
Gate frames and cross-bucks shall be 2x4, either
rough cut or smooth.
Gate hinges and latches shall be heavy duty steel,
industrial type, galvanized after fabrication in accordance
with ASTM A-153.
Gate hinge and latch fastenings shall be galvanized
or chrome plated 3/8 inch minimum diameter carriage bolts of
sufficient length that the nut will be backed with a galvanized
steel flat washer.
Gate center pin and accessory hardware shall be
galvanized steel.
Nails shall be hot dip galvanized 8d or
10d, as appropriate.
Concrete for bedding posts shall be Class A type,
complying with applicable sections of Addendum I. The contractor
may use ready-mix or concrete may be dry batched at a central
mixing plant and delivered to the project. Before the concrete is
placed, water shall be added. This may be done in small amounts
as needed and mixed in a mortar box. After water is added, the
mix shall be used within 60 minutes. Posts shall be held in
proper position until the concrete hardens. The concrete shall
have cured for 72 hours before any strain is put on the posts.
IV-5 CLEARING FENCE LINE
Clearing fence line shall be as delineated under CHAIN LINK
FENCE.
IV-6 SETTING POSTS
Posts shall be set at intervals shown on the plans
or as directed by the engineer. The posts shall be set plumb and
true in alignment on the side to which the palings are to be
attached. All posts shall be set in concrete in accordance with
plan details.
IV-8 CONSTRUCTING FENCE
The fence shall be constructed in accordance with
the plan details, except that alternate palings on gates shall be
omitted. Particular care shall be paid to placing a diagonal 2x4
from the upper corner of the opening side of the gate frame to
the lower corner of the hinge side of the gate frame.
Construction Detail Sheets Immediately
Following
Appendix
Construction Detail Exhibits
DROP INLET
WITH GRATE
MlRAFFl SILT FENCE
\
FILTERED
WATER
/
BURIED FABRIC
'
'
I
FOR
USE
WHERE
THE
INLET
DWNS
RAT
AREAS
(SLOPES
NO
GREATER
THAN
5%)
AND SHEU FLOWS DO NOT EXCEED
0.5
CFS
ARE TYPICAL.
NOT TO BE USED WHERE CONCENTRATED FLOWS ARE PRESENT.
I
I
I
1
SILT
FENCE
FOR
INLET
RMSIONS
DESCRlPllON
-
I
NAME
1
DATE
1 1
,#
CITY
OF
MADISON
CIM
ENGINEER
DATE
-3RCP
!?ICET
WlTH CRATE
\STRAW
BALES STAKED WlTH
2
STAKES PER
WE
FOR
USE
WHERE THE INLET DRAINS FLAT AREAS (SLOPES NO GREATER
THAN
5%)
AND SHEET FLOWS DO NOT EXCEED
0.5
CFS ARE TYPICAL.
NOT TO BE
USED
WHERE CONCENTRATED FLOWS ARE PRESENT.
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NAME
I
DATE
I
I
CITY
OF
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Clh
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103
STD.
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NO.
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CONSTRUCTION
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105
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GRAVEL CONSTRUCTION EMRANCE
WITH
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REVISIONS
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DATE
I
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APPRONMATELY
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BAG IS TO HAVE A
BAGS AND INLET.
J/4-INCH GRAMh CONTAINED
1N
PLACE CRAm flLm BAGS
PERWOUS BURLAP BAGS
OR
SUCH
lHAT NO GAPS
ARE
SYNTHETIC NET BAGS (1/8-INCH EVIDENT.
MESH)
APPROXIMATELY 24-INCHES
LONG,
12-INCHES
WIM
AND 6-INCHES
(IE. CURB
HEHYlt)
HIGH.
PLAN
MEW
HEIGHT
OF
GRAML flLTER
BAGS
YIOUU)
NOT BE ABOM
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CRAML FILTER BAGS
SUCH MAT NO CAPS ARE
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I
NOTE:
FRONT
GRAML
FILTER
CAN
BE
USED
ON
PAVEMENT
OR
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GRAVEL
BAG
RLTER
REVlSlONS
DESCRlPnON
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WE
I
DATE
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DETAIL FOR
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NAME
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mi-
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DATF
STD.
