The wall surrounding the
old city of Jerusalem
c. 1800 B.C.
leads his peo-
ple to Canaan
c. 1290 B.C.
Moses leads
from Egypt
722 B.C.
Jews revolt
2000 B.C. 1300 B.C. 600 B.C. A.D. 100
2000 B.C. 1300 B.C. 600 B.C. A.D. 100
76–77 Anthony Pidgeon/Lonely Planet Images
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Chapter Preview
Like the Sumerians, the ancient Israelites developed a society
based on ideas of justice and strict laws. The Israelites believed
that there was only one God.
View the Chapter 3 video in the World History: Journey
Across Time Video Program.
Chapter Overview Visit for a preview
of Chapter 3.
The First Israelites
The 12 tribes of Israel in the land of Canaan traced their
ancestry to Abraham. The Israelites believed in one God.
The Kingdom of Israel
Under David and Solomon, the people of Israel built a
powerful kingdom with a new capital in Jerusalem.
The Growth of Judaism
The Jews continued to keep their religion even though
other people ruled them. They settled in many places in
Asia, Europe, and Africa.
Summarizing Information Make this foldable and use it to organize note cards
with information about the Israelites.
Reading and Writing
As you read the chapter,
summarize key facts on
note cards or on quarter
sheets of paper about
Israel and the growth
and spread of Judaism.
Organize your notes
by placing them in
your pocket foldable
inside the appropriate
Step 1 Fold a horizontal
sheet of paper (11”x17”)
into thirds.
Step 2 Fold the bottom edge up two inches and
crease well. Glue the outer edges of the tab to
create three pockets.
Step 3 Label the pockets
as shown. Use these
pockets to hold notes taken
on index cards or quarter
sheets of paper.
076-079 CO3-875047 9/19/06 9:43 PM Page 77
Main Idea
Finding the Main Idea
Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph,
section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples
that explain the main idea. Read the following paragraph from
Section 1 and notice how the author explains the main idea.
The main idea is identified for you. The supporting details are
highlighted in color.
Through trade, the
Phoenicians spread ideas
and goods. One of their
most important ideas was
an alphabet, or a group of
letters that stood for
sounds. The letters could
be used to spell out the
words in their language.
—from page 85
Often, the first sentence
in a paragraph will con-
tain a main idea, and
supporting details will
come in following sen-
tences. However, main
ideas can also appear
in the middle or at the
end of a paragraph.
Main idea
076-079 CO3-824133 3/10/04 1:32 AM Page 78
Choose one of the
listed on
page 93. Use it as a
topic sentence, and add
supporting details to
create a full paragraph.
Read to Write
As you read Chapter 3, create your
own graphic organizer to show the
main idea and supporting details
from at least one paragraph.
Main Idea
While in Babylon, small groups of
Jews met on the Sabbath. This was
their weekly day of worship and rest.
The Jewish Sabbath goes from sun-
down Friday to sundown Saturday.
These weekly meetings took place at
synagogues, or Jewish houses of wor-
ship. The synagogue meetings gave
the people hope.
from page 94
Create a Graphic
Read the following paragraph. Draw a graphic organ-
izer like the one shown below. Write the main ideas in a
box and supporting details in circles around the box.
076-079 CO3-875047 9/13/06 12:28 PM Page 79
80 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
What’s the Connection?
You have read how the Egyptians
built a great civilization. At about
the same time, another nation was
forming. The Egyptians called the
people of this nation habiru, or
foreigners. The people called
themselves Israelites or the Children
of Israel.
Focusing on the
The Israelites believed in one God
who set down moral laws for his
people. They recorded their history
in the Hebrew Bible.
(page 81)
The Israelites had to fight the
Canaanites to return to their
promised land.
(page 84)
Locating Places
Canaan (KAYnuhn)
Mount Sinai (SYNY)
Meeting People
Building Your Vocabulary
covenant (KUHVnuhnt)
Reading Strategy
Sequencing Information Create
a sequence chart to help trace the
movement of the Israelites.
c. 1290 B.C.
Moses leads
Israelites from
c. 1000 B.C.
David makes
Jerusalem the
capital of Israel
c. 1125 B.C.
Deborah defeats
1400 B.C. 1200 B.C. 1000 B.C.
1400 B.C. 1200 B.C. 1000 B.C.
080-085 C3S1-875047 9/13/06 12:31 PM Page 80
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 81
The Early Israelites
The Israelites believed in one God who
set down moral laws for his people. They recorded
their history in the Hebrew Bible.
