Contract n° 507953
Work Package 15 DBE Business Modelling Language
Task B4 SME Needs and functional requirements
Use Cases and Requirements
in Leisure Services and Conference Organisation
By:
Ines Alves de Queiroz, Tim Romberg
Project funded by the European Community
under the “Information Society Technology”
Programme
D15.7.2-
Contract Number: 507953
Project Acronym: DBE
Title: Digital Business Ecosystem
Deliverable N°: 15.7.2
Due date: 30.4.2006
Delivery Date: 18.10.06
Short Description: Use Cases and Requirements in Leisure Services and Conference
Organisation
Partners owning: FZI
Partners contributed: FZI
Made available to: Public
Versioning
Version Date Name, organization
1.0 12.08.06 Ines Alves de Queiroz, Tim Romberg, FZI
1.1 18.10.06 corrections after review
Quality check
Neil Rathbone, Daventry House / University of Central England
Tommi Rissanen, Hermia
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Contents
1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 6
2 HOTELS AND TOURISM IN ARAGON, SPAIN............................................................... 7
2.1 OVERVIEW OF BUSINESSES INTERVIEWED ..... FEHLER! TEXTMARKE NICHT DEFINIERT.
2.2 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................. 8
2.3 PRIVATE TRAVEL USE CASES........................................................................................... 28
2.4 CORPORATE AND INCENTIVE TRAVEL............................................................................. 39
3 CONFERENCE ORGANISERS IN TAMPERE, FINLAND ........................................... 49
3.1 REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 50
3.2 CONFERENCE ORGANISATION USE CASES ....................................................................... 56
4 SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................... 66
4.1 STRATEGIC LEVEL........................................................................................................... 66
3
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Figures
Figure 1: Contact channel............................................................................................................ 28
Figure 2: Reservation Process - Hospedaría Hospital de Benasque (Hotel) ........................ 29
Figure 3:Booking channels: Square boxes show companies, dotted round boxes show
activities .................................................................................................................................. 29
Figure 4: Client expenses payment process.............................................................................. 30
Figure 5: Extra expenses payment process ............................................................................... 30
Figure 6: Reservation process - Hotel Ciria (Hotel)................................................................. 31
Figure 7: Reservation process - Habitat Benasque (Real Estate Business) ........................... 32
Figure 8: Client needs .................................................................................................................. 33
Figure 9: Reservation process - Equipo Barrabés (Sport service provider).......................... 33
Figure 10: Booking channels ....................................................................................................... 34
Figure 11: Reservation process – Radical Snowboard (Sport service provider).................. 35
Figure 12: Client needs ................................................................................................................ 35
Figure 13: Reservation process - Escuela de Parapente Pirineos (Sport Service Provider) 36
Figure 14: Client needs ................................................................................................................ 36
Figure 15: Purchase process - Sabores de pueblo (Food and Handcraft Gift Shop) ........... 37
Figure 16: Card purchase process .............................................................................................. 38
Figure 17: Contact process .......................................................................................................... 39
Figure 18:Orienta Database......................................................................................................... 40
Figure 19: Booking channels ....................................................................................................... 41
Figure 20: Orienta’s convention process ................................................................................... 41
Figure 21: Client requirements ................................................................................................... 42
Figure 22: Indirect reservation channels ................................................................................... 43
Figure 23: Reservation process and channels........................................................................... 44
Figure 24: Acceptance process and channels............................................................................ 45
Figure 25: Negotiation process and channels........................................................................... 45
Figure 26: Direct reservation channels ...................................................................................... 46
Figure 27: Reservation process and channels........................................................................... 47
Figure 28: Acceptance process and channels............................................................................ 48
Figure 29: Negotiation process and channels........................................................................... 48
Figure 30: Conference management process............................................................................ 56
Figure 31:Conference sub-processes.......................................................................................... 56
Figure 32:Submission sub-process............................................................................................. 56
Figure 33:Review sub-process .................................................................................................... 57
Figure 34:Contact sub-process.................................................................................................... 57
Figure 35:Registration sub-process............................................................................................ 58
Figure 36:Registration form I...................................................................................................... 59
Figure 37:Registration form II .................................................................................................... 59
Figure 38: Schedule of the conference ....................................................................................... 60
Figure 39: Conference Organization.......................................................................................... 60
Figure 40: Tasks of the Conference Organization Team......................................................... 61
Figure 41: Registration Process................................................................................................... 62
Figure 42: Invoice Handling ....................................................................................................... 62
Figure 43: Completion of the contract ....................................................................................... 63
Figure 44: Submission& review handling sub processes....................................................... 63
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Introduction
Figure 45: Selection of the reviewer...........................................................................................63
Figure 46: Submission sub-process............................................................................................ 64
Figure 47: Review process........................................................................................................... 64
Figure 48: Authors’ registration ................................................................................................. 64
Figure 49: Participants’ registration........................................................................................... 65
Figure 50: Printing the proceedings........................................................................................... 65
5
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Introduction
1 Introduction
The Digital Business Ecosystem project aims at delivering an infrastructure for
implementing B2B applications for SMEs in a cost-efficient, modular and flexi-
ble way. This is especially interesting for industries in which there are estab-
lished patterns of several SMEs interacting to provide services to a customer.
DBE aims at supporting dynamic value chains which adapt to the changing
needs of customers. Therefore industries where the value chain constellations
change often and heterogeneous demands are made by customers are especially
relevant.
This document reports on a series of interviews which was held in the previ-
ously identified and related opportunity spaces of “tourism and leisure” and
“conferences and conventions”. Wherever possible, SMEs were interviewed
who had existing collaboration experience with some of the other interviewed
SMEs, so that a complete picture of the mutual expectations and requirements
could be created. The interviewed SMEs include both “user SMEs” and “soft-
ware SMEs” or SMEs delivering IT services. While a dissemination strategy
chosen during the course of the project was to concentrate on these latter IT and
software SMEs as potential “multipliers” of the project’s results, talking to the
“user SMEs” nevertheless provided important insights regarding the perceived
needs, issues and barriers.
In two chapters related to the interviews in the Aragon region, Spain and Tam-
pere, Finland, we begin by presenting the characteristics and stated require-
ments of the SMEs. The following section then describes and analyses collabora-
tive business processes characteristic for the regional opportunity space. The fi-
nal chapter summarises the requirements and business process characteristics
in order to be able to derive necessary features of the DBE infrastructure.
6
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
2 Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
This chapter summarises the information obtained from SMEs during the inter-
views, which took place in Benasque Valley and Zaragoza (Spain).
The focus of the interviews were SMEs which offer “leisure services”, such as
travel agencies, hotels, sport service providers, food and handcraft gifts, etc.
Type of organisation Name Contact
1. Travel Agency Viajes Orienta Siete Mares Javier Lozano Pérez
2. Hotel
Hospedaria Hospital de
Benasque
Fernando Panart
3. Hotel Hotel Ciria José María Ciria
4 Real estate business Habitat Benasque Manuel Martín Gimeno
5 Sport service provider
Equipo Barrabés Guías de
Montana
Gaby Mur
6 Sport service provider Radical Snowboard Jordi Casas
7 Sport service provider
Escuela de Parapente
Pirineos
Mariano Ucedo Rufat
8 Food and Handcraft gifts Sabores de Pueblo Miguel Chéliz
9 Governmental
Aramón Montanas de
Aragón
Christóbal Roldán Ramirez
Table 1: Overview of SMEs interviewed in Aragon region
7
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
2.1 Requirement Analysis
This section presents general information about each interviewed SME, a short
description of them and about their services and their sub-contracted services.
Moreover, the IT infrastructure of the SMEs, and some important information
about the IT purchase process of each SME are also presented. Finally, some
positive and negative aspects are listed. The positive aspects are related to their
expectation of DBE, their IT experiences and their possible future engagement
at DBE Project. Consequently, the negative aspects are related to the SMEs
problems, which DBE cannot help, and the ones that DBE could help them to
solve.
2.1.1 Travel agency - Viajes Orienta Siete Mares
General Information:
Web site http://www.viajesorienta.com
Contact: person Javier Lozano Pérez
Manager
Industry:
Legal form:
Number of employees:
Transportation and Travel
Limited company
13
Clients: Spanish companies
Most profitable offered service is “Meetings in Nature”
Conventions:
90% from Spain
10% International
Description:
Viajes Orienta Siete Mares is a travel agency specialized in customized high-
quality trips and tourist services tailored to client demands with a long experi-
ence of more than twenty years in tourism. The team of professionals are high
qualified that ensures the success of the individual or business trips of the cli-
ents. Orienta offers a guaranteed best price service through a comparative
budget between the different suppliers. Orienta selects single responsible sup-
pliers with absolute reliability and a high standard of quality.
Services:
Conventions have become an essential tool in the communication between top
management and its employees. Its core concept is a “no stressful sessions of
work” for the participants, and its newest element is “the stimulus and pride of
being a member of a successful group”. Orienta help companies to organize its
convention on an original and customized form, taking care of all details to as-
sure a unique, motivated and unforgettable event to all guests and participants.
8
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
An Incentive trip is an excellent investment for companies, since it motivates
the employee in his/her activities. Therefore, it is important to trust an agency
to guarantee that the participants obtain the greater benefits of the trip.
Big accounts. To optimise the finance account of the companies through:
Flight tickets. up to 25% off on standard rate
Hotels: between 10 and 50% off on official tariff.
Rental car: until 40% off on official prices.
Conventions. Orienta is an active, dynamic an innovating agency in the sector
of Professional Convention Organizers (PCO) with 20 years of experience in the
sector, which it can ensure the success of the convention through dedicated
time to prepare the convention content and to arrange the innumerable techni-
cal, lodging and social details of the convention program. A convention is a
unique opportunity that demands the aid of professionals of the sector.
Subcontracted services:
Sports activities
Catering
Transportation
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection 3 ADSL connections (Galileo, Amadeus Professional,
and Internet)
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
Database MS Access
Security Firewall (but it slowed down the system so they turned
off)
Office Software MS Office
Adobe Acrobat Reader
Special Software OfiViaje (www.ofijean.com)
Future software purchasing
plans
CRM (but price and implementation time is currently
too high)
WiFi
Intranet between Orienta offices
Web site in English for foreign customers
Internet applications E-mail internal and external
Information / research
Flight and hotel bookings (
www.bancotel.es;
www.transhotel.com; Galileo, Amadeus and Amadeus
Pro Systems)
Presentation of products and services
9
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Company web site Information for companies (incentive travel, confer-
ences & conventions; and company account)
Information about trips (Safari, Paradise islands, Eco-
logic sites, and classical trips in Africa, America, Oce-
ania, Middle East, Asia, and Europe) (link to
http://www.tandem-tours.com/indexAlta.html)
Information about special discounts (link to
http://travelofertas.com/index.php).
Magazine (
www.masdeviajes.com)
Bulletin/Forum
Systems with partners:
(These systems could avoid
costs on telephone calls and
speed up the process)
Reverse auction system for hotels rooms.
Online system with password for catering services,
where Orienta can log in and specify the menu for a
specific number of people. The system automatically
generates an offer to Orienta based on its demands.
“Messenger system” between clients and Orienta
“Messenger system“ between Orienta and small hotels
without booking system
10
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by: Group
Is the person interviewed per-
sonally involved
Yes (Mr. Lozano Pérez – Manager)
Expected payback period
(ROI)
Not specified
Software selection criteria Acceptance of the employees
Price
Product functionality
Difficulties and Expectations:
Mr. Pérez is an IT enthusiast, he always tries to find a way to save his client’s
working time during a trip arrangement. He follows the concept -“Time is
money”, so if a supplier needs 3 days to send him an offer and afterwards
more telephone calls to handle price and conditions, it means that he lost time
and money. Therefore, he would like to integrate more of the IT with partners
and clients to support some activities, such as online reverse auction for reser-
vation rooms. It can help him while he organises a conference/convention,
when the demand of rooms is high. Another support could be a kind of
“online messenger” between Orienta and its special clients (companies) to
solve problem and demands faster then nowadays by phone.
Language of web site: only Spanish (at time of interview), although they want
to increase market area.
Although he acknowledges the potential of a CRM system. Mr. Peréz has not
yet implemented such a system. He still waits for one with a good benefit-to-
cost ratio.
11
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
2.1.2 Hotel - Hospedaría Hospital de Benasque
General Information:
Web site: http://www.llanosdelhospital.com
Contact person: Fernando Panart
Manager
Industry:
Legal form:
Number of employees:
Hotels and Restaurants
Limited company
35
Clients: Spain (Madrid and Levante)
90% direct reservation
5% through travel agencies
5% companies (conventions and meetings)
Description:
Hospital de Benasque is a hotel located in the core of the Natural Park Possets-
Maladeta. It was a refuge for walkers, and after eight centuries since its creation
by the Hospitalarian monks, it was reconstructed.
Services:
The Services provided by Hospital de Benasque include: Lodging and Restau-
rant.
The Services provided by Llanos del Hospital Ski station include Ski school and
Ski resort.
Other services offered are:
Rental Nordic skiing equipment
Conference room
Swimming pool
SPA (Wellness)
Subcontracted services:
Hiking, climbing, trekking, paragliding, rafting, horse riding, guide’s service,
etc..
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection Radio (credit cards only)
Mobile phone
Modem
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
Database MS Access
Office Software MS Office
12
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Special Software Reservation management system (written in Visual
Basic)
Billing system
Internet E-mail internal and external
Information / research
Presentation of products and services
Banking transactions
Web-site Language: English, Spanish, and French
Information
Rates
Maps
Photos and films (rooms)
Virtual tour (area)
Weather
Snow conditions
Bulletin
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by Individual
Is the person interviewed per-
sonally involved?