DWC
NO,
'5
BARS
NO.
5
'c
Bcff
HO.
5
r
r
o.c.
p.)
r
4*
o.c.
Oyp.)
SECTION
"B-B"
'f-
&rRS
m).
s
(2
EA.
1'-d
LONG)
NOTE:
SLOPE
TO
PAKKNT
lF
MERE
6
NO
CURB
ON
MIS
SW
I4
/
\.
i
1:1
'4
.
.
'
.
,.:
:t:
;. .
7.
*
-
.. .
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
V)
3'4
1
I
SECTION
"A-A"
CITY
OF
MADISON
"S"
TYPE
INW
DETAILS
m-
1200
STD.
DWG
NO
REVISIONS
OESCRIPTION
NAME
DATE
CITY
ENGINEER
DATE
C
O.C.
4'
O.C.
IT
0.C.
IT
O.C.
CrPl
OF
MADISON
"S"
WE
INLET DETAILS
m-
120c
-
REVISIONS
4.4
~IN.
'A'
wm
KJ.
6
1
DESCRIPRON
4-
O.C.
4-
O.C.
11
0.CLW.
NN
R
NAME
SECTION
"
D-Dn
DATE
nrcw~UXn,coHIwar
mmsswfasonuK
'd
MJl)'b
WW.
SAT
4'
OC.
MS
AT
B
0.C.
--)-
EFE?umTS.Q
acm
mw
(12)
m.
w
'7
acms
nmx
(12)
m.
4,
4
rtcrmrn~~eoxm~(nwnc
I
1
_.
nw).
sEEWlE8CrnEKa)N~IfIISCD.
rP.CRPEm&PUC(DUWOER
Q)ITLROFTWMATQINLWlJaL
1..
..r
..
YIN6lmms
-
'U
WE
m.
5
AT
If
ox.
.
-41
._a
-.
'c
ws
m.
4
Ar
rl
oc.
.I
A
f
DETAIL
"A"
I
GENERAL
NOTES
RMSIONS
OESCRlPTION
I
NAME
I
DATE
-.
I
I
CrrY
OF
MADISON
I
"S"
IYPE
INLFT
DETAILS
CTr(
ENGINEER
DATE
STM-
1200
SR).
DWG
NO.
A
I
I
I
1
I
USE
IIUW
FOUMXn
WC
S-.
4
I
Y-$
MAWOUlYGRAEANOFRLYEM1
LPPC(OJID
EWAL
-6,
1
2'4
1
I
I
a
TRAFFIC
WE
15"
TO
24"
PIPFS
I
STM-
1
2%
NOTES
1.
MINIMUM
SE
OF
AN
MLEI
BOX
IS
2'-6'
x
2'-6'.
6.
KL
CONCRETE
SHKL
BE
CUSS
AND
SHKL
IKMLW
A
MtNlUUM CWPRESSM
SlRENCTH
OF
2.
WIUUU
OZE
OF
AN
LHLET
BOX
IS
7'4
(W2)
X
JOOO
PSI
IN
28
MIS.
13'-6'
(Wl) FOR
27
TO
66
PIPES
7.
REINWING
SHKL
BE
INEJ?UEDIATE CRPDE WORMED
J.
MHIMUM
SIZE
OF
AN
INLET
BOX
IS
2'4
X
2'-6'
WAS
N.(D
W
(r)NFOflM TO
?HE
REWIREMEHIS
OF
15' TO
24.
PIPES.
THE
STANMRD
SPEClfKXMINS
FOR
BWT
SlEt
CONCREE
REINFORCEMENT WRS,
ASTU
A-15
AND
DEFORWMINS
4.
WIUUM
HOCHT
OF
AN
INLET
BOX
6
AS
SHOWN. COHFORMlNC
NC
R)
A-205.
5.
INC~T
BOXES
GREATER
THAN
7-0'
x
IY-c
x
a.
ms
ARE
REQUIRED
ON
AU
INLET
BOXES
WHEN
10'-6
WU
BE
A
SPECN
DESIGNED
INLE~
BOX.
MIlENSlON
FROM
TOP
NC
BOTIOM
SUB
ROW
UNE
TO TOP
Of
TOP
SUB
IS
GREATER
THAN
4'-0'.