Reading Focus Where do your ideas about right
and wrong come from? Read on to find out how the
Israelites developed their ideas about right and wrong.
About 1200 B.C., great changes took
place around the Mediterranean Sea.
Empires fell and new people entered the
region. Many set up small kingdoms.
Around 1000 B.C., a people called Israelites
(IHZruh LYTS) built a kingdom in Canaan
(KAY nuhn). Canaan lies along the
Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia.
Who Were the Israelites? Although the
Israelite population was small, the religion
they practiced would one day affect most
of the world. Most people at this time
worshiped many gods and goddesses. The
Israelite religion focused on only one God.
The belief in one God is called monotheism
(MAHnuh theeIH zuhm).
The Israelite faith became the religion
known today as Judaism (JOO dee IH
zuhm). The followers of Judaism were even-
tually known as Jews. Judaism influenced
Christianity and Islam, and also helped
shape the beliefs and practices of societies
in Europe and America.
The Israelites spoke a language called
Hebrew. They wrote down much of their
history and many of their religious beliefs
in what later became the Hebrew Bible. In
general, the Hebrew Bible is what
Christians call the Old Testament. Through
this book, Jewish values and religion later
spread to Europe.
The earliest Israelites were herders and
traders. According to the Hebrew Bible,
they came from Mesopotamia and settled in
This painting shows Abraham leading the
Israelites from Mesopotamia to Canaan. Why
did the Israelites eventually leave Canaan?
Canaan. Today, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan
occupy the land that was once Canaan.
The Israelites believed they were
descended from a man named Abraham.
The Hebrew Bible says that God told
Abraham and his followers to leave
Mesopotamia and go to Canaan. There,
they were to worship the one true God. In
return, God promised that the land of
Canaan would belong to Abraham and his
descendants. According to the Hebrew
Bible, this is the reason that the Israelites
settled in Canaan.
Abraham had a grandson named Jacob.
Jacob was also called Israel, which means
“one who struggles with God.” Later this
name was given to Jacob’s descendants.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Jacob
raised 12 sons in Canaan. His family was
divided into tribes, or separate family
groups. These groups later became known
as the 12 tribes of Israel. The Israelites lived
in Caanan for about 100 years. Then a long
drought began. Crops withered and live-
stock died. To survive, some Israelites went
to Egypt.
Tom Lovell/National Geographic Society Image Collection
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From Slavery to Freedom Life was not
good in Egypt. The Egyptian pharaoh
needed men to build his pyramids, so he
enslaved the Israelites. To prevent a rebel-
lion he ordered all baby boys born to
Israelites thrown into the Nile River.
The Hebrew Bible says that one desper-
ate mother put her baby in a basket and hid
it on the riverbank. The pharaoh’s daughter
found the baby and named him Moses.
When Moses grew up, he tended sheep
outside Egypt. Around 1290
B.C., he saw a
burning bush and heard a voice. He
believed that God was telling him to lead
the Israelites out of Egypt to freedom.
To get the pharaoh to let the Israelites
go, the Hebrew Bible says that God sent 10
plagues to trouble Egypt. The last plague
God sent killed all first-born children,
except for those of Israelites who marked
their doorway with lamb’s blood. This
plague convinced the pharaoh to let the
Israelites leave.
In this painting, Moses watches as the Red Sea closes in on the
Egyptian soldiers who were pursuing the Israelites. What is the
Israelites’ escape from Egypt called?
82 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
Jews celebrating
Passover today
As Israelites headed east out of Egypt,
the pharaoh changed his mind and sent his
army after the Israelites. According to the
Hebrew Bible, God parted the Red Sea to let
his people pass. When the Egyptians fol-
lowed, the water flowed back and drowned
the soldiers. The Israelite escape from
Egyptian slavery is known as the Exodus.
Jews today celebrate a holy day called
Passover to remember these events.
What Are the Ten Commandments? On
their way back to Canaan, the Israelites
had to travel through the Sinai desert. The
Hebrew Bible says that during this jour-
ney, Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai
(SY NY). There, he received laws from God.
These laws were known as the Torah
(TOHR uh). They later became the first part
of the Hebrew Bible. The Torah described a
(KUHV nuhnt), or agreement,
with God in which God promised to return
the Israelites to Canaan if they followed
his laws.