Yes (Mr. Panart – Manager & CIO)
Expected payback period
(ROI)
6-12 months
Software selection criteria Modern software architecture
Price
Product functionality
Difficulties and Expectations
Mr. Panart worked as a computer systems analysts in the automotive in-
dustry; he is an IT enthusiast, and he knows about its possibilities. And the
Benasque community knows about his IT expertise and believes in his
judgement. Therefore, Mr. Panart is a possible key partner for DBE. He can
influence the others to take part.
Mr. Panart believes that with “DBE Platform” he can attract other kinds of
guests, who stay for longer periods (more than 2 days).
Due to the difficulties over the control of the purchased and consumed ma-
terial (specially beverages and cleaning products), Mr. Panart expects to
find through DBE Platform an inventory system for his hotel/restaurant.
Mr. Panart reservation process offers the possibility of a fully automatic
reservation process; despite of this he does not want it fully automated. He
wants to get in touch with his clients and explain them the hotel conditions
(price and accessibility). Mr. Panart also thinks that it is too dangerous to
have a fully automated system for subcontracting services.
The employees responsible for the different services (cleaning, food &
drinks, etc.) directly purchase their materials. This decentralized process
13
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
has its advantages, but the problem is that Mr. Panart does not have any
control over the material purchased and consumed. The stock management
of beverages and cleaning material is quite difficult.
Because of avalanches during the winter, it happens that there is no tele-
phone communication or access on the main road from Llanos de Hospital
to Benasque.
Mr. Panart does not like to work with travel agencies and reservation cen-
tres, mainly because they are interested in his hotel only during the high
season (winter). But during summer time, when he needs help to get new
clients, they just forget him. Another problem is that either the reservation
centres dictate the room price or the hotel has to pay a fee to them to take
part of their database, consequently the hotel profit margin decreases.
2.1.3 Hotel - Hotel Ciria
General Information:
Web site: http://www.hotelciria.com
Contact person: José María Ciria
Manager
Sector:
Legal form:
Number of employees:
Hotels and Restaurants
Limited company
27
Outsourced services Accounting (ACI Group)
Clients: Spain
Winter: 50% Madrid, 20% Catalonia, 30% Astoria, Va-
lencia, etc.
80% Private
20% Travel agencies
Description:
This is a nicely decorated mountain hotel for nature lovers and adventure
sports. The hotel offers 44 rooms, distributed in three floors, equipped with full
bathroom, air conditioning, heating, hairdryer, mini-bar, satellite TV, telephone
with direct dial, radio, video and balcony. All Suites have a Jacuzzi. Facilities
available to guests include bar/café, TV room, lounges, garden/terrace, bicycle
hire, professional massage, disabled facilities, lift, medical service, and laundry,
meeting rooms, money exchange, fax, car park and garage.
The hotel is located 148 km away from Huesca and 212 km away from Jaca in
the Benasque Valley.
Services
Hotel: There are double and single rooms at the first and the second floors, with
complete bath, hair-dryer and TV-color, and the majority with terrace.
14
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Restaurant: Dionisio Ciria is in “charge of the ovens”, “El Fogaril” is one of the
best restaurants in the valley. It is specialized in typical kitchen from Aragon
and other native dishes recovered by the traditional culinary of the area (Pyre-
nees).
Subcontracted services:
Sports activities – special customers Æ direct contact with Barrabés Equipo
common customers Æ
http://www.benasque.com/activid.html
Sports schools – special customers Æ direct contact with Barrabés Equipo
common customers Æ
http://www.benasque.com/escuelas.html
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection ASDL
WiFi
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
Database MS Access
(data concerning the Hotel management system)
Office Software MS Office
Special Software Hotel management system
(reservation and billing)
Internet applications used E-mail
Information / research
Presentation of products and services
Web site offerings Information
Rates
Language: Spanish
Maps
Photos (rooms)
Virtual tour (rooms)
Weather forecast
(
http://www.benasque.com/meteo.html)
Sport activities
(
http://www.benasque.com/activid.html)
Sport schools
(
http://www.benasque.com/escuelas.html)
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by Individual
Is the interviewed person
personally involved?
Yes (Mr. Ciria – Manager & Owner)
Software selection criteria All software is obtained via a consultancy service (Bar-
rabés Business Solutions -
http://www.barrabesinternet.com/homebs.asp)
15
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Difficulties and Expectations:
Mr. Ciria is interested in the project.
Mr. Ciria does not like to offer sub-contracted services such as sport activi-
ties, because it means more responsibilities, but he offers special services,
such as accompany service to British Ornithologists to observe the bird
species of the area. He already has a network of service providers whom he
contacts by telephone.
Mr. Ciria offers events to his clients, such as special weekends and com-
plete packages, which he needs to contact his network of service providers
for this extra activities, such as Barrabés, tour guides for Ornithologists,
etc..
The Hotel Management System satisfies Mr.Ciria expectations, it manages
all reservation, client expenses, material inventory and generates the cli-
ent’s bill/reciept.
Language of the web site: only Spanish, although they want to get more
foreigner customers.
2.1.4 Real Estate Business - Habitat Benasque
General Information:
Web site: www.habitatbenasque.com
Contact: Manuel Martín Gimeno
Manager
Sector:
Position in the Supply chain:
Business status:
Number of employees:
Real estate business
OEM
Limited company
8
Clients: Spain (Cataluna, Valencia, Madrid, and Euskadi)
Private and travel agencies, but no groups.
76% clients are loyal
High amount of regular clients
Description:
Habitat Benasque is a company located in the valley of Benasque, it works as a
real estate business and has been renting apartments since 1992. It offers to its
clients an ample supply of apartments, where they can enjoy their leisure time.
At the web site of Habitat Benasque there are also information about existing
services in the Valley. If a client wishes to acquire a second house, he/she only
needs to ask Habitat Benasque professional team to find the apartment
.
16
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Services:
Rental apartments: Offers for rental apartments for vacation in Benasque, Cerler
and Eriste. The rental service includes only the apartment (lodging). The client
must rent an apartment for at least 7 days.
Summer 2004: Apartments at Habitat Benasque-Cerler, Residencial Linsoles,
and Residencial Ribagorza. The types of apartments are: Type A (dinner room,
1 sleeping room, sofa bed, kitchen and bathroom), Type B (dinner room, 2
sleeping rooms, sofa bed, kitchen and bathroom), and Type C (dinner room, 3
sleeping rooms, kitchen and 1 or 2 bathrooms). The rates are divided into low,
medium and high season; and the apartments types.
Sales: Information about the apartment, such as
Location: For example: Apartments with 2,3 or 4 rooms, located in the heart of
Benasque village in the Valley of the same name. They are close to the Natural
Park Posets-Maladeta, the alpine ski resort of Cerler and to Nordic ski resort of
Llanos del Hospital. The building is constructed in natural stone and old wood,
taking part of a tourist residential complex that by its quality and services is
unique in the Pyrenean area. Its architectonic style is absolutely integrated with
the nature.
Structural condition: Here, there is a description about some structural condi-
tions of the building, such as: facade, floor, heating, telecommunication facili-
ties, garage, etc.
Plan/Layout: The client can see the architectonic plans of the offered apart-
ment.
Photos: The client can see the photos from the building.
Second hand apartments: Offers of relatively new apartments, with an antiquity
mainly between 3 and 7 years. It is also offered businesses, lands, and old
houses to reform, stables and/or barns. Contact by telephone, fax or e-mail.
Subcontracted services:
Sport activities for very special guests: direct contact with Barrabes.
17
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
IT Infrastructure:
Connection ADSL
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
Database MS Access (client data)
Office Software MS Office
Extra Software
Internet applications used Information
Presentation of products and services
E-mail external (clients)
Merchandise through “El Corte Inglés”
Web site offerings Information
Spanish
Maps
Rates (summer and winter)
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by Individual
Personally involved Yes (Mr. Jimeno – Manager)
Software vendor selection
criteria
No Application Service Providing
Consultancy from Grupo7
(
http://www.grupo7.com/)
Difficulties and Expectations:
Mr. Gimeno invests in advertising in many specific magazines, press and El
Corte Inglés (department store in Spain).
Accounting and billing done computer-based, but not integrated with all
other systems and client database.
A table with all confirmations (rent appartments) is done in the end of each
month. This is a handmade table and Mr. Gimeno does not want to auto-
mate it.
Language of web site: only Spanish.
About the DBE Project, Mr. Gimeno thinks it will be like all other projects
(it will not be as successful as expected), it will be like any reservation cen-
tre system.
2.1.5 Sport Service Provider - Equipo Barrabés Guías de Montaña
General Information:
Web site: www.barrabes.com/equipo/portada.asp
Contact: Mr. Gaby Mur (Manager)
Industry:
Legal form:
Sports and Leisure
Limited company
18
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Number of employees: 2-23
Outsourced service: Accounting (Barrabes)
Clients: Spain
70% private
10% retailers
10% wholesalers
Relationship based on tradition
Description:
The Equipo Barrabés Guías de Montaña is a group of professionals, whose ob-
jective is to supply all clients with a very customized treatment, assuming to
transmit with rigor and high quality the techniques guaranteeing security and
fun.
The Equipo Barrabés is divided into two departments, the Equipo Barrabés
Guías de Montaña and Equipo Barrabés School of Ski and Snowboard
The Equipo Barrabés Guías de Montaña works in the Pyrenees, but offers also
courses in the Alps and trips to the Andes.
At the moment, its office is in the store Barrabés Esquí y Montaña dedicated to
the Ski and Mountain equipment. It is also possible to get information by E-mail
equipo@barrabes.com, by phone or under www.barrabes.com
The Equipo Barrabés Guías de Montaña has vehicles to offer its clients a com-
plete service, transportation to the area of activity by vehicles 4x4 or trips to
other courses sites in Spain or abroad.
Services:
Winter: skiing school, mountain guides
Summer: mountain guides, cliffs, trekking, mountain bike tour, etc.
Subcontracted services:
Rafting
*
Climbing
*
Paraglide
Snowboard
Kayak
Lodging (reservation made only for special clients)
Mountain refuge: reservation made by phone at least 3 days in advance.
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection ADSL (from Barrabés Equipment Store)
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
19
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Database MS Access
Office Software MS Office
Special Software All software from Barrabés store (full integration)
Coming soon: Online Reservation System (Filemaker)
Internet applications used General Information
Presentation of products and services
E-mail external (clients)
Weather forecast
Web site offerings Information
Booking Form (but not saved in any database)
Spanish only
Maps
Rates
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by Individual
Personally involved No (Barrabés – IT Manager)
Software selection Through consultancy service (Barrabés Business Solu-
tions)
Difficulties and Expectations:
Mr. Mur has a good informal network, and he can influence other active
sport companies to take part in DBE.
He plans to get in touch with travel agencies, which are not familiar with
his company’s activities. It can open to his company a great market.
An expected advantage is to connect his company with sport clubs and
travel agencies.
Mr. Mur advertises the Equipo Barrabés in fairs, catalogues and magazines
specialized on the tourism sector.
The group Barrabés is a pioneer using IT in Spain; it was the first company
to sell through Internet (
www.barrabes.com). Consequently, it was
founded another company specialized in IT and e-Business (Barrabés Busi-
ness Solutions -
http://www.barrabesinternet.com/homebs.asp).
Most of the booking process for outsourced activities (sub-contractors) and
mountain cottages are done by telephone and in most of the cases is con-
strained by weather conditions, guider availability, etc.
Difficulty to standardize a billing system, due to different types of charge,
such as guides by hour, rafting by period, long trips by day.
2.1.6 Sport Service Provider - Radical Snowboard
General Information:
Web site: http://www.radicalsnowboard.com
20
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Contact: Mr. Jordi Casas (Manager – Owner)
Sector:
Legal form:
Number of employees:
Sports and Leisure
Limited company
14 (18 during winter)
Outsourced service Accounting
Clients: Spain, Holland, and Portugal
60% private (Groups)
40% travel agencies (group of school-children from Barcelona
– about 1770 hours of classes)
Description:
Company specialized in winter sports especially snowboard activities.
Services:
Snowboard school: A 10 years old dedicated snowboard school, which offers pri-
vate classes and snowboard courses. There are also special classes for: freestyle
and free riding, preparation for specific exams (Los Bloques), and other tech-
niques. Specialized instructors in teaching children up to 5 years.
Back country (Free ride snowboard trips): This service is offered to all snowboard-
ers, who like free ride and nature contact. A pre-evaluation of the snowboarder
level is required, though it is accessible to all levels.
Trips take place anywhere in the Pyrenees, specially by Cerler ski station
(Cibollés, Caranesa, Canal Amplia, Sarrau, Gallinero_south, La Olla, etc.) or
Llanos del Hospital (possibility of free ride through different summits of the
Posets-Maladeta natural park)
Radical Sleds (Snowmobile/Sleds): A new service offered to reach hidden places of
Cerler station full of new sensations. The client is introduced to this fascinating
circuit in Ampriu area.
Snow works: Maintenance of TV repeaters, mobile phone network antennas and
other equipment which can only be reached by Quads and snowmobiles.
Freeski: Courses and private classes of radical (extreme) snowboarding.
Other services:
Clothing store
Rental equipment
Repair shop
Internet café at “La Cabana”
21
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection ADSL
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
Database Access
Excel (sales and teachers’ payments)
Office Software MS Office
Excell (sales and instructors’ payment)
Special Software AM Táctil y Tecnidata
Future acquisitions Web site in English for foreign customers
Online registration
Internet applications used E-mail external
Information / research
Purchase equipment
Outsourced:
http://www.linza.net/html/inicio.html
Web site offerings Language: Spanish
Presentation of products and services
Information to clients about free ride trips, snowboard
school, special work on snow,
Rates
Bulletin / Forum
News
Link to weather forecast
(
http://www.cerler.com/asp/partenieve.asp)
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by: Group
Is the interviewed personally
involved?