1
REVISIONS
DESCRIPTION
0
I
I
Cm
OF
MADISON
OPEN
GRATE
INLET
BOX
DETAIL
r
THIS
CPLCUtATEO
WlOTH
IS
WE0
ON
MAXIMUM
PIPE
SKEW
Of
74.
L
*W2
=
03
+
2'4'
W.
~2
=
7'4
MtN.
W2
=
5'4
NOfES
1.
MINIMUM
SlZE
OF
N4
MET
BOX IS
2'-g
X
2'-b.
6.
AL
CONCAfTE SW
BE
CUSS
'K
MO
SW
OMLOP
A
MlNWM COMPRSSM
SIRENCTH
OF
2.
MtMUM
XE
OF
AN
INLn
BOX
IS
7-6
(W2)
X
13'-C
(Wl)
FOR
27
TO 66 PIPES.
3.
MlNlVUM
SlZE
OF
N4
W
BOX
IS
2'-6'
X
2'-b
15'
TO
24.
PIPES.
4.
WIUUM HEIGHT OF
AN
INLET BOX IS AS SHOWN.
5,
INLET BOXES CREATER
THAN
7.4 X
13'-6'
X
10'-6 SW
BE
A
SPECUL DESlGNED
INLEI
BOX.
X)(M
PSI
IN
28
ME.
7.
REINFORCING
SHKL
BE
NTEBWMTE
GRME
OEFOAMED
WS
AND
SHW.
CONFORM TO
THE
REWREMNTS
OF
ME
STPHOARO
SPECiFICATIONS
FOR
Sl'EEL
CONCRETE
RflNFORCEMENl
BARS,
ASTM
A-15
PHD
DEFORU4TKX(S
CONFORMING TO
MTM
A-305.
8.
STEPS
LRE
REWIRED ON
All,
MET
BOXES
WHEN
DIMENSION FROM TOP TO
80TTOU
SUB
ROW
UNE
TO TOP
Of
TOP SM
IS
GREAITR
THAH
4'5.
REVISIONS
DESCRlPnON
I
NAME
1
DATE
-
CITY
OF
MADISON
I
OPEN CRATE
INLET
BOX
DETAIL
Eri(;IffEER
-
&ATF
TRAFFIC
WE
27"
TO
60"
PlPFS
STM-
125C
rTD.
OWG
NO.
W2
MAX.
W2
=
7'-0.
MIN.
W2
=
5'-6
45
B
Id
O.C.
l4
B
12'
O.C.
SLOPE
BOTTOM
WITH
-/
GROUT
*I
NEEDED
TO
DRAIN.
SECTION
A-9
--
.
h
a
a
CrrY
OF
WlSON
OPEN
THROAT
INLET
DETAIL
STM-
1270
n>,
DWC
NO
REVISIONS
DESCRlFllON
WE
DATE
,
CllY
ENGINEER
DATE
COVER
OUAIL
NOTE: COVER AND
FRAME
SHALL
CONFORM TO
ME
REOUlREMEECrS
OF
CLASS
30
FOR
GRAY
IRON
CASTING,
ASIM
(A
48).
FRAME
AND
COVER
SHAU
BE CERTIFIED
BY
MF6. TO BE TRAFFIC
@WING
WHEN APPUCABLE.
PING
SECTION
NOTE:
COVER AND
FRAME
YWL
CONFORM TO THE
REQUIREMENTS OF
CLASS
30
FOR
CR4Y
IRON
CAmNG,
ASTM
(A
48).
FRAME AND COVER
SHAU
BE
CERTIFIED
BY
MF6.
r
WWJM
SIZE
wrw
u#~7mx
s
r-u
(n)
x
13'4
(wl)
FOR
27
la
wa
6.
m
w
cmswnw
IS
USED,
ww
*U
BE
0'
BRHX
WfN
IS
LESS
MAN
5'4'.
RWWD
cofccRElE
OR
8'
BACK
Ymr
UORTCR
IHSU
MI
OCll
FOR
m
UP
TO
5'4
Wxwu.
ROECOIICD
caNcRm
WHm
m
15
errrs
u
cf
o.c.rw.