Moses and the Ten Commandments
Moses and the Ten Commandments
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The Torah explained what
God considered to be right and
wrong. One important part of the
Torah is the Ten Commandments.
They are summarized in the feature to
the right. The Ten Commandments
told the Israelites to be loyal only to
God, whose name was never to be
spoken. They must never worship any
other gods or images. The belief that there
should be only one God became the founda-
tion for both Christianity and Islam.
The Ten Commandments helped shape
the basic moral laws of many nations. The
Ten Commandments told people not to
steal, murder, or tell lies about others. They
told people to avoid jealousy and to honor
their parents. The Ten Commandments also
helped develop a belief in the “rule of law.”
This is the idea that laws should apply to
everyone equally.
What covenant was
described in the Torah?
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 83
The Ten
According to the Hebrew Bible, Moses
received the Ten Commandments and other
laws from God on Mount Sinai. Moses and
the Israelites promised to follow these laws.
1. Do not worship any god except me.
2. Do not ...bow down and worship idols.
3. Do not misuse my name.
4. Remember the Sabbath Day and keep it
5. Honor your father and your mother.
6. Do not murder.
7. Be faithful in marriage.
8. Do not steal.
9. Do not tell lies about others.
10. Do not want anything that
belongs to someone else.
—Paraphrased from Exodus 20:3-17
1. How many of the commandments
tell people how to interact with other
2. How many tell them how to worship
and show respect for God?
Mount Sinai
Moses with the
Ten Commandments
The Ark of the Covenant was a
wooden chest, which, according to
Jewish beliefs, held the Ten
How did the Ten Commandments
help shape the basic moral laws of
many European nations?
(t)The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, (c)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (b)Laura Zito/Photo Researchers
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The Promised Land
The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites
to return to their promised land.
Reading Focus What qualities do you think a good
leader should have? Read on to find out about the lead-
ers of the Israelites.
It probably took the Israelites about
40 years to reach Canaan. Moses never
lived to see the Promised Land. After Moses
died, a leader named Joshua took over and
brought the Israelites into Canaan. When
they arrived, however, they found other
people living there. Most were Canaanites
(KAY nuh NYTS). The Israelites believed it
was God’s will that they conquer the
Canaanites, so Joshua led them into battle.
The story of the campaign is told in the
Hebrew Bible. Joshua led the Israelites to
the city of Jericho and told them to march
around the city’s walls. For six days, they
marched while seven priests blew their
trumpets. On the seventh day, the trumpets
sounded one last time, and Joshua told the
Israelites to raise a great shout. According
84 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
According to the Hebrew Bible story, the
walls of Jericho came down as the trumpets
of the Israelites sounded. Who led the
Israelites in their return to Canaan?
The town of Jericho today
to the story, the walls of Jericho crumbled,
and the Israelites overran the city.
Joshua led the Israelites in three more
wars. The land they seized was divided
among the 12 tribes.
Who Were the Judges? After Joshua died,
the Israelites looked to judges for leader-
ship. A judge was usually a military leader.
Generally, he or she commanded 1 or 2
tribes, but seldom all 12. The Hebrew Bible
tells about Barak, Gideon, Samuel, Eli,
Samson, and others, including a woman
judge. Her name was Deborah.
Deborah told Barak to attack the army
of the Canaanite king Jabin. She went along
to the battlefield as an adviser. With
Deborah’s help, Barak and 10,000 Israelites
destroyed King Jabin and his army in about
1125 B.C.
Over time, the Israelites won control
of the hilly region in central Canaan. The
Canaanites kept the flat, coastal areas. To
protect themselves, the Israelites built
walled towns. They also created an alphabet
and a calendar based on Canaanite ideas.
The Phoenician Alphabet One group of
Canaanites, the Phoenicians (fih NEE
shuhns), lived in cities along the Mediterranean
(l)Mary Evans Picture Library, (r)Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS
080-085 C3S1-875047 9/13/06 12:36 PM Page 84
Reading Summary
Review the
Led by Abraham, the Israelites
settled in Canaan. They later
moved to Egypt and were
enslaved, but then escaped.
The Israelites used the Ten
Commandments as rules to
live by.
Joshua and the judges, including
Deborah, won back territory in
central Canaan for the Israelites.
1. Why was the religion of Israel
unique in the ancient world?
2. What is the Torah, and how did
the Israelites obtain it?
Critical Thinking
3. Summarizing Information
Use a web diagram like the one
below to list the parts of
Jewish religion that are still
important in our society.