Yes (Mr. Casas – Manager)
Software selection criteria Price
Recommendation (friend/family)
Difficulties and Expectations:
Mr. Casas would like to have the booking process completely automated
and all systems integrated.
Mr. Casas never used any ASP system but he could not have problems to
usehosted systems.
Mr. Casas invests on advertisement in many specific magazines and bro-
chures.
Mr. Casas works together with hotels offering vacation packages. Now he
offers also these packages through othe web sites.
Mr. Casas expectations are high in relation with DBE Project, specifically
concerning reliable cost-benefit of automated solutions for his needs.
22
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Language of web site: only Spanish, although they want to increase market
area.
Spanish ski school has a monopoly on the slopes to sell courses and classes.
2.1.7 Sport Service Provider - Escuela de Parapente Pirineos
General Information:
Web site: www.parapentepirineos.com
Contact person: Mr. Mariano Ucedo Rufat (Manager – Owner)
Sector:
Legal form:
Number of employees:
Sports and Leisure
Limited company
2 (+8 instructors, +1 chauffeur, +1 cameraman)
Outsourced service Accounting
Clients Spain
Madrid, Barcelona, and Valencia
Courses (1 week):
75% Initiation; 25% Advanced
15% and increasing every year the participants of dou-
ble flights (trial)
Private (few travel agencies); students (University or
Schools)
90% regular customers
60% friends recommendation
Description:
This paragliding school has been stablished in 1985 in Castejón de Sos, more
than two thousand students received lessons and more than forty thousand
flights took place under its supervision. Today “Parapente Pirineos” offers a
complete, progressive and customized education, with the best and the most
modern material and in the best zone of flight - The Castejón de Sos, in the
heart of Pyrenean (Aragon). The school is recognised by the Spanish Aeronauti-
cal Federation.
Services:
Beginners & Advanced paragliding courses
High yield cross (for totally independent pilots, with an instructor flying
with or in front of the participant, communicating by radio)
Solo flights
Double flights (two-seats paraglide flight with instructor)
Competitions (e.g. the “XI Paraglide Pyrenean Cup”)
Other services:
Sales of equipment
Rent of equipment
23
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Repair shop
Organisation of competition
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection Analogue communication channel
(RTB- Red Telefónica Básica)
Coming soon: ADSL + WiFi
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
Database MS Access, MS Excel
Office Software MS Office
Excel (Billing)
Special Software None.
Future acquisitions Web site in English for foreigner customers
Internet applications used E-mail external
Information / research
Web site offerings Language: Spanish
Information to clients about paraglide flights, courses,
competitions, events, licences
Online Booking
Rates
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by: Individual
Is the interviewed person per-
sonally involved?
Yes (Mr. Ucedo Rufat – Manager)
Software selection criteria Price
Recommendation (friend/family)
Difficulties and Expectations:
Mr. Ucedo Rufat is an IT enthusiast, given that he has an Access DB with
his clients historical data. He saves the data of all sub-contracting services
in- and outsourced services (given and received) in Excel tables.
Mr. Ucedo Rufat sends advertisements and discount rates of all courses to
the current students every year .
Language of web site: only Spanish, although they want to increase market
area. This translation service can be easilly offered through DBE Platform.
Despite of advantages from a complete automated booking process, Mr.
Rufat is quite sceptical about it. It will be necessary an intensive teamwork
between DBE partners and Mr. Rufat to encrease his enthusiasm.
24
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
2.1.8 Food and Handcraft Gift Shop - Sabores de pueblo
General Information:
Web site: www.saboresdepueblo.com
Contact person: Mr. Miguel Chéliz (Manager)
Sector:
Legal form:
Food
Limited company
Outsourced service: Accounting
Clients: Spain
Description:
Angela Sierco founded the store Sabores de pueblo in 1972 in Ainsa, a beautiful
tourist town of the Pyrenean (Huesca). Since its foundation it is a family owned
company, commercialising general high quality aliments of the region
(Aragon). In 1997 and 1998 the descendants of Mrs. Angela Sierco (Mr. Miguel
and Mrs. Chéliz) opened two other stores in Ainsa and Benasque for handcraft,
bio/ecological products of the region.
Since 2002 there is also an online shop with all products available at the 3 stores.
A client can order online and in about 24hours the order is delivered at his/her
address in Spain. An international delivery is also available, but requires a spe-
cial delivery channel, customs duty rules and taxes, which the client needs to
agree to this extra payment.
Services:
Direct purchase (3 stores)
Bulletin
(http://www.saboresdepueblo.com/boletin/suscripcion.asp)
Explanation about the purchasing process: legal aspects, general informa-
tion, how to buy
(http://www.saboresdepueblo.com/tienda/proceso_compra.asp)
Special baskets for companies or hotels: contact
info@saboresdepueblo.com or
call +34 974-500062
Online purchase
Subcontracted services:
Delivery: national and international (DHL)
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection ADSL & Modem
Technological platform Windows NT/2000
Database SQL (web site)
Office Software MS Office (Excel for Billing)
Special Software Barcode (outcome from store)
Inventory: outcome control from storage
25
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Future acquisitions Inventory: income control to storage
Internet applications used: E-mail external
Information / research
Web site offerings: Language: Spanish
Information to clients about products, receipts, and the
online purchasing process
Online Purchasing
Prices
IT purchase process:
Purchase decision by: Group
Is the interviewed person per-
sonally involved
Yes (Mr. Chéliz– Manager)
Software selection criteria Price
Recommendation (friend/family)
Difficulties and Expectations:
Mr. Chéliz knows the importance of the inventory management, but it
would be quite expensive to track the incoming material; therefore the con-
trol of the sold products through barcodes was implemented.
Mr. Chéliz manages the stocks of online products apart from the products
sold in the stores. When an online product is out of stock, it disappears
automatically from the web site.
Language of web site: only Spanish, although it is written on the web site
that they can send all products to all countries in Europe.
Although the shipping company offers the possibility to track the delivery
process, Mr. Chéliz does not offer this functionality to his clients, because
the products sold online are sent within 24hours. If a client wants to know
the current position of his/her order, Mr. Chéliz calls the shipping com-
pany and asks them, then informs his client by e-mail.
2.1.9 Governmental Association – Aramón Montañas de Aragón
General Information:
Web site: www.aramon.es
Contact: Mr. Cristóbal Roldán Ramírez (Sub director)
Sector:
Legal form:
Government services
Limited company
Clients Spain
Portugal (increasing)
Holland (decreasing)
North Europe
Morocco and Argentina
26
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Description:
Aramón, Mountains of Aragón, first Spanish holding of the winter activities, was
founded as a result of a joint venture from Government of Aragón and Ibercaja
to explore the winter sport business in Aragon. The major shareholders belong
to the Government of Aragón and Ibercaja.
It was founded in November 2001 and administers the ski station of Cerler,
Formigal, Panticosa, Javalambre and Valdelinares, which is the largest skiing
area in Spain about 20% of the total area. This way, Aramón offers the possibil-
ity to its clients to acquire just one single ski-card to its five stations and their
155,5 kilometres of slope.
Services:
Administration the ski resorts in the area
Sales of the ski passes to all five ski stations
Subcontracted services:
WiFi network for the Cerler ski station
Escuela Española de Esquí: (ski and snowboard courses)
Difficulties and Expectations:
Language of web site: only Spanish, although they want to increase market
area.
Mr. Ramírez hopes that DBE could improve the summer tourism of the re-
sorts.
27
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
2.2 Private travel use cases
We will now look at some scenarios as they are performed using the current
ICT infrastructure, with comments on potential improvements using something
like the DBE infrastructure.
2.2.1 Hotel: Hospedaría Hospital de Benasque:
An “old client” – Mr. X (private or a travel agency) wants to book a vacation for
his whole family (2 adults and 2 children) at the Hospedería Hospital de Be-
nasque. First of all, he looks at the web site (
www.llanosdelhospital.com) and
checks the rates, the sport activities offered and the weather forecast. Since
online booking is not possible, he decides to call and book a double room with
living room for his whole family.
Mr.X
Mr.Fernando Panart
Mr.X
Mr.Fernando Panart
Figure 1: Contact channel
Mr. Fernando Panart (Manager) explains to Mr.X the current situation and in-
structions to arrive there. The current situation is, because of heavy snowfall
from the previous night, it is not easy to arrive. Mr. X also wants to book some
cross-country ski classes for the children, and to rent the entire ski equipment
for the whole family. As a surprise to his wife he gets information about their
wellness activities. Mr. X’s would like to do Heli-skiing, and his son would like
to take some private snowboarding classes.
Mr. Fernando (Manager) enters the information about Mr. X’s reservation into
the hotel’s Reservation Management System (RMS) and gives him the client ref-
erence number (CRN) generated by the system. He tells Mr. X that his reserva-
tion will be confirmed upon receipt of payment. Furthermore, the client gets the
Hotel’s bank account number and asks for a confirmation by e-mail or tele-
phone.
28
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Client
Client
Hotel
Hotel
RMS
RMS
Payment
Payment
Book
Book
Wait
Wait
Vacancy
Vacancy
Keep
Keep
Cancel
Cancel
Confirmation
Confirmation
Send
Send
Not Se nd
Not Se nd
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
CALL Data Input
Client Reference Number (CRN)
CRN + Bank Account
Special Conditions
Client
Client
Hotel
Hotel
RMS
RMS
Payment
Payment
Book
Book
Wait
Wait
Vacancy
Vacancy
Keep
Keep
Cancel
Cancel
Confirmation
Confirmation
Send
Send
Not Se nd
Not Se nd
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
CALL Data Input
Client Reference Number (CRN)
CRN + Bank Account
Special Conditions
Figure 2: Reservation Process - Hospedaría Hospital de Benasque (Hotel)
Although some of the activities are not being offered by the hotel itself, Mr. Fer-
nando will book them for Mr. X, because he wants his clients to be extremely
satisfied. So, Mr. Fernando calls Mr. Gaby Mur, the manager of Equipo Barra-
bes, and tells him about the Heli-ski and snowboarding requests. Although he
knows that Mr. Gaby does not offer any of these activities himself, he knows
that Mr. Gaby can arrange everything for him. Therefore, Mr. Gaby calls Mr.
Jodi Casas, the manager of Radical Snowboard, and tells him to arrange the
snowboard private classes for Mr. X’s son. And he manages to book the Heliski
for Mr. X.
Hospital
Hospital
Equipo
Equipo
Aramón
Aramón
Radical
Radical
• Ski tickets
Heliski
Equipment
• Snowboard classes
Equipment
•Hotel
•Spa
Cross-country ski
-classes
- equipment
Call
C
a
l
l
Call
Hospital
Hospital
Equipo
Equipo
Aramón
Aramón
Radical
Radical
• Ski tickets
Heliski
Equipment
Call
C
a
l
l
Call
• Snowboard classes
Equipment
•Hotel
•Spa
Cross-country ski
-classes
- equipment
Figure 3:Booking channels: Square boxes show companies, dotted round boxes show activities
29
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
After Mr. X arrives at the hotel, an account is opened where all his family’s ex-
penses will be booked. This account gets the same CRN-number as for the res-
ervation. When Mr. X leaves the hotel, it is only necessary to close the RMS ac-
count and the bill will be generated automatically. Mr. X can pay the bill in
cash, by credit card, or by check.
RMS
RMS
Cafeteri a
Restaurant
Massage (SPA)
Equipment
Cross-country
classes
Hotel room
Mr. X arrives
Mr. X arrives
Mr. X leaves
Mr. X leaves
Mr. Panart opens an
account (RMS ) with
the same reservation
number (CRN)
Mr. Panart opens an
account (RMS ) with
the same reservation
number (CRN)
Client consumption is
stored on RMS
Mr. Panart closes
the account
(RMS ) and print
the bill
Mr. Panart closes
the account
(RMS ) and print
the bill
Check client
consumption
Mr. X pays
Mr. X pays
RMS
RMS
Cafeteri a
Restaurant
Massage (SPA)
Equipment
Cross-country
classes
Hotel room
RMS
RMS
Cafeteri a
Restaurant
Massage (SPA)
Equipment
Cross-country
classes
Hotel room
Mr. X arrives
Mr. X arrives
Mr. X leaves
Mr. X leaves
Mr. Panart opens an
account (RMS ) with
the same reservation
number (CRN)
Mr. Panart opens an
account (RMS ) with
the same reservation
number (CRN)
Client consumption is
stored on RMS
Mr. Panart closes
the account
(RMS ) and print
the bill
Mr. Panart closes
the account
(RMS ) and print
the bill
Check client
consumption
Mr. X pays
Mr. X pays
Figure 4: Client expenses payment process
The non-hotel expenses of Mr. X will be paid directly to the service providers. It
can be done in two different ways; first, Mr. X can pay directly both service pro-
viders (Equipo Barrabés and Radical Snowboard) or Mr. X can pay all services
to Equipo Barrabés who then pays Radical Snowboard.
Mr. X arrives
Mr. X arrives
Mr. Panart contacts
service providers
Mr. Panart contacts
service providers
Heliski
Ski
classes
Snowboard
classes
Equipment
Mr. X gets services
Mr. X gets services
Mr. X pays
Mr. X pays
Equipo Barrabes
Equipo Barrabes
Radical Snowboard
Radical Snowboard
Mr. X arrives
Mr. X arrives
Mr. Panart contacts
service providers
Mr. Panart contacts
service providers
Heliski
Ski
classes
Snowboard
classes
Equipment
Heliski
Ski
classes
Snowboard
classes
Equipment
Mr. X gets services
Mr. X gets services
Mr. X pays
Mr. X pays
Equipo Barrabes
Equipo Barrabes
Radical Snowboard
Radical Snowboard
Figure 5: Extra expenses payment process
30
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
2.2.2 Hotel Ciria
A client calls Hotel Ciria to book a room for his family. The attendant asks his
name, and checks the system if Mr. X is a regular client or not. At the same time
the attendant checks if Mr. X reservation is during the high season. Depending
on the answer to these questions, the attendant requests from Mr. X a deposit,
and Mr. X requests a confirmation. The attendant tells Mr. X the hotel bank ac-
count and the amount to be deposited, and asks some personal information (full
name, address, city, number of guests). After Mr. X’s payment, the attendant
sends a confirmation by e-mail or by phone.