UC~K
IZ'~
m
UQ~S
Y-u
m
OR
KOHC
mAn
-----
WE
mmu
m
CROLIT
IS
HEEDED
m
OM.
3.
MHWV
SE
Q
AN
W
BOX
6
2'-6
X
2'-6
15'
10
24.
PP€S.
5.
rm
mxa
mm
nw
7-U
x
IS-6
x
IO'-u
wu
a
A
WCN
wn;rw,
IN^
BOX.
6.
WEN
WaC
C(Hmffl
d
USED.
WMLS
MU
BE
8'
BRHX
wm
'n*
ts
Ira
nwr
sS-o'.
7.
u
CONCRm
PW
BC
CUSS
'A*
AN0
yW
mAYMlUY~~oF
WPQH28Mfi
a
mmm;PWBEII(IIRYmECRM(woRvm
&uzs~9aKLaMORYmncRmUROllEWrSw
I)fsrrmWlDSTim~FORBUElmn~
RON-
&U15
m
k15
AND
~llONs
CONORW
m
ASTY
km.
RMSIONS
DESCRlPnON
I
NAME
j
DATE
I
I
.
CrrY
OF
MADISON
JUNCTION
BOX
DETAIL
CIW
ENGINEER
OAK
mmc
WE
77"
TO
60"
PlPFS
SW-141A
ST€).
RWC
NO.
BARS
'W-13
IU
OC.
80(1
UP
wn.
uno
mMs
m
MCli
lYPE
RPE
6
SPEWED,
nORUOHIM
ODIDOH
'A'
FWI
WW
yW
CONFORM
TO
THE
nORlZOHlM
DWm
OF
ME
PIPE
MD
wmcK
OIUDcUONZ.
MO
olMD(SOWS
DEPD(0fNT
OH
wmcK
OPrD(W$
PW
CONFOW
TO
THE
'.€RllCU
WErm
OF
THE
PIE
-
DESCRlPnON
CTr(
OF
MADISON
CONCRETE HEADWALL
-
DOUBLE
ROUND
PIPE
DDAIL
m-ISIA
~m
ENGINEER
DATE
$ID.
OWC
NO
-
2'-0'
UIN.
MAMfTER
!
2'-0'
UlN.
-
-
-
_.
ELFVATION OF
SINGLE
PlPF HEAOWAUNDWAU,
-4.
-;--
'is
0
.N
-
s
"1.
oan
1-
a
IURN-oow
mcc
~PICM
ELEVATlON OF OOUBLE PlPE HFADWALL/ENOWA~
i
2'4
UH
1
CWEm
1/2
MA
-
2'-0'
YW
-
k4-
.
crry
OF
MADISON
CONCRETE SLOPE PAVED HEADWALL/ENDWALL
ROUND PlPE DETAIL
STM-
152A
m).
DWG
NO
REVISIONS
-I----'
I
-
-
OESCRtPTtON
---
OIWflER
NAME
I
DATE
,
I
I
,@:
I
I
I
....................
-J
-
?-0'
UN
.
-
-j
om
~wtbif[~
DATE
1.
nus~6rar#sacmrn 4.
anmvcrmowr6uRE~
OFmculYWPPO(ITT0TIEPPL
UUJMlGUUMUImm
THERL~~BEPVC~AH)AU
OEHCa~TMXHECllONBCPWW
SHORN3
ROIW
WORE THE
POPE
EmfDRPEDX)LHDcCWXlEnlU
PAW*;
IS
WED
HOT
8E
lXrW.
2
AU
POPE
PAWW
WUI
CQWW
TO
5.
oarcnm
w
BE
CUSS
'A*
m
THE
NRREHT
AUB)W
HlCmAV OEPMUDn
A
UNYUU
Zd
MY
STWD
SRCWlWS
STFsNm
Cr
Jooo
PAL
3.
WLNrmES
SHOW
WLUDC
TWlO
SLOPE
6.
~0€6X6-6/6w+WnW,
PANO
WMLS
LHO
M
TOf
WU.