What was the
importance of the Phoenician
Summarize What problems
did the Israelites face when
they returned to Canaan?
Expository Writing Which
one of the Ten Commandments
do you think is most important
today? Write a short essay to
explain your selection.
Main Idea Write
a paragraph by adding support-
ing details to this main idea:
The Phoenician alphabet
had an impact on many
What Did You Learn?
Study Central™ Need help with the
material in this section? Visit
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 85
Sea. The Phoenicians were skilled
sailors and traders. Their ships
carried goods across the
Mediterranean to Greece, Spain,
and even western Africa.
Through trade, the Phoenicians
spread ideas and goods. One of
their most important ideas was
an alphabet, or a group of letters
that stood for sounds. The letters
could be used to spell out the
words in their language.
The alphabet made writing
simpler and helped people keep
records. The Phoenicians brought
the idea of an alphabet to the
Greeks. They, in turn, passed it on to the
Romans. Most Western alphabets are based
on the Roman alphabet.
Who led the
Israelites into Canaan, and what city did they
conquer under his leadership?
The Phoenician idea of an alphabet was
passed on to the Greeks and then the Romans.
It is the basis for the English alphabet today.
Which modern letter most closely resembles
its Phoenician character?
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86 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
What’s the Connection?
In Section 1, you read about
the constant fighting between the
Israelites and the Canaanites. The
tribes of Israel longed for peace.
Many thought the way to peace
was to unite as one nation.
Focusing on the
The Israelites chose a king to unite
them against their enemies.
(page 87)
King David built an Israelite empire
and made Jerusalem his capital city.
(page 89)
The Israelites were conquered and
forced to leave Israel and Judah.
(page 90)
Locating Places
Jerusalem (juhROOsuhluhm)
Judah (JOOduh)
Meeting People
Philistine (FIHluhSTEEN)
Saul (SAWL)
Building Your Vocabulary
prophet (PRAHfuht)
empire (EHMPYR)
tribute (TRIHbyoot)
proverb (PRAHVUHRB)
Reading Strategy
Categorizing Information Complete
a chart like the one below identifying
characteristics of Israel and Judah.
Capital City
Date Conquered
Conquered By
c. 1000 B.C.
becomes king
722 B.C.
conquer Israel
597 B.C.
captures Jerusalem
1000 B.C. 750 B.C. 500 B.C.
1000 B.C. 750 B.C. 500 B.C.
086-092 C3S2-875047 9/13/06 12:37 PM Page 86
Web Activity Visit and click
on Chapter 3—Student Web Activity to learn
more about the ancient Israelites.
The Israelites Choose a King
The Israelites chose a king to unite
them against their enemies.
Reading Focus What does “united we stand, divided
we fall” mean to you? Read on to find out what it meant
to the 12 tribes of Israel.
Around 1000 B.C., the strongest people
living in Canaan were not the Israelites,
but the Philistines (FIH luhSTEENS). The
Philistines had strong cities, and they knew
how to make iron tools and weapons.
According to the Hebrew Bible, some
Israelites began copying the Philistine reli-
gion. It suggests the Israelites began to
think they needed a king of their own to
prevent this problem. They probably
believed a king would unite the tribes and
help them fight off the Philistines.
The Rule of King Saul Around 1020 B.C.
the Israelites asked Samuel to choose a
king. Samuel was a judge and a prophet
(PRAHfuht). A prophet is a person who the
ancient Israelites thought was instructed by
God. Samuel warned that a king would tax
the Israelites and make them slaves. The
Israelites still demanded a king, so they
chose a warrior-farmer named Saul (SAWL).
Samuel anointed Saul as king. In other
words, he blessed him with oil to show that
God had chosen him. Saul was tall and
handsome and had won many battles.
Saul defeated the Israelites’ enemies in
battle after battle. However, according to
the Hebrew Bible, the king displeased God
by disobeying some of his commands. God
then chose another king and instructed
Samuel to anoint him in secret. The new
king was a young shepherd named David.
Why did the
Israelites want a king?
According to the Hebrew Bible, David had to be
called in from the fields where he was tending
his sheep when Samuel arrived to anoint him.
Why did God have Samuel anoint David?