Client
Client
Hotel
Hotel
Payment
ariived?
Payment
arii ved?
Book
Book
Wait
Wait
Vacancy?
Vacancy?
Keep
Keep
Cancel
Cancel
Confirmation
requi red?
Confirmation
requi red?
Send
Send
Not Send
Not Send
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
CALL
High season?
High season?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Usual client or
travel agency?
Usual client or
travel agency?
NO
YES
Bank account number
Client
Client
Hotel
Hotel
Payment
ariived?
Payment
arii ved?
Book
Book
Wait
Wait
Vacancy?
Vacancy?
Keep
Keep
Cancel
Cancel
Confirmation
requi red?
Confirmation
requi red?
Send
Send
Not Send
Not Send
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
CALL
High season?
High season?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Usual client or
travel agency?
Usual client or
travel agency?
NO
YES
Bank account number
Figure 6: Reservation process - Hotel Ciria (Hotel)
Mr. X asks also for some special services, such as a bird-watching guide for his
wife, some trekking and climbing activities for his son and himself, and for his
daughter he asks for some rappelling and rafting activities. Because Mr. X is a
regular client and Mr. Ciria knows that he is a “good client” (high fidelity level)
he will arrange these extra activities.
Mr. Ciria does not have any problem to arrange an ornithologist for Mr. X’s
wife. For all other activities he will contact Equipo Barrabés to arrange these ex-
tra activities. He has a good relationship with Mr. Gaby from Equipo Barrabés
and he knows that, although some of the services are not offered by Equipo Bar-
rabes, Mr. Gaby knows another company (Radical Snowboard) who can pro-
vide these services.
31
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
The non-hotel expenses from Mr. X are assembled on the hotel account inside
the RMS, and will be paid in either of two ways, as described in the previous
scenario.
2.2.3 Condominium: Habitat Benasque:
Mr. X (client) contacts Mr. Gimano to make an apartment reservation for one
week. Mr. Gimano check if this apartment is available, if it still available, he
asks for a deposit and gives the Habitat’s bank account number. If the apart-
ment is not available anymore, he suggests another one. If the client accepts his
suggestion, he asks for a deposit and gives the Habitat’s bank account number.
Client
Client
Habitat
Habitat
Payment
arii ved?
Payment
arii ved?
Book
Book
Wait
Wait
YES NO
CALL / Email
Availabl e?
Available?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
NOYES
Offer another
appartment
Offer another
appartment
Suggestion
accepted?
Suggestion
accepted?
Stop
Stop
Bank account number
MPRT
Access
MPRT
Access
Client
Client
Habitat
Habitat
Payment
arii ved?
Payment
arii ved?
Book
Book
Wait
Wait
YES NO
CALL / Email
Availabl e?
Available?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
NOYES
Offer another
appartment
Offer another
appartment
Suggestion
accepted?
Suggestion
accepted?
Stop
Stop
Bank account number
MPRT
Access
MPRT
Access
Figure 7: Reservation process - Habitat Benasque (Real Estate Business)
After the first contact with Mr. X, Mr. Gimano includes this reservation on the
monthly planning reservation table (MPRT), which currently is not computer-
based. After Mr. Gimano receives the deposit, he saves all data on his computer
(Excel table) and updates his paper-based MPRT.
When the client arrives in Benasque, he needs to pick up the keys at Habitat’s
office.
32
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
2.2.4 Sports service provider: Equipo Barrabés:
Mr. X (client) contacts Mr. Mur from Equipo Barrabés to arrange a 5 days trek-
king trip through the Pyrenees with accommodation in cottages in the moun-
tains for him and 3 other friends. First of all, Mr. Mur needs to analyse in detail
this request, to verify the trekking route and the possibilities to accommodation.
After designing the 5-day trip, he sends to Mr. X a document with a detailed
description of the service and the technical aspects of this trip. Besides, a list of
the necessary equipment and the bank account number for a deposity of 25%
are also sent. If Mr. X does not have all the necessary equipment, he has the
possibility to buy or rent the equipment at Barrabés Esquí & Montaña. Mr. Mur
suggests a first meeting to get to known each other, to talk about the required
physical conditions and to explain the risks.
CottageEquipment
CottageEquipment
Figure 8: Client needs
Meanwhile, Mr. Mur calls mountain cottages and makes the reservation for 5
persons (bed and food - breakfast and dinner). The payment of the cottages ser-
vices is done normally in cash. Close to the departure date, Mr. Mur checks the
weather forecast, the cottage reservations and the rented equipment.
Client
Client
Barrabés
Barrabés
Payment
arri ved?
Payment
arri ved?
Book & confirmation
Book & confirmation
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Call / Web-site / Email
Enough
participants?
Enough
participants?
Pre-payment
requested
(25%)
Pre-payment
requested
(25%)
YES NO
Bank account number / technical details
MS Office
Wait
Wait
Client
Client
Barrabés
Barrabés
Payment
arri ved?
Payment
arri ved?
Book & confirmation
Book & confirmation
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Call / Web-site / Email
Enough
participants?
Enough
participants?
Pre-payment
requested
(25%)
Pre-payment
requested
(25%)
YES NO
Bank account number / technical details
MS Office
Wait
Wait
Figure 9: Reservation process - Equipo Barrabés (Sport service provider)
If Mr. X (alone – without his friends) contacts Equipo Barrabés and wants to
book a standard hiking trip offered by Equipo Barrabés, he will need to wait
33
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
until a minimum group of participants apply for the same trip. Normally, a
group of at least 4 people is needed for a hiking trip to take place. After a group
of 4 or 5 is registered, Mr. Mur contacts all participants by phone or E-mail and
gives them Barrabés’ bank account number, asking them to deposit 25% of the
whole price. Besides, a list of the obligatory equipment and the technical de-
scription of the trip are also sent. If any one of the participants does not have all
necessary equipment, Mr. Mur explains the possibility to buy or rent the
equipment at Barrabés Esquí & Montaña. Mr. Mur suggests a first meeting to
get to known each other, to talk about the required physical conditions and to
explain the risks.
Barras
Barrabés
Booking
Process
Booking
Process
Call/Email
Cottage
contact
Cottage
contact
Participants
contact
Participants
contact
Call
Call/Email
Barras
Barrabés
Booking
Process
Booking
Process
Call/Email
Cottage
contact
Cottage
contact
Participants
contact
Participants
contact
Call
Call/Email
Figure 10: Booking channels
Meanwhile, Mr. Mur calls the mountain cottages and makes the reservation for
all participants (bed and food - breakfast and dinner).
2.2.5 Sports Service Provider: Radical Snowboard:
Mr. X (client) contacts Mr. Casas from Radical Snowboard to arrange a special
course (Free style snowboard off slope with sleds) for him and his 4 friends.
First of all Mr. Casas needs to analyse the details regarding this request, to ver-
ify the trekking route and the sleds availability. After, designing this special
private course, he sends to Mr. X a document with a detailed description of the
service and the bank account number to the deposit are also sent. If Mr. X does
not have all these obligatory equipment, he can rent from Radical Snowboard.
34
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Client
Client
Radical
Radical
Payment
arrived?
Payment
arri ved?
Book & confirmation
Book & confirmation
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Call / Web-site / Email
Enough
participants?
Enough
participants?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Bank account number / technical details
MS Office
Wait
Wait
Client
Client
Radical
Radical
Payment
arrived?
Payment
arri ved?
Book & confirmation
Book & confirmation
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Call / Web-site / Email
Enough
participants?
Enough
participants?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Bank account number / technical details
MS Office
Wait
Wait
Figure 11: Reservation process – Radical Snowboard (Sport service provider)
If Mr. X (alone – without his friends) contacts Radical Snowboard and wants to
book a standard course (Free style snowboard off slope), he will need to wait
until a minimum group of participants apply for the course. Normally, it is nec-
essary a group of at least 4 persons for a course to take place. After a group of 4
or 5 is registered, Mr. Casas contacts all participants by phone or E-mail and
gives them Radical’s bank account number and asks them to make a deposit.
Besides, a list of the necessary equipment and the technical description of the
trip are also sent. If any one of the participants does not have all necessary
equipment, Mr. Casas explains about the possibility to buy or rent the equip-
ment at Radical Snowboard.
Private/ Rental
Course
Sleds
Instructor
Snowboard
Spade
Boots
Private/ Rental
Course
Sleds
Instructor
Snowboard
Spade
Boots
Figure 12: Client needs
2.2.6 Sports Service Provider : Escuela de Parapente Pirineos:
Mr. X (client) wants to participate in beginners’ course. To do so, he needs just
to fill in the questionnaire at the web site
1
. If there are enough participants, Mr.
Ucedo Rufat asks the participants to send a deposit (120€) by check or mail or-
1
http://www.parapentepirineos.com/inscripcion.htm
35
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
der (money). If not Mr. Ucedo Rufat waits until a group of minimum 4 partici-
pants are registered and then asks them to make the deposit. The rest will be
paid one day before the beginning of the classes.
Client
Client
Parapente
Parapente
Payment
arrived?
Payment
arri ved?
Book & confirmation
Book & confirmation
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Web-site / Email / Call
Enough
participants?
Enough
participants?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Excel
Wait
Wait
Print
Request
Email for Information (Web-site)
Email
Client
Client
Parapente
Parapente
Payment
arrived?
Payment
arri ved?
Book & confirmation
Book & confirmation
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Web-site / Email / Call
Enough
participants?
Enough
participants?
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Excel
Wait
Wait
Print
Request
Email for Information (Web-site)
Email
Figure 13: Reservation process - Escuela de Parapente Pirineos (Sport Service Provider)
The courses can be cancelled if there is not a minimum of 4 students; the notifi-
cation of cancellation is sent one week before the course beginning and the ad-
vanced payment is given back.
Mr. Ucedo Rufat contacts all participants by E-mail and gives them a list of the
obligatory equipment and the technical description of the course. If any of the
participants does not have all obligatory equipment, Mr. Ucedo Rufat explains
about the possibility to buy or rent the equipment at Escuela de Parapente
Pirineos.
Purchase / Rental
Course
Instructor
Paragli der
Boots
Paragli der
Radio
Compass
Radio
Compass
Purchase / Rental
Course
Instructor
Paragli der
Boots
Paragli der
Radio
Compass
Radio
Compass
Figure 14: Client needs
2.2.7 Food and Handcraft Gift Shop: Sabores de pueblo
Mr. Panart, the manager of Hospedería Hospital de Benasque calls Mr. Chéliz
to order special baskets with handcraft and bio/ecological products from the
region (Aragon) to offer to his guests during Christmas time.
36
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Mr. Chéliz analyses this order and sends back an offer to Mr. Panart. His offer
contains the amount of each product and its price (marmalade, chocolate, wine,
cheese, ham, etc.), the basket suggestions and their prices.
Basket 1
Basket 2
Basket 3
Client
Client
Sabores
Sabores
Payment
arrived?
Payment
arrived?
Preparation and
delivery
Preparation and
delivery
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Call / Email
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Negotiation
Negotiation
Analyse offer
(products pro basket)
Analyse offer
(products pro basket)
Suggestion
accept?
Suggestion
accept?
Basket 1
Basket 2
Basket 3
Basket 1
Basket 2
Basket 3
Client
Client
Sabores
Sabores
Payment
arrived?
Payment
arrived?
Preparation and
delivery
Preparation and
delivery
Wait
Wait
YES NO
Call / Email
Pre-payment
requested
Pre-payment
requested
YES NO
Negotiation
Negotiation
Analyse offer
(products pro basket)
Analyse offer
(products pro basket)
Suggestion
accept?
Suggestion
accept?
Figure 15: Purchase process - Sabores de pueblo (Food and Handcraft Gift Shop)
2.2.8 Governmental Association: Aramón Montañas de Aragón
Mr. X wants to spend some days in Benasque and go skiing in the Cerler ski re-
sort, but he wants to avoid queuing to buy his ski pass every time. He lives in
Zaragoza and read at the Aramón web site about the possibility to recharge his
ski pass directly online. Before that he needs to acquire an “Aramón 5 station”
card, so he goes to Aramón office in Zaragoza. There he buys his new card,
which he can use in all ski resorts that belong to Aramón. Meanwhile, he de-
cides also to charge his card for 7 consecutive days.
For the registration process, Mr. X gives some private information to Aramón,
which assures to use these information only as statistical data and to acknowl-
edge its clients.
37
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels and Tourism in Aragon, Spain
Client
Client
Card ready
Card ready
Aran
other*
Aran
other*
Recharge
Recharge
YES NO
Return of deposit
Return of deposit
Client skies
Client skies
Client keeps
card?
Client keeps
card?
Ski card:
Deposit: + skiing days
Ski card:
Deposit: + skiing days
Information is sent to
the ski station
Information is sent to
the ski station
1
st
Card
Aramón
other*
Aramón
other*
Aramón
other*
web site
Aramón
other*
web site
Client
Client
Client
Client
Client
Client
Return
Return
Figure 16: Card purchase process
After these vacation days, Mr. X decides to recharge his “Aramón 5 station”
card to 5 more non-consecutive days during the winter season. So, he charges it
online through Aramón web site.
38
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
2.3 Corporate and incentive travel
2.3.1 Travel Agency: Viajes Orienta Siete Mares, Big convention
Company Y is a multinational corporation, with sales and marketing depart-
ments in different countries and regions. In order to improve the communica-
tion between these departments on an international level, and to reward em-
ployees for a highly successful year, the company’s CEO wants to arrange a
convention with both “work” and “play” parts. The CEO’s secretary contacts
Mr. Lozano Pérez (Orienta Manager) for the organisation of this convention.