WRE
FLBAC
FOR
APES
URCO1
TItW
-
CONCRETE
SLOPE
PAVED
HEADWALL/ENDWALL
ROUND PIPE Dl3AIL
a
RNlSlONS
DESCR~~N
I
NAME
I
DATE
1
I
.
crw
ENGINEER
Cm
OF
MADISON
DATE
STM-
1528
m.
DWC
NO.
8'
YIN.
DEPTH
w
m-OOW
EDGE
mM
NYATlON
.
CITY
OF
MADISON
CONCRETE SLOPE PAVED HEADWALL
ROUND PIPE
DETAIL
RMSfONS
CllY
ENGINEER
DESCRImN
DATE
t
i
I
NAME
STM- 152C
STD.
DWG
NO.
DATE
YH.
DEPTH
OF
m-OOm(
1
b
I
-
-
w
~KCU~.~I*LS
4
1Z11
I I-(
IEI
I
1.
mmum
mwxs
NOTE:
USE
3/4'
CHAMFER
ON
ALL
EXPOKD
CONCREIE.
EDGES.
CITY
OF
MADISON
CONCRE'TE SLOPE PAVED ENDWALL
ROUND PIPE DE-TAlL
m-
1520
9'0.
DWG
NO
RMSIONS
DATE
DATE
DESCRlPnON
I
NAME
CITY
E
NGlN
EE
R
LC
VARIES
I
I
....................................
f---
ASPHALT PAVING
4.
MIN. IN ROCK OR
UNSTABLE, SOFT
SOIL
1'-0'
MIN.
1
-0UTSOE
eELt
1
-1'-0'
MIN.
-
'
DIA
OF
PIPE
-
'
-
*#78
CRUSHED STONE
MAY
BE
SU8STiTUTED
IN
MIS
AREA,
MOM
GEOTEXTILE FILTER FPBRIC
TO UPPER INTERFACE BETWEEN
STONE AND COMPACTED SOIL.
VARIES
1
BASE MATERW.
Y
STREET SECTION
DENSE
GRAOED
BASE
MATERW.
SLOPE
AS
REQUIRED
BY
OSH4
A.H.D.
178
CRUSHES
STONE
A.H.D.
g7e
CRUSHED
STONE
4.
MIN.
IN
ROCK OR
UNSTABLE,
SOFf
SOIL
OUTSIDE BELL-
-1'-0"
MIN.
DU
OF
PIPE
-
'
L
VARIES
4
/'-
BACKFILL
TO
BE
MOUNDED
TO
MOW
1
'-b
MIN.
I
OUTSIDE
BEU.
-
1
1'-9'
MIN
'
DIA.
OF PIPE
-'-
/.
flNlSHED PAVEMENT
PAMMEM SUBGRADE
-
TOP
6'
COMPACT TO
100%
STANDARD
PROCTOR DENSITY
SLOPE
AS
REQUIRED
BY
OSHA
COMPACTED
SOL IN
SIX
INCH
LAYERS TO
9%
STANDARD
PROCTOR
DENSlTY
*COMPACT THIS PORnON
OF
TRENCH
WlTH
HAND HEW
MECHANICAL TAMPERS.
AH
D
#78
CRUSHED STONE
4'
MIN IN ROCK OR
UNSTABLE.
SOFT
SOIL
(178
CRUSHED STONE
MAY
BE
SUBSTITUTED IN MIS AREq
MOM
CEOTDltLE
flLfER FABRIC
TO UPPER INTERFACE BETWEEN
STONE
AN0
COMPACTED SOIL.
RMSlONS
DESCRIP~ON
CTr(
OF
MADISON
METHOD
"An
-
DOUBLE PIPE BEDDING DETAIL
STORM SEWERS
IN
PROPOSED TRAFFIC
AREAS
OR
WITHIN
STREET
RIGHTS-OF-WAY
m-
I
660
c:D
EVCNEEQ
DATE
m.
DwG
NO
VPRlES
-
d
-a
/"-
MCKFILL
TO
BE
MOUNDED
TO
ALLOW
RMSIONS
DESCRWlON
NAMEDATE
I
CITY
OF
MADISON
METHOD
"B"
-
DOUBLE PIPE BEDDING DETAIL
STORM SEWERS IN
NON-TRAfflC
AREA
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