Mary Evans Picture Library
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Reigned c. 1000–970
The story of David’s life is told in several books of the
Hebrew Bible, including Samuel I and II and Psalms. During his
youth, David worked as an aide in King Saul’s court. While at
court, he formed a close friendship with the king’s son,
Jonathan. David fought courageously against the Philistines as
a soldier in Saul’s army. He also killed the Philistine giant,
Goliath, with only a slingshot and stones. The first book of
Samuel tells how David’s harp playing pleased King Saul.
But the king grew jealous of David’s friendship with Jonathan
and of David’s growing popularity as a brave soldier.
To save his own life, David fled into the desert. During
this time, David led a group of other outlaws. David and
his band protected people from raiders and returned
possessions that had been stolen. By the time David
returned to Jerusalem, he was well-known throughout
the land.
After the death of King Saul, according to the Hebrew Bible, David became the second
king of Israel. David successfully united all the tribes of Israel. He then conquered
Jerusalem and made it the kingdom’s capital. During his
reign, David built Israel into an empire and dominated
neighboring kingdoms.
David was not only a brave warrior and successful
leader, he was also a talented poet. Many of the hymns
in the Hebrew Bible’s Book of Psalms have been credited to
David, including Psalm 23, which begins “The Lord is
my shepherd, I shall not want; he makes me lie down
in green pastures. He leads me beside still waters; he
restores my soul. He leads me in paths of righteousness
for his name’s sake.”
In David’s time, kings were expected to excel
in battle. Conduct research to find at least
three U.S. presidents who built their
reputations in the military.
David versus Goliath
King David
“The sweet psalmist
of Israel”
—David, 2 Samuel 23:1
(t)Bettmann/CORBIS, (b)Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library
086-092 C3S2-875047 9/13/06 12:39 PM Page 88
David and Solomon
King David built an Israelite empire and
made Jerusalem his capital city.
Reading Focus What person do you think was most
important in the history of the United States? Read to
learn why King David is so important to the history of
the Jewish people.
Even before he became king of Israel,
David was known for his bravery and lead-
ership. In the Hebrew Bible, the story of
David and Goliath describes how he
became famous. Before a battle against the
Philistines, a giant Philistine named Goliath
dared any Israelite to fight him one-on-one.
David stepped forward with his shepherd’s
staff, a slingshot, and five smooth stones.
Goliath roared and rushed forward with
a heavy spear. David hurled one stone
straight at the giant’s forehead, and Goliath
dropped dead on the spot.
Saul put David in charge of the army. As
his victories grew, Israelite women sang his
praises. “Saul has slain his thousands, and
David his ten thousands.” Saul grew envi-
ous and plotted to kill David.
David hid out in enemy territory until
Saul and his three sons were killed in battle.
The bitter rivalry was over. David was able
to take the throne in about 1000 B.C.
Once in power, according to the Hebrew
Bible, David drove the Philistines from the
area. He conquered other neighboring
nations and created an empire (EHM PYR).
An empire is a nation that rules several
other nations. Conquered peoples had to
pay David tribute (TRIHbyoot). Tribute is
money or slaves given to a stronger ruler.
David made the Israelites pay heavy
taxes. He needed money to expand Israel’s
capital, Jerusalem (juh ROO suhluhm). He
wanted a fine temple there so that sacred
religious objects cherished by the Israelites
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 89
would finally have a permanent home.
David died before he built the temple, but
the Israelites remembered him as their
greatest king, as do Jews today.
The Rule of King Solomon When David
died, his son Solomon (SAHL uh muhn)
became king. It was Solomon who built a
splendid stone temple in Jerusalem. It
became the symbol and center of the
Jewish religion. In the Hebrew Bible,
Solomon was known for his wise sayings,
or proverbs (PRAH VUHRBS
but many
Israelites hated his rule. Solomon taxed the
people to pay for his great buildings.
Solomon’s proverbs are recorded in the
Hebrew Bible. Read these three, then answer
the question.
“What you gain by
doing evil won’t help
you at all, but being
good can save you
from death.
At harvest season
it’s smart to work
hard, but [unwise]
to sleep.
You will be safe,
if you always do
right, but you will
get caught, if you
are dishonest.
—Proverbs 10: 2, 5, 9
How would the third proverb above
convince people to tell the truth?
King Solomon
Stock Montage/SuperStock
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The Israelites in the north were espe-
cially unhappy with Solomon. To get more
money, Solomon had made many of their
young men work in the mines of a neigh-
boring country.
When Solomon died, the northerners
rebelled and fighting broke out. Ten of the
12 tribes set up their own nation in the north.