For this organisation, Mr. Lozano Pérez needs to collect some information about
the company’s culture, its needs and demands. So, he asks the company to fill
in a standard questionnaire developed by Orienta. After that, he sends a pro-
posal to the CEO. After some negotiations, the contract is signed.
„Company Y
contacts Orienta
„Company Y“
contacts Orienta
Interview to
define the
requirements
and needs
Interview to
define the
requirements
and needs
Orienta
sends a
proposal to
client
Orienta
sends a
proposal to
client
Negotiation
and contract
between
client and
Orienta
Negotiation
and contract
between
client and
Orienta
Call
In person
In person
START
START
Figure 17: Contact process
Company Y’s demands are:
The convention should take place in two months in Zaragoza at a 4 or 5
stars hotel, with about 100 participants from 5 different sites from Europe.
The participants will be able to travel with their spouses.
Flights need to be arranged for all participants and their spouses from their
countries to Zaragoza,
as well as Transfer from the airport and the main train station to the Hotel
for all participants and partners.
The speakers should hold their presentations in English (official company’s
language) and the convention would take 3 full days.
All participants and their spouses should have the option to spend the
weekend in Zaragoza.
During the day, the company employees will take place in team-building
activities and discussions.
The CEO and the heads of sales and marketing departments from each site
will participate in order to encourage their employees to exchange informa-
tion and to increase the identification with the group
Some of the participants will travel with their spouses, consequently some
extra activities during the day should be offered, such as sightseeing, mu-
seum visits, shopping, or sports.
After dinner, all participants and their spouses will have the possibility to
take part in social games to better get to know each other.
The program on Friday night should be a composed of a theatre play and
then a typical dinner at a local restaurant.
To fulfil the company’s wishes, Mr. Lozano Pérez checks Orienta’s database,
built up during the organization of similar events in Zaragoza:
39
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotels: There are 3 five stars hotel, and 4 four stars hotels, where the con-
vention could take place.
Catering: There are 4 potentail catering providers, each of them can cater to
up to 1000 people.
Transportation: There are 4 or 5 companies, but normally Orienta contracts
always the same one (“Transport Q”).
Flight: There is the possibility for private jets for the domestic flights, which
normally is cheaper.
Social activities and day activities for spouses: If the company is a regular
customer, this information can be found at the Orienta’s database. If not it
is possible to check other companies’ social activities for ideas.
The information about clients’ profiles and accounts can be found at the Ori-
enta’s database.
Hotel
Hotel
Catering
Catering
Flights
Flights
Transportation
Transportation
Social activities
Social activities
Partners program
Partners program
Orienta
DB
Client‘s profil
Client‘s profil
Client‘s account
Client‘s account
Hotel
Hotel
Catering
Catering
Flights
Flights
Transportation
Transportation
Social activities
Social activities
Partners program
Partners program
Orienta
DB
Client‘s profil
Client‘s profil
Client‘s account
Client‘s account
Figure 18:Orienta Database
Mr. Lozano Pérez or his employee will contact by telephone with the possible
suppliers:
Hotels: They will be contacted based on the Company Y’s specification, like
4 or 5 star hotels, conference room to 150 participants, 150 available double
rooms, recreation room during nights (family games), easy accessibility to
museums, shopping malls, theatre, etc. (partner program and social activi-
ties).
Transportation: If the company “Transport Q” will not be able to supply
the demand from “Company Y”, another company will be contract. The ac-
tivities are transfer (airport-hotel-airport; main train station-hotel- main
train station), social activities at night, and partner program.
Catering: If the hotel does not offer this service a company will be contract.
Flights: The flights are booked through Galileo or Amadeus Professional
Systems. A private jet company can do the domestic flights to Zaragoza,
because there are not so many international flights to the Zaragoza airport,
it can be cheaper then the commercial domestic flights, and it is seen as a
benefit to the client as a personalized service.
Social activities: A theatre piece will be booked to Friday night. Some res-
taurants will be contact to send an offer to a dinner to about 312 people (150
participants, the 5 chief of sales and marketing and the CEO and their
spouses). A sub-contracted company (“Transport Q” or another) will do the
transportation of all participants.
Spouse program: Some activities will be arranged during the day for the par-
ticipants’ spouses, such as sightseeing, shopping, museum visiting, etc. Trans-
portation needs to be arranged to support all these activities.
40
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Hotel
Hotel
Catering
Catering
Flights – private jet
Flights – private jet
Transportation
Transportation
Social activities
Social activities
Partners p rog ram
Partners p rog ram
Flights
Galileo or Amadeus
Flights
Galileo or Amadeus
Hotel
Hotel
Catering
Catering
Flights – private jet
Flights – private jet
Transportation
Transportation
Social activities
Social activities
Partners p rog ram
Partners p rog ram
Flights
Galileo or Amadeus
Flights
Galileo or Amadeus
Figure 19: Booking channels
This is an expensive and long process, because the suppliers take about 2 days
to send by fax or e-mail an offer to Orienta, and then there is always a telephone
negotiation.
If any problem occurs during the negotiation or if Mr. Lozano Pérez does not
get the price previously estimated, he contacts his client and handles this prob-
lem. It means that he needs at least one extra call; normally it will be more than
2 calls.
Orienta contacts
each supplier
Orienta contacts
each supplier
Suppliers
send offers
Suppliers
send offers
Orienta handles price and
conditions with suppliers
Orienta handles price and
conditions with suppliers
Call
Fax / Email
NO
Price ok?
Price ok?
Orienta accepts offer and sends
confirmation to supplier
Orienta accepts offer and sends
confirmation to suppli er
YES
Supplier sends
the bill to Orienta
Supplier sends
the bill to Orienta
Orienta pays
suppliers
Orienta pays
suppliers
Call / Email
Fax / Mail
Orienta sends bill to
„Company Y
Orienta sends bill to
„Company Y
„Company Y
pays Orienta
„Company Y
pays Orienta
Online / Bank
Fax / Mail
START
START
„Company Y
accepts new price
„Company Y
accepts new price
Price ok?
Price ok?
YES
NO
Orienta contacts
„Company Y
Orienta contacts
„Company Y
Call / Email
Orienta contacts
each supplier
Orienta contacts
each supplier
Suppliers
send offers
Suppliers
send offers
Orienta handles price and
conditions with suppliers
Orienta handles price and
conditions with suppliers
Call
Fax / Email
NO
Price ok?
Price ok?
Orienta accepts offer and sends
confirmation to supplier
Orienta accepts offer and sends
confirmation to suppli er
YES
Supplier sends
the bill to Orienta
Supplier sends
the bill to Orienta
Orienta pays
suppliers
Orienta pays
suppliers
Call / Email
Fax / Mail
Orienta sends bill to
„Company Y
Orienta sends bill to
„Company Y
„Company Y
pays Orienta
„Company Y
pays Orienta
Online / Bank
Fax / Mail
START
START
„Company Y
accepts new price
„Company Y
accepts new price
Price ok?
Price ok?
YES
NO
Orienta contacts
„Company Y
Orienta contacts
„Company Y
Call / Email
Figure 20: Orienta’s convention process
2.3.2 Incentive travel
Mr. X (client) contacts the Company Orienta (Mr. Javier Lozano Pérez) to ar-
range an incentive week (7 days) with workshop to a group of employees. The
client specifies also that this workshop should take place close to the moun-
tains, such as Benasque Valley. Due to the wish of some of the participants to
41
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
get some ski and/or snowboard classes during these days. Furthermore, the
participants are going to rent the skiing equipment, and the tickets for the ski
station should be available at the hotel to the participants. The hotel should of-
fer also some other activities such as swimming pool, and wellness (spa). Ori-
enta should arrange also a small gift to each participant with typical food from
the valley, such as jelly, sweets, etc.
The conference room should contain a beamer, a white board, and seat places
for about 30 people. In addition, 3 other small rooms should be available to the
participants to develop parallel activities, and they should be close to the main
workshop room.
The restaurant and the catering service should offer vegetarian food for 5 par-
ticipants; all participants are going to have their main meals (breakfast, lunch
and dinner) together at the main restaurant room. The coffee breaks should be
served on a room close to the workshop room 3 times a day.
The participants are going to fly from Madrid to Zaragoza and then they are go-
ing to travel together by train, or by bus to their final destination. Orienta
should arrange all transportation from Madrid to Benasque.
Figure 21: Client requirements
2.3.3 Indirect contact process: Service providers and Aggregators
After the client specifies everything, Mr. Perez (Orientas’ manager) starts organ-
ising the incentive week itinerary. First of all, he looks at the website
(
http://www.benasque.com/) for possible hotels and service providers. But he
knows from past experiences, for example, that the Hospital and the Hotel Ciria
are possible candidates, because both hotels could offer a conference room, a
good restaurant, and good accommodation to all 30 participants. The differ-
42
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
ences between them are that the Hotel Ciria is located in Town and there is no
swimming pool, and the Hospital is far from the centre with difficult access but
with swimming pool and wellness (spa). So, he needs to check with his client,
which of these hotels is the best choice to this incentive week.
Then, he contacts them by phone to check availability and prices.
Hotel
Hotel
Equipo
Equipo
Aramón
Aramón
Radical
Radical
•Ski tickets
• Snowboard classes
•Equipment
•Hotel
•Spa
Cross-country ski
-classes
- equipment
•Heliski
•Equipment
C
a
l
l
C
al
l
C
a
l
l
Orienta
Orienta
C
a
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
•Bus
C
a
ll
Sabor del Pueblo
Sabor del Pueblo
•Gifts
C
a
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
•Airplain
Private jet
E
r
a
s
m
u
s
/
C
a
l
l
Hotel
Hotel
Equipo
Equipo
Aramón
Aramón
Radical
Radical
•Ski tickets
• Snowboard classes
•Equipment
•Hotel
•Spa
Cross-country ski
-classes
- equipment
•Heliski
•Equipment
C
a
l
l
C
al
l
C
a
l
l
Orienta
Orienta
C
a
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
•Bus
C
a
ll
Sabor del Pueblo
Sabor del Pueblo
•Gifts
C
a
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
E
r
a
s
m
u
s
/
C
a
l
l
•Airplain
Private jet
Figure 22: Indirect reservation channels
First of all, he contacts (phone) the Hotels to check availability of rooms to all
participants. The hotels offer the catering service as an extra service, and the
possibility to have all meals at the hotel restaurant. A special menu to this event
can also be arranged. They also offered to book the required sporting activities
to Mr. Javier, it means the hotels contact different service providers to get dif-
ferent offers to the specific sports activities, such as snowboard, heliski, and
their necessary rental equipment. Another extra service offered from the hotels
is to arrange the required gifts from Sabores del pueblo store, and the ski tickets
(“Aramón 5 station” card).
Mr. Pérez still needs to call the transportation companies, and to book the
flights. Although he works normally with a specific transportation company in
Zaragoza, he calls the other ones (5 in Zaragoza). The transportation from Ma-
drid to Zaragoza can be done in two different ways; by commercial airlines, or
by private jets, which normally is cheaper. So, he checks both possibilities.
43
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Orienta
Orienta
Suppliers
Suppliers
Negotiation
Negotiation
Call
Fax / Email
NO
Price ok?
Price ok?
Acceptance
Acceptance
YES
Mr. X
Mr. X
Mr. X
Mr. X
Contact Mr. X
Contact Mr. X
Call / Email
Hotels
Hotels
Fax / Email
Contact
hotels
Contact
hotels
Contact
suppliers
Contact
suppliers
Send
offers
Send
offers
Call
Orienta
Orienta
New offers
arrived?
New offers
arrived?
Wait
Wait
NOYES
Figure 23: Reservation process and channels
The hotel managers after contacting all service providers (basically by phone)
send their offers to Mr. Pérez by fax. Mr. Pérez analyses the offers and discusses
with Mr. X (client) to get his acceptance of some possible differences between
requirements and offers. After Mr. X agreement, Mr. Pérez confirms (by phone)
the services to the winner (hotel).
44
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Acceptance
Acceptance
Suppliers
Suppliers
Call /
Email
Fax / Mail
Hotels
Hotels
Mr. X
Mr. X
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Orienta
Orienta
Bills
arrived?
Bills
arrived?
YES NO
Wait
Wait
Fax / Mail
Fax /
Mail
Acceptance
Acceptance
Suppliers
Suppliers
Call /
Email
Fax / Mail
Hotels
Hotels
Mr. X
Mr. X
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Orienta
Orienta
Bills
arrived?
Bills
arrived?
YES NO
Wait
Wait
Fax / Mail
Fax /
Mail
Figure 24: Acceptance process and channels
If Mr. X does not agree with any point of the offers, Mr. Pérez needs to handle
with the winner hotel manager or directly with the service provider (by phone).
Negotiation
Negotiation
Orienta
Orienta
Contact hotels
& suppliers
Contact hotels
& suppliers
Contact
hotels
Contact
hotels
Suppliers
Suppliers
Hotels
Hotels
Hotels
Hotels
Contact
suppliers
Contact
suppliers
Suppliers
Suppliers
Send
offers
Send
offers
Send
offers
Send
offers
Fax / Email
Call /
Email
Call /
Email
Call /
Email
Figure 25: Negotiation process and channels
45
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
2.3.4 Direct contact process: Service providers and Aggregators
After the client specifies everything, Mr. Perez (Orientas’ manager) starts organ-
ising the incentive week itinerary. First of all, he looks at the website
(
http://www.benasque.com/) for possible hotels and service providers. But he
knows from old experiences, for example, that the Hospital and the Hotel Ciria
are possible candidates, because both hotels could offer a conference room, a
good restaurant, and good accommodation to all 30 participants. The differ-
ences between them are that the Hotel Ciria is located in Town and there is no
swimming pool, and the Hospital is far from the centre with difficult access but
with swimming pool and wellness (spa). So, he needs to check with his client,
which of these hotels is the best choice to this incentive week.