It was called the kingdom of Israel, and its
capital was Samaria. In the south, the other
two tribes founded the smaller kingdom of
Judah (JOOduh). Its capital was Jerusalem,
and its people were called Jews.
Why did Solomon
tax the people so heavily?
A Troubled Time
The Israelites were conquered and
forced to leave Israel and Judah.
Reading Focus Have you ever moved and left a home
you loved? Read to find out why many Israelites were
forced to leave their home.
While the Israelites were dividing their
kingdom, the Assyrians and Chaldeans
(kal DEE uhns) were building empires in
southwest Asia. These peoples wanted to
control the trade routes that ran through the
Israelite kingdoms. Small and weak, the
kingdoms of Israel and Judah felt threat-
ened by their powerful neighbors.
The temple built by Solomon was thought
to be about 180 feet long. It contained
large quantities of imported cedar wood
and fine stone. Why did some Israelites
become unhappy with Solomon?
100 km
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area
100 mi.
After the death of Solomon, the
Israelites split into two kingdoms—
Israel and Judah.
1. Which kingdom lost access to
the Mediterranean?
2. Which kingdom shares a border
with Phoenicia?
Find NGS online map resources @
Kingdom of Israel
Kingdom of Judah
Ancient Israel
086-092 C3S2-875047 9/13/06 12:42 PM Page 90
Time PeriodName
874–840 B.C.
597–571 B.C.
626–586 B.C.
735–700 B.C.
738–700 B.C.
750–722 B.C.
780–740 B.C.
Only God should be worshiped—not idols
or false gods.
Both rich and poor have to do what is right
and follow God.
The kingdom of King David will be restored
and will prosper.
God is loving and forgiving.
God wants us to help others and promote justice.
God is just and kind—he rewards as well as
Someone who has done wrong can choose
to change.
Hebrew Prophets
Hebrew Prophets
Who Were the Prophets? During this
troubled time, people who became known
as prophets brought hope to the kingdom
of Israel. The prophets emphasized that
people should please God by leading a
moral life and helping others. Their special
message was that being faithful meant
more than going to a temple to worship. It
meant working for a just society. The
prophet Amos said that justice should “roll
down like waters and righteousness as a
mighty stream.” The Jewish goal of a just
society also became an important part of
Christianity and Islam.
What Caused the Fall of Israel? The war-
like Assyrians were feared everywhere in
the region. When they conquered a nation,
the Assyrians destroyed its main buildings
and scattered the population. Assyrians
then settled in the territory.
In 722 B.C. the Assyrians conquered
Israel and scattered the 10 tribes across their
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 91
The Israelites believed that God shared his
word with them through a series of prophets.
1. Which prophet taught that both the rich and
the poor needed to obey God’s word?
2. Compare What do the teachings of Isaiah,
Micah, and Ezekiel have in common?
empire. Over time, the Israelites who were
forced to move lost contact with those who
remained in Israel and Judah. Historians do
not yet know what happened to these
tribes. They are often called the “lost tribes
of Israel.”
The Assyrians brought people from
elsewhere in their empire to live in Samaria.
These settlers mixed with the surviving
Israelites who had not been killed or forced
to move. A new culture developed and the
people became known as Samaritans.
The Samaritans adopted many Israelite
beliefs. They worshiped the God of Israel,
read the Torah, and followed the Israelites’
religious laws. Over time their religious
practices developed separately, and they
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Reading Summary
Review the
Saul was the first king of the
Israelites. He united the 12 tribes
into one kingdom.
King David built an Israelite
empire and made Jerusalem
his capital. Solomon built a
great temple at Jerusalem, but
after he died, the Israelites
split into two kingdoms—Israel
and Judah.
The Assyrians and then the
Chaldeans conquered Israel and
Judah, and forced many Israelites
to leave their homeland.
1. Why was David anointed king
while Saul was still in charge
of the Israelites?
2. Who were the prophets, and
why were they important to
the Israelites?
Critical Thinking
3. Compare Draw a chart like
the one below. Use it to com-
pare the accomplishments of
King David and King Solomon.
Summarize What happened
to the Israelites after the death
of Solomon?
Describe Who were the
Infer Why do you think
the Assyrians, and later the
Chaldeans, moved Jews
away from Israel and Judah
after those areas were
Main Idea
Choose one paragraph from the
Biography on page 88. Create
a graphic organizer to show
the main idea and supporting
details in that paragraph.