Orienta
Orienta
Equipo
Equipo
Aramón
Aramón
Radical
Radical
Ski tickets
•Snowboard classes
•Equipment
• Heliski
•Equipment
•Hotel
•Spa
Cross-country ski
- classes
- equipment
C
a
l
l
C
a
l
l
C
a
l
l
Hotel
Hotel
C
a
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
•Bus
C
a
l
l
Sabor del Pueblo
Sabor del Pueblo
Gifts
Ca
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
• Airplain
Private jets
E
ra
s
m
u
s
/
C
a
l
l
Orienta
Orienta
Equipo
Equipo
Aramón
Aramón
Radical
Radical
Ski tickets
•Snowboard classes
•Equipment
• Heliski
•Equipment
•Hotel
•Spa
Cross-country ski
- classes
- equipment
Hotel
Hotel
C
a
l
l
C
a
l
l
C
a
l
l
C
a
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
C
a
l
l
Sabor del Pueblo
•Bus
Sabor del Pueblo
Gifts
Ca
l
l
Transp.
Transp.
E
ra
s
m
u
s
/
C
a
l
l
• Airplain
Private jets
Figure 26: Direct reservation channels
First the contacts the hotels by phone to check availability and prices. On this
case, the hotel managers don’t offer to arrange the extra activities required, such
as sport activities, gifts, and ski tickets. So, Mr. Pérez needs to contact all service
providers.
46
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Orienta
Orienta
NO
Price ok?
Price ok?
YES
Mr. X
Mr. X
Suppliers
Suppliers
Call /
Email
Fax / Mail
Hotels
Hotels
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Fax /
Mail
Negotiation
Negotiation
Acceptance
Acceptance
Mr. X
Mr. X
Contact Mr. X
Contact Mr. X
Call / Email
Orienta
Orienta
New offers
arrived?
New offers
arrived?
Wait
Wait
NOYES
Call / Email
Figure 27: Reservation process and channels
The service providers send their offers to Mr. Pérez by fax. Mr. Pérez analyses
them and discusses with Mr. X (client) to get his acceptance of some possible
differences between requirements and offers. After Mr. X agrees Mr. Pérez con-
firms (by phone) the services to the winners (hotel and service providers).
47
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Acceptance
Acceptance
Suppliers
Suppliers
Call /
Email
Fax / Mail
Hotels
Hotels
Mr. X
Mr. X
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Orienta
Orienta
Bills
arrived?
Bills
arrived?
YES NO
Wait
Wait
Fax / Mail
Fax /
Mail
Acceptance
Acceptance
Suppliers
Suppliers
Call /
Email
Fax / Mail
Hotels
Hotels
Mr. X
Mr. X
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Send the
bill
Send the
bill
Pays the
bill
Pays the
bill
Orienta
Orienta
Bills
arrived?
Bills
arrived?
YES NO
Wait
Wait
Fax / Mail
Fax /
Mail
Figure 28: Acceptance process and channels
If Mr. X does not agree with any point of the offers, Mr. Pérez needs to handle
with the suppliers (hotel and service providers) by phone.
Negotiation
Negotiation
Orienta
Orienta
Contact hotels
& suppliers
Contact hotels
& suppliers
Contact
hotels
Contact
hotels
Suppliers
Suppliers
Hotels
Hotels
Hotels
Hotels
Contact
suppliers
Contact
suppliers
Suppliers
Suppliers
Send
offers
Send
offers
Send
offers
Send
offers
Fax / Email
Call /
Email
Call /
Email
Call /
Email
Figure 29: Negotiation process and channels
48
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
3 Conference Organisers in Tampere,
Finland
This chapter summarises the information obtained from SMEs during interviews
in Tampere (Finland).
The focus of the interviews were SMEs, which organise conferences and/or deliver a
software, which support a conference organisation. Ines Alves de Queiroz and Dieter
Hertweck interviewed the following organizations:
Type of organisations Name Contact
1. e-Business Researcher eBRC Ms. Hanna Martin
2. Science Park Administrator Technology Centre Hermia Ms. Johanna Salomaa-Valkama
3. Conference Manager SuviSoft
Table 2: Companies interviewed in Tampere, Finland
49
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
3.1 Requirement Analysis
This section introduces the organizations interviewed by general information, a
short description and by the provided services. Thereafter, the current IT-
Infrastructure and IT purchase process are described. Finally, the negative and
positive aspects are mentioned. The positive aspects mean in how fare IT-
technologies or combined systems with other partners are already established
and in which way the DBE projects can benefit from these experiences. On the
other hand, the negative aspects are the ones, which inhibit the implementation
of Conference Management Systems or the growth of the organisations.
3.1.1 e-Business Researcher - eBRC
General Information:
Web site: www.ebrc.info
Contact: Ms. Hanna Martin, Project Manager
Industry:
Legal form:
Number of employees:
e-Business Research
Project of two universities
9
Outsourced service The entire internet system
Clients Other Universities; several business partner
50
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Description:
eBRC, one of the six subprograms of eTampere, is aimed at turning e-business
related research and development ideas into new knowledge. eTampere aims to
enhance the humanly sustainable information society development by creating
new knowledge, new business, and new public online services.
eBRC is co-founded by two different universities: The Tampere University of
Technology and the University of Tampere. As such, eBRC is a “border-
crossing partnership” – a joint venture born to create value to a multitude of
partners, rather than a single parent. This is reflected in eBRC’s organization,
values, and way to operate.
The mission of eBRC is to generate relevant new knowledge on selected busi-
ness phenomena related to the e-business. The new knowledge will be utilized
in the education and research activity by the partner universities and in the
business practise by the businesses participating in the underlying research pro-
jects. The objective of eBRC is to become one of Europe’s leading e-business re-
searchers by 2006. (Quote from the Homepage of the eBRC)
Services:
Organisation of scientific conferences (eBRF) in the context of the project
eBRC (eTampere)
Subcontracted services:
SuviSoft (Conference Management System Provider)
Response® Audience Response System
2
IT-Infrastructure:
Technological platform MS Windows
Office Software MS Office
Special Software None (except outsourced software)
Future acquisitions A flexible conference management system (CMS),
where all needed reports could be generated.
Internet applications used E-mail internal and external
Information / Research
2
Each participant will receive a portable handset for voting/answering, which enables each pre-
senter to receive instant response from his/her audience.
51
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Web site offerings: Languages: Finish, English
Information about projects from the Tampere Univer-
sity of Technology and the University of Tampere
Publications
Links to conferences about eBusiness
Links to “Call for papers” of Journals
Conference eBRF
Languages: Finish, English
Information
Fee
Registration
Review process
IT purchase process:
Purchase (CMS) decision by: Group
Is the interviewed person per-
sonally involved?
Yes (Ms. Hanna Martin)
Software (CMS) selection cri-
teria
Price (normally they pay a symbolic fee to use the
software)
Warranty
Maintenance
Payment modes
Product functionality
Product stability and usability (easy to use)
Difficulties and Expectations:
Ms. Hanna Martin knows the advantages of a good Conference Manage-
ment System. She has many ideas to improve the system of SuviSoft.
The program eBRF is together with the main program eTampere limited to
five years
3.1.2 Science Park Administrator - Technology Centre Hermia
General Information:
Web site: http://www3.hermia.fi/english/
Contact: Johanna Salomaa-Valkama, Communications Manager
Industry:
Legal status:
Number of employees:
Sales per year (€):
Profit per year (€):
Real estate, consulting, expertise
Limited Company
About 35 (one half is employed in several projects)
5,3 mill
38,800
Outsourced service Extranet and applications, like the registration system
Clients New technology companies
52
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Description:
Tampere Technology Centre Ltd was established in November 1990 as a devel-
opment and administration company for Technology Centre Hermia. It had
been divided into three business units: Hermia Premises Services, Hermia Busi-
ness Development and the Centre of Expertise. Since the first of June 2004 the
business activities of the Tampere Technology were divided in two new com-
panies the Technology Centre Hermia Ltd and the Hermia Premises Services
Ltd. The company’s project and development activities will continue under the
company Technology Centre Hermia Ltd, and the real estate business activities
under the company Hermia Premises Services Ltd. In autumn 2004 the Hermia
Premises Service Ltd will merge with to other companies to the Tampere Sci-
ence Park Ltd.
Services:
Tampere Technology Centre Hermia offers companies an operational environ-
ment in which they have the opportunity to grow and develop without caring
about the office needs. The entire office space comes to over 100.000 square me-
tres. The companies can define the office space they need: from 6,5 square me-
ters for start-up and small companies to 1500 square metres for bigger compa-
nies. About 150 companies and research units have their offices in one of the
Hermia Science Park buildings.
Additional to the office premises the Hermia Business Incubator also operates
in Hermia's small business centre, giving advice and tailored training for start-
up incubator companies.
Subcontracted services:
Optinet (Extranet Provider)
IT-Infrastructure:
Connection Intranet
WLAN
Future acquisitions Automated invoice system
Perhaps professional conference tool
53
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Web site offerings: Company TTC:
Languages: Finish, English
Information about the Company
Brochures and Publications
Pictures of the offices and environment
Conference Tampere Crossing
Languages: Finish
Information
Fees
Registration
IT purchase process:
Software (CMS) selection cri-
teria:
Warranty
Maintenance
Payment modes
Note: related to product and not to vendor.
Difficulties and Expectations:
Ms. Johanna Salomaa-Valkama has experience with a System that was not
made for conference purpose. Nevertheless or even therefore she has good
ideas what a professional Conference Management System had to auto-
mate.
The Conference “Tampere Crossing” will be transferred into an interna-
tional conference in the next years.
3.1.3 Conference Organizer IT services provider - SuviSoft
General Information:
Web site: http://www.suvisoft.fi
Industry:
Legal form:
Number of employees:
Conference organization IT services
Limited company
11
Description:
SuviSoft Oy Ltd is a Finnish service provider specialized in online management
solutions. It hosted the first conference web server in September 2000. By now
the service of SuviSoft are used by more than 30,000 users from all over the
world in nearly twenty countries.
Services:
SuviSoft provides several modules which can combined and modified to the
customers’ need: handling of conference submissions, registration, hotel book-
ing, proceedings publishing, online payment, travel service, mobile service and
graphic design. These services have been used in several business areas, namely
54
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
conference management, exhibition management and association membership
management. The online services offer state of the art technology tools to event
organizers allowing them to save time and effort while keeping full control of
the event.
Subcontracted services:
Book printing
Server hosting (external servers at the nearby universities)
IT-Infrastructure:
Technological platform Linux, Microsoft Windows
Database MySQL
Security SSL
Office Software Microsoft Office
Special Software HeiTML (similar to HTML) for website
CSV (Comma Separated values)-interface
Future acquisitions New interfaces
Web site offerings: Language: English
Information about service
Possibility to give feedback
References, involved events
IT purchase process:
Software selection criteria Warranty
Maintenance
Payment modes
Difficulties and Expectations:
SuviSoft is a worldwide operating Conference and Exhibition Software Pro-
vider as well as Organizer with much experience.
SuviSoft will be developed to a full Event Organizer with all services under
one umbrella.
Hanna Martin from eBRC had problems with some of the modules of Suvi-
Soft. I.e. she hold the generation of reports for inflexible in use.
55
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
3.2 Conference organisation use cases
This section describes the conference organization processes of each inter-
viewed organization. The figures illustrate some important sub processes and
decisions.
3.2.1 e-Business Researcher - eBRC
The Organizing Committee (lead by Ms. Martin) decides to start the organiza-
tion of the next eBRF Conference. First of all, she needs a Conference Manage-
ment System (CMS), so she contacts the System Provider (SuviSoft), who sup-
plied the CMS for the previous eBRF Conference. Ms. Martin tells them the
needs and some improvements suggestions for the current year. Meanwhile,
Ms. Martin contacts also the other suppliers, such as Convention Centre, Res-
taurants, Hotels, etc.
Web site &
CMS ok?
Web site &
CMS ok?
eBRC
eBRC
Wait
Wait
NO
Open
Call for papers
Open „
Call for pape rs
YES
Conference
Conference
Contact
Contact
Develop
Web site
Develop
Web site
Figure 30: Conference management process
When the CMS is already live on the eBRF Web site, the Organizing Committee
publishes the “call for papers” on the web page, and sends e-mails to all par-
ticipants from the last editions. The conference process is divided into 4 sub-
processes: submission, review and registration.
Conference
Conference
Submission
Submission
Registration
Registration
Review
Review
Figure 31: Conference sub-processes
The researchers who want to present their “working papers” just need to create
an account (ID and password) on the conference web site and upload their ab-
stracts to one of the 3 possible tracks. The abstracts should not be longer than 3
pages.
Submission
Submission
eBRC
eBRC
Send
Emails
Send
Emails
Authors
Authors
Upload
abstract
Upload
abstract
eBRF
eBRF
Figure 32: Submission sub-process
56
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
After the deadline of the paper submission process, the review process begins.
First, each track chair (two professors and one PhD) checks the content of the
abstracts to verify if they were correctly uploaded to the proper topic.
Then, the reviewers log in with their own passwords at the CMS and rate the
abstracts directly online. The criteria are technical content, originality, clarity of
presentation, and relevance to the conference, the abstracts are evaluated based
on these 5 criteria through a “blind review process”. Each abstract receives two
grades (1-5) from two “blind reviewers”.
Review
Review
Reviewers
Reviewers
eBRC
eBRC
Check
abstracts
by tracks
Check
abstracts
by tracks
Review
abstracts
+ notes
Review
abstracts
+ notes
eBRF
eBRF
eBRF
eBRF
eBRC
eBRC
Send
Emails
Send
Emails
Authors
Authors
Figure 33: Review sub-process
During the review process, the Organizing Committee arranges the venues, the
evening programs, and the catering as well as the keynote speaker.
Call
Fax / Email
Keynotes
Keynotes
Contact
Keynotes
Contact
Keynotes
Provide
Presentation
Provide
Presentation
Keynotes
Keynotes
Contact
Keynotes
Contact
Keynotes
Provide
Presentation
Provide
Presentation
Contact
Hotels
Contact
Hotels
Hotels
Hotels
Provide
Rooms
Provide
Rooms
Contact
Hotels
Contact
Hotels
Hotels
Hotels
Provide
Rooms
Provide
Rooms
Contact
Conf. Hall
Contact
Conf. Hall
Conference Hall
Conference Hall
Provide
Hall + Catering
Provide
Hall + Catering
Contact
Conf. Hall
Contact
Conf. Hall
Conference Hall
Conference Hall
Provide
Hall + Catering
Provide
Hall + Catering
Contact
Contact
Call
Call
Restaurants
Restaurants
Contact
Restaurants
Contact
Restaurants
Provide
Dinner / Cocktail
Provide
Dinner / Cocktail
Restaurants
Restaurants
Contact
Restaurants
Contact
Restaurants
Provide
Dinner / Cocktail
Provide
Dinner / Cocktail
Call
Figure 34: Contact sub-process
At the end of the review process, the system generates a “scaled down” list with
all papers. If an abstract receives “one rejection and one acceptance”, a 3
rd
re-
viewer is asked to go over the special cases. Finally, the Organizing Committee
sends by E-mail the information about acceptance or rejection of the abstracts to
the authors. The authors of the accepted abstracts receive also a “paper num-
ber”, which they need to enter on the registration form. Moreover, the authors
are invited to make their registration, at least one author per abstract needs to
attend the conference to get the paper published in the proceedings.
57
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Registration
Registration
Authors
Authors
Register
at eBRF
Register
at eBRF
eBRF
eBRF
Upload
presentation
Upload
presentation
Participants
Participants
Keynotes +
Chairman
Keynotes +
Chairman
Call
eBRC
Call
eBRC
eBRC
eBRC
Figure 35: Registration sub-process
Meanwhile, the registration system is already connected to the eBRF web page;
the conference program and registration conditions are already online. So, the
registration process starts and the interested people can register for the confer-
ence. The registration form consists on 5 parts: personal information, accompa-
nying guest, social events, payment, and hotel reservation. In case of doubts,
the participants can get into contact with one of the two contact persons, which
answer all questions by phone or E-mail.
58
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Figure 36: Registration form I
Figure 37: Registration form II
After the registration, the authors need to send their presentation (as a Power-
Point file). The ID and password are the same used at the abstract submission
process. After the registration process is over, the conference can start.
Two months after the conference take places; the authors send their final paper,
uploading at the web site as they did during the presentation submission proc-
ess.
3.2.2 Science Park Administrator - Technology Centre Hermia
The conference “Tampere Crossing” was developed by ten people of different
Organizations in Tampere. They wanted to combine the presentation of general
“nice to know”-knowledge and specific knowledge in several subjects. There-
fore all participants take part in two plenary sessions as well as in three special
sessions. In the plenary sessions the keynote speakers talk about current trends
of research and development. In each of the three special sessions the partici-
pant can choose one of 7 tracks where specific knowledge regarding one subject
is presented.
59
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Reception
Lunc h Break
Ple nary Sessio n I (K e yno tes)
Coffee Break
Conference Dinner
Coffee
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Lunc h Break
Ple nary Sess io n II (K eyno tes)
Coffee Break
Farewell Speeches
D
A
Y
2
D
A
Y
1
9:00
10:00
12:00
13:00
14.45
15:15
17:00
23:00
9:00
10:00
12:00
13:00
14:30
15:15
16:30
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Figure 38: Schedule of the conference
“Tampere Crossing” is an non-profit conference. All profit from fees is given to
a welfare organization. The speakers, including the keynote speakers, are not
paid, and the conference web site and registration system are provided for free.
At the beginning of the previous (and first) organization of the “Tampere Cross-
ing” conference, an initial meeting took place. At this meeting all parties fixed
the date for the conference. At the same time it was checked if the venue “Tam-
pere Hall” is free at this date and the venue were reserved. The further organi-
zation was divided in three teams, the Advisory Group, the Organizer Group
and the Conference Organization Team.
Conference organization
Conference organization
In itia l M eet ing
-fix date for confe rence
In itia l M eetin g
-fix date for co nfe rence
Advisory Group
Advisory Group
Organizer Group
Organizer Group
Conference
Organization Team
Conference
Organization Team
accommodation, venues
Catering, registration
accommodation, venues
Catering, registration
content of website
and brochures
content of website
and brochures
specify key notes
specify key notes
Figure 39: Conference Organization
The Advisory Group consisted of twenty representatives from the city and the
university who specified the keynotes. They took care that current development
in research are reflected the topics of the plenary sessions.
The Organizer Group took care of the general marketing of the conference and
the general program. Each sub session had an its own marketing and contacted
60
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
their interest group itself. The Organizer Group combined all sub programs to
one program.
Three people (later five) formed the Conference Organization Team which did
the remaining work like the website, the registration of the participants the
venues, the catering, and accommodations.
The first important step in the organization was to define the keynote sessions
and the basic content of the sub sessions. The Advisory and the Organizer
Group took care of this. Meanwhile the Conference Organization Team con-
tacted the Extranet Provider (“Optinet”). They developed the needed system
together. Although the system had not initially been built for conferences,it
worked well after few improvements. After the website was ready to go online,
a first introduction was published. Interested parties could sign up to a newslet-
ter. In this case 80 people signed up to this list.
Then the Conference Organization System had to organize the venues and ac-
commodation. The venue for the conference was already reserved from the be-
ginning on because a lot of space was needed. So they just had to engage the lo-
cal caterer there and for handling the technical support they had to hire five IT-
specialists from the “Tampere Hall”.
Conference
Organization Team
Conference
Organization Team
hotel
hotel
catering
catering
ven ues
venues
-Tampere Hall
- Dinner venue
technical support
technical support
-Tampere Hall
- Dinner ve nue
-Competition - five assistants
Figure 40: Tasks of the Conference Organization Team
For the conference dinner, which was included in the conference fee, they chose
a cultural centre as venue.
To find inexpensive and good accommodation for the participants there was
competitive bidding between the hotels. One of the Conference Organization
Team rang all hotels that came into question to receive a bid. The cheapest hotel
was taken. The person responsible for the hotel booking administered the data
about the hotel rooms and the reservation in an Excel sheet. Just one problem
appeared. Two weeks before the conference there were no rooms left, so addi-
tional hotel rooms had to be rented. All in all the hotels had no interest in con-
necting their IT systems to the Conference Management System, because it is
easier for them just to allocate a number of rooms and let the conference organ-
izer do the rest with the reservation.
When the accommodation and conference tracks were organised, registration
started. During registration, a hotel room could be booked and the sessions had
to be chosen. And there was a text field for special wishes like vegetarian food
or an additional guest. For asking question the participants could call the Or-
ganization Team, who had a telephone number and the e-mail addresses at the
website.
61
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
participants
participants
registration
registration
choose registration
options
choose registration
options
personal data
personal data
hotel room
hotel room
special request
special request
sessions
sessions
Conference
Organization Tea m
Conference
Organization Team
call/e-mail in the case of questions
answer by call/e-mail
Figure 41: Registration Process
After the registration of the participants, invoices were printed by the Confer-
ence Management System and sent to the participants with a customer identifi-
cation number. The participants had to transfer the conference fee (250 €) to a
company account. The Conference Organisation Team had to check manually
with the name and ID number who had paid. Ms. Johanna Salomaa-Valkama
would like to automate this process in the future.
invoice handling
invoice handling
Conference
Organization Team
Conference
Organization Team
participants
participants
Print & send
invoices
Print & send
invoices
make
bank transfer
make
bank transfer
Conference
Organization Team
Conference
Organization Team
Ide ntify
transactions by
name/ID-num be r
Ide ntify
transactions by
name/ID-num be r
Figure 42: Invoice Handling
Reports with the information from the database cannot be generated directly
from the system, but they could export the data to excel and then generate all
wanted reports. Just for the future when the conference is growing they want
also automate the report generating. Perhaps they also implement even a Con-
ference Management System in the Future.
The Conference started with a reception in the morning. Every morning, the
participants were sent an SMS message with the daily program and the room
numbers. Participants who had an MMS mobile phone could get a map where
to go. But this service was used little because of the lack of MMS phones. For
using these services everybody had to give the mobile phone numbers during
registration.
For presentations, the speakers fed their PowerPoint files via CD or USB mem-
ory stick into the main presentation station. Few speakers connected their own
laptop to the projector. From the main presentation station, the speakers could
hold their presentation in any room.
To make the PowerPoint files available for the participants, about 50 % of the
files were also published at the website. The other 50 % of the speakers did not
want their files to be published.
62
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
Over Wifi or an e-mail room, every participant had the possibility to go online
during the whole conference.
In the end the Conference Organization Team asked for feedback from the par-
ticipants. This will be done at every conference in order to improve the organi-
sation.
3.2.3 Professional Conference Organizer - SuviSoft
The Organization Process of SuviSoft will be described based on the ISSPS 2003
conference, one of the conferences SuviSoft organized nearly completely.
The “Laboratoire de Traitement et Transport de l'Information” (L2TI) and the
“Laboratoire de Traitement du Signal et des Images de l'ENST-Paris” (TSI), in
association with the SPRC at QUT (Brisbane), decided to host the ISSPS 3003 in
Paris. They contacted SuviSoft to organize this conference. They defined which
modules from the basic structure SuviSoft provide are important and how they
should be customized. SuviSoft offered a contract according to their needs.
SuviSoft
SuviSoft
Customer
Customer
define needs
define needs
make contract
make contract
contract
okay?
contract
okay?
start organization
start organization
No
Yes
call
Figure 43: Completion of the contract
After the completion of the contract SuviSoft began with the realization. The
submission & review handling was divided in 4 sub processes.
reviewer
selection
revi ewer
selection
submission
submission
revi ew
revi ew
abstract handling
abstract handling
authors registration
authors registration
Figure 44: Submission& review handling sub processes
The three organizations had formed a Conference Committee that selected re-
viewers together with the Program Chairs. Information about the reviewers
was sent to SuviSoft. SuviSoft then collected the necessary information about
the reviewer and installed their accounts.
reviewer selection
revi ewer selection
Conference Committee
Conference Committee
Select reviewer
Select reviewer
SuviSoft
SuviSoft
Create reviewer
accounts
Create reviewer
accounts
Figure 45: Selection of the reviewer
Thereafter the call for papers was published and the submission process
started. Each author who was interested in submitting an abstract created an
account with SuviSoft. Then the authors loaded their abstracts up by “copy
paste” and filled out a submission report where information about the abstracts
63
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
had to be given. The content of the submission form were among others the
topic of the abstract. Every author had to allocate his abstract to one of twenty
different topic tracks. In the end 600 papers had been submitted.
submission
submission
fill out
information form
fill out
information form
give account
give account
upload abstracts
upload abstracts
SuviSoft
SuviSoft
authors
authors
authors
authors
Figure 46: Submission sub-process
On the basis of the track number that the author had selected, the Conference
Committee allocated the abstracts to the different Program Chairmen who then
allocated the abstracts to their reviewers. The reviewers could enter their ac-
count, see the abstracts, and review them directly through the website, save the
abstracts to their computer or print them. After the review they filled out a re-
view report, developed by the Conference Committee to choose the authors.
The review form contained different grading, recommendations and comments
directed to the authors. The Chairmen could supervise the whole review proc-
ess, they could for example log in with their master password and do a review
themselves, if a reviewer was too late. Finally the Conference Committee de-
cided with the help of the review form who they want to admit to the confer-
ence.
review
revi ew
Conference Committee
Conference Committee
allocate abstracts
to reviewer
allocate abstracts
to reviewer
review / fill
out revi ew form
review / fill
out review form
reviewer
reviewer
Conference Committee
Conference Committee
select authors by
revi ew form
select authors by
revi ew form
Figure 47: Review process
The admissions were entered into the system. The system automatically gener-
ated e-mails to the authors including the reviewers’ comments. In these e-Mails
also the comments the reviewer wanted to give to the authors were published.
Then the authors who were accepted could start with the registration. Unfortu-
nately, they had to get a new password for this.
authors registration
authors registration
Conference Committee
Conference Committee
authors
authors
register with
new password
register with
new password
send automated
e-Mail about decision
send automated
e-Mail about decision
Figure 48: Authors’ registration
After the program was planned by the Conference Committee, the registration
for the participants could open at the website. The conference website was
linked directly with the server of SuviSoft so that the information about the par-
ticipants were hosted by SuviSoft. The participants had to select which events
(tututorials, sessions, evening program) they wanted to attend, and if they had
special wishes concerning lunch, like vegetarian food, in which hotel room they
wanted to stay, if there is a partner or guest and could add other special re-
64
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Conference Organisers in Tampere, Finland
quests. After submitting, the system generated an invoice, which was send to
the participant and could be printed out.
participants
participants
registration
registration
choose registration
options
choose registration
options
sessions/tutorials
sessions/tutorials
social program
social program
lunch
lunch
hotel room
hotel room
special request
special request
guest program
guest program
SuviSoft
SuviSoft
generate bill
generate bill
Figure 49: Participants’ registration
For this conference, the hotel booking came late. Most participants already had
registered at the time when the hotel booking system was installed on the web
site. Therefore at that time the participants informed SuviSoft by e-mail which
hotel they wanted. Normally SuviSoft would ask hotels for free rooms. The ho-
tels would provide a number of rooms that SuviSoft could offer on the confer-
ence web site. The system counts down when a participant books a room. After
a deadline SuviSoft would give the names of participants to the hotels. How-
ever most hotels would rather prefer booking by fax, because of the signature.
SuviSoft opened a conference account to which the participants transfer the
conference fee. Also credit card payment was made possible. The Conference
Committee had online invoice control to see who has paid which amount and
could decide how often they want to have the money transferred to their ac-
count.
After the conference SuviSoft finally had to organize the printing of the pro-
ceedings. The authors uploaded their final papers to their account. SuviSoft
transformed all formats to PDF, and an internal designer created a common
style. Sequential page numbering was added, and then the pages were stored at
the SuviSoft server. The print shop downloaded them by FTP and produced the
final proceedings in one to two weeks.
proceedings
proceedings
SuviSoft
SuviSoft
submit
final p aper
submit
final paper
print shop
print shop
transform to PDF/
design
transform to PDF/
design
authors
authors
download and
print proceedings
download and
print proceedi ngs
Figure 50: Printing the proceedings
65
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Summary of Requirements
4 Summary of Requirements
4.1 Strategic level
We shall look at the strategic characteristics and challenges both from an indus-
try perspective and from the perspective of companies’ business models.
Thirdly, we shall look at the strategic characteristics of the mentioned business
relationships. Throughout, we shall look for opportunities and threats brought
about by an E-Business platform such as DBE, resulting in strategic require-
ments to such a platform.
4.1.1 Leisure services and conventions – characteristics and challenges
Leisure services and conventions appear as one fairly strongly connected “op-
portunity space” in our analysis. Holidays and conventions have a few things in
common: Hotels are a major service provider, the customers are mobile, there is
a mix of prior planning of each day’s activities and spontaneous requests. Consum-
ers may have a very different behaviour than at home; the excitement of being
on the road may make them more likely to try out new products and services.
They may have to spend some idle time waiting for the next event or transport
facility (such as waiting in line for the next cable car in a ski resort) which
makes their attention available for watching commercials or for other time-killing
activities. They are in a situation where they are surrounded by strangers and
may want to quickly find other people with similar interests.
Many conventions, as shown, include entertainment – and therefore leisure as-
pects – at evening events.
B2B solutions have been implemented in this opportunity space for a long time.
The most prominent are the big four Global Distribution Systems (GDS), used for
the planning and reservation process which takes place before the event or stay.
These four are Sabre, Galileo, Amadeus, and Worldspan (cf. Das 2002). They were
established by large airlines, and today link travel agencies to all types of tour-
ism service providers, including hotels (mainly large hotels and chains). The
travel agency interviewed in Aragon, Viajes Orienta Siete Mares, connects to
Amadeus and Galileo, which are the two systems with the strongest European
focus.
Recently, the planning and reservation process has benefited immensely from
the Internet revolution. End customers become directly connected, often bypass-
ing the role of the travel agent, and providing a new source of information to other
customers by themselves through evaluations and forum opinions. Newly
available information sources are integrated or have the potential to be inte-
grated, like all kinds of geographically related information (GIS). Customers today
have the possibility to compare hotels based on the proximity and availability
66
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Summary of Requirements
of public transportation to places they want or have to go during their stay.
Many services in the tourism and leisure area are experience goods and therefore
pictures and multimedia are important in communicating the quality of hotels,
museums and other providers to the end customer.
For the established GDS, the Internet has been both an opportunity and a threat.
An opportunity because their established backend functionality and service pro-
vider base are important assets in building online services for end customers.
They have all built their own travel portals such as Expedia and Opodo, thereby
disintermediating travel agencies. A threat because their established technology
was not designed with the Internet in mind, and new entrants with new tech-
nology can be more flexible. The Internet also enables service providers to get in
contact with customers directly, disintermediating the GDS themselves – for
example airlines like Ryanair or hotels through a hotel web site.
In addition, a lot of potential remains for the processes taking place during the
event or stay itself. A fairly simple example is the joint billing and payment service
which the hotels offer to the sports service providers. This service is already
supported by standard accounting software used by hotels, but there is no
standardised electronic communication between the business partners in-
volved.
4.1.2 Business models
From a strategic point of view inspired by fellow project member Neil
Rathbone’s SME codes proposal
3
, Hotels belong to the category of capital-
intensive service businesses. The service is sold at a specific place, and based on
reservations for a certain period in time. It is a seasonal business, hence prices
may systematically vary throughout the year in addition to the price variations
based on the unpredictable fluctuations of demand.
Yield management
4
means using all available information about demand and
supply (free rooms) in the same geographical area in order to determine opti-
mal prices. Many larger hotels have this function integrated into their hotel
management system.
5
However, a common electronic booking service as im-
plemented on top of the DBE has the potential to deliver much more precise
and timely information, thereby improving profits and occupancy. If (almost)
every hotel in a given city uses such a system, it would even become possible to
react to the booking policies of other hotels, e.g. raise prices when other hotels
declare that they are full. This example shows how the introduction of such a
service can have far-reaching consequences, not only by providing information
that was not available previously (hotels will hardly start publishing the actual
3
An overview of his concepts is given at http://www.daventryhouse.com, but no publications are
available.
4
Cf. Baker and Collier (1999), and Badinelli and Olson (1990)
5
One example is Optims.RMS offered by the above-mentioned Amadeus
67
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Summary of Requirements
number of free rooms they have), but even by just making the existing informa-
tion accessible more conveniently.
Conference organizing, on the other hand, could be seen as an example of an on
demand service, where a lot of resource capacity is needed for only a short time,
and all clients (participants) go through the same stages (submission, registra-
tion, etc.) at the same time. Some of the resources (such as the conference web
site software, conference rooms) are quite specific to the business, while other
resources (such as hotel rooms) can be shared with non-conference activities.
As a consequence, resource efficiency in conference organizing means creating
sufficient scale (many conferences) and distributing events throughout the year
so that the resources are used evenly. Where this scale cannot be created, re-
sources must be outsourced or otherwise shared with other providers.
The example shows how most of the necessary resources (web site, venue) are
provided by sub contractors, and, in the case of hotel rooms, short-term excess
demand must be filled by additional providers. For large events, like the exam-
ple, resources must be reserved very early on (sometimes a full year before the
event), and the entire planning is quite complex. Providers will often seek a mix
of large and small events, in addition to special events during otherwise slow
periods.
Information technology can help finding spare resources especially if they are
not bound to one location. It can provide a shared representation of the planned
event to a distributed organising team. There are opportunities to extend the ex-
isting IT services provided by SuviSoft in order to cover the full process in
preparation of, during and after such an event.
All this can be applied also to other businesses with “on demand” characteris-
tics, such as industry fairs, cultural festivals or disaster response.
4.1.3 Business relationships
We can observe that the majority of business relationships in these scenarios are
long-term relationships. One example is that between the Hotel Benasque and
the Sports shop Equipo Barrabés. Hotel Benasque relies on Equipo Barrabés for
the arrangements of sports activities to a high degree: To the customer, it ap-
pears initially as if the hotel is responsible for these activities, so the hotel must
have confidence in the quality of the sports shop and its subcontractors (such as
Radical Snowboard). On the other hand, Equipo Barrabés relies on the hotel to
manage the customer relationship, including notification if the customer does
not “show up”, and including payment.
However, we can also see that the relationship is asymmetrical in one respect:
Equipo Barrabés is the only (or the only stable) provider of this kind of service
to the Hotel Benasque. But Hotel Benasque is only one of several hotels having
this kind of relationship with Equipo Barrabés. This could lead to the conclu-
68
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Summary of Requirements
sion that the sports shop is the dominant partner. But there are several factors
which balance out the relationship:
The hotels own the initial contacts with customers, and the customer rela-
tionship during their stay. This is because customers are used to looking for
accommodation first. If Equipo Barrabés loses the relationship with Hotel
Benasque, it loses all those customers (at least all those who book their
sports activities beforehand).
Hotels are businesses with a capacity which is fixed in the short to medium
term, with considerable investments necessary to expand it. A sports shop
can more easily expand its own services – selling more items, hiring more
tour guides, etc. Even if it somehow manages to attract more customers by
itself, these customers have to stay somewhere. So it can only expand by
keeping all existing relationships with hotels in the vicinity, and either add-
ing more hotels to them or increasing the sports intensity of tourism in the
area.
In short, if Equipo Barrabés decides not to work with some hotel, it likely hurts
itself much more than it hurts the hotel.
The question remains why the hotel chooses to exclusively work with one
sports shop. There are several potential reasons:
Equipo Barrabés could be the only sports shop in town. This could in turn
be explained by the fact that there are fixed costs and/or economies of scale
associated with operating a sports shop (like having a certain minimal in-
ventory).
Equipo Barrabés uses legal, but effectively anti-competitive tactics (like cer-
tain discount schemes) to encourage hotels to work exclusively with it or to
discourage the creation of any competing shops.
There are other shops and it would be economically advantageous for the
hotel to work with several instead of just one, but Mr. Panart, the Hotel’s
manager, avoids the time and mental energy necessary to manage several
relationships (he does not behave as a fully rational economic agent).
There are certain costs (transaction costs) associated with each business re-
lationship, for example supervising the quality of the service, integrating
the IT systems in order to enable the centralized payment.
Only the last two reasons would potentially be affected by the availability of
something like the DBE, and the relationship could become more ad-hoc.
A pattern that may be identified in the scenarios above is that businesses will
often rely on established relationships when demands have to be met quickly;
new suppliers are contacted more often when there is enough time to evaluate
them, and perhaps also involve them in some low-risk small-scale activity
which serves as a test.
Any B2B platform like DBE must make a conscious decision whether to focus
on ad-hoc relationships or long-term relationships, or provide support for both.
The currently implemented infrastructure concentrates on ad-hoc relationships:
The Business Modelling Language currently describes businesses mainly for the
69
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Summary of Requirements
purposes of discovery in the Semantic Registry. However, the service-oriented
architecture implemented by the execution environment would allow imple-
menting services which cater to long-term relationships in the future.
This supposed prevalence of rather complex long-term relationships poses a
challenge to all those services of DBE which rely on a more or less complete
representation of an SME’s business relationships (e.g. automatically identify-
ing new needs, suggest new business partners, etc.) – since there is little incen-
tive to take the time to document these relationships, elicit and formalise the
factors and client needs that led to their creation, etc.
4.2 Business process level
This section highlights some of the more unexpected characteristics of the busi-
ness processes described, which can provide input to a discussion about fea-
tures which may be needed for the B2B platform. The rather well-known func-
tions or features of B2B exchange are:
Supplier directory (who delivers what)
Catalogue management (exchange of product and service catalogue)
Product classification (shared numbering, classification and attribute
schemes)
Product configuration
Ordering, Delivery, Billing, Payment
Request for Proposal (RfP), Request for Quotation (RfQ) – see the confer-
ence organiser case, for example
Product returns and reimbursements
Rebates
It goes without saying that the SMEs interviewed and SMEs in general have not
even implemented these well-known functions where applicable, and offering
them a cost-efficient, easy to configure solution adapted to their industry even
only for these functions would bring great benefits.
4.2.1 Service aggregation requirements
Several of the service providers mentioned perform service aggregating func-
tions. For the travel agency, this is the core of its business, for the hotel and
sports shop, it is just an added service.
The aggregation involves several activities, such as
Informing about the existence of or even recommending the added services
Booking added services
Informing the other service providers about the client’s characteristics
Collecting payments on behalf of the other service providers
All these activities can be made more efficient through IT networks.
70
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
Summary of Requirements
4.2.2 Demand aggregation requirements
The hiking trips organised by Equipo Barrabés and the ski courses offered by
Radical Snowboard show the need for demand aggregation. These events can
only take place if they have a minimum number of participants, and when an
individual client contact does not book enough people, these service providers
look for other participants and try to find a convenient date for everybody.
Needless to say, this process can be complex and time-consuming, and could
benefit from being accessible to all participants through a web page (however,
this kind of B2C function is out of scope for DBE).
4.2.3 Shared client records or profiles?
Both the service aggregation and demand aggregation needs could possibly be
met with the help of a shared client record or profile. In the case of service ag-
gregation, it would avoid having to enter the client’s name, address and other
characteristics several times (into the backend systems of each service pro-
vider). In the demand aggregation case, there could be a centrally managed cal-
endar of all events during the client’s stay; it would also be easier for the client
to access all information concerning the entire stay through one interface. The
concept could be carried further towards “collaborative CRM”, where several
service providers collaborate in managing the client relationship. However, this
kind of sharing might not be legal under some consumer privacy legislations, or
be rejected by clients if they are given a choice.
4.3 Conclusion
Our study leisure services and conference organisation has revealed interesting
use cases of collaboration between different SMEs and other organisations, with
complex planning processes, needs to spontaneously respond to customer re-
quests or other events, and even the need to coordinate or match several cus-
tomers with each other.
B2B solutions in this area must certainly start by supporting the core E-
Commerce processes of product and service directories, ordering, fulfilment, billing
and payment. This core area is well-understood and already implemented by
current providers. On the Internet, customer reviews are also already establish-
hed. There remains a lot of potential innovation towards mobile services, Geo-
graphical information services, on-demand services, and supporting social in-
teractions between customers.
71
D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
References
5 References
Badinelli, Ralph D. and Michael D. Olsen: Hotel Yield Management Using Optimal Decision Rules.
Journal of the international academy of hospitality research. November, 1990. Available
from: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JIAHR/issue1/
Baker, Timothy Kevin and Collier, David A: A comparative revenue analysis of hotel yield man-
agement heuristics. Decision Sciences, Winter 1999. Available from:
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3713/is_199901/ai_n8828483
Das, Samipatra: Global Distribution Systems in Present Times. Report by HVS international. 30
September 2002. http://www.hospitalitynet.org/news//4013406.html.
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D15.7.2 Use Cases and Requirements
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