What Did You Learn?
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92 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
had little contact. Judaism developed from
the religious practices of the tribes of Judah.
Why Did Judah Fall? Now, only the small
kingdom of Judah was left of the once
proud empire of David. It did not last long,
because the Egyptians conquered it about
620 B.C. The Jews were able to keep their
king but paid tribute to Egypt.
However, Egyptian rule was cut short
when the Chaldeans conquered Egypt in
605 B.C. The Chaldeans became the new
rulers of Judah. At first, the Chaldeans
treated the Israelites like the Egyptians had
before. They allowed the Jews to keep their
king as long as they paid tribute.
Several years later, the Jews united with
the Egyptians to rebel against the Chaldeans.
Judah held out against the Chaldean
invasion until 597 B.C. That year, King
(NEH byuh kuhd NEH
zuhr) of the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem.
He punished the Jews severely. He made
10,000 Jews leave the city and live in
Babylon, the Chaldean capital. Then he
appointed a new Jewish king.
Soon the new king of Judah was plan-
ning a revolt against the Chaldeans. A
prophet named Jeremiah warned him that
another revolt was dangerous, but the king
did not listen. In 586 B.C. he revolted. This
time, the Chaldean ruler crushed Jerusalem.
He destroyed the temple, bound the king in
chains, and took him and thousands of Jews
to Babylon. In Jewish history, this time
became known as the Babylonian Captivity.
Why did the
Assyrians and Chaldeans want to control the land
belonging to the Israelites?
086-092 C3S2-875047 9/13/06 12:44 PM Page 92
What’s the Connection?
In Section 2, you learned that the
Chaldeans forced thousands of Jews
to go to Babylon. Life in Babylon was
very difficult. Many of Judah’s people
looked to their religion for hope and
Focusing on the
The Jews continued their religion
during their exile in Babylon.
(page 94)
Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek
world and regained control of Judah.
(page 95)
Religion shaped the Jewish way of
(page 97)
Under Roman rule, the Jews were
divided and rebellious. In response,
the Romans destroyed the temple
and exiled the Jews.
(page 100)
Locating Places
Babylon (BAbuhluhn)
Meeting People
Judas Maccabeus
(JOOduhs MAKuhBEEuhs)
Herod (HEHRuhd)
Zealot (ZEHluht)
Yohanan ben Zaccai
(YOHkahnahn behnzahKY)
Building Your Vocabulary
exile (EHGZYL)
Sabbath (SAbuhth)
synagogue (SIHnuhGAHG)
Diaspora (dyASpruh)
messiah (muhSYuh)
rabbi (RABY)
Reading Strategy
Summarizing Information Use a
diagram like the one below to describe
the Maccabees.
538 B.C.
Cyrus allows Jews
to return to Judah
168 B.C.
Judas Maccabeus
rebels against Antiochus
Jews revolt
against Romans
600 B.C. 250 B.C. A.D. 100
600 B.C. 250 B.C. A.D. 100
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 93
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Exile and Return
The Jews continued their religion during
their exile in Babylon.
Reading Focus Have you ever learned something
important by experiencing a hardship? Read on to find
out what lessons the Jews learned from hard times.
The Jews called their time in Babylon
(BA buh luhn) an exile (EHG ZYL). This
means they were forced to leave their
homeland. During their exile, the Israelite
religion became what we call Judaism.
While in Babylon, small groups of Jews
met on the Sabbath (SA buhth). This was
their weekly day of worship and rest. The
Jewish Sabbath goes from sundown Friday
to sundown Saturday. These weekly meet-
ings took place at synagogues (SIH nuh
GAHGS), or Jewish houses of worship. The
synagogue meetings gave the people hope.
Why Did Jews Return to Judah? During
the 500s
B.C., a group of people called
Persians swept across southwest Asia. The
Persians defeated the Chaldeans and took
over Babylon. In 538
B.C. the Persian king
Cyrus permitted Jews to return to Judah.
Some Jews stayed in Babylon, but many
went home. They rebuilt Jerusalem and the
temple. Cyrus appointed officials to rule the
country and collected taxes from the peo-
ple. The Persians did not allow the Jews to
have their own government or king, so the
Jews depended mainly on their religious
leaders—not temple priests and scribes—to
run their society.
Many scribes became religious scholars.
Under a scribe named Ezra, the Jews wrote
the five books of the Torah on pieces of parch-
ment. They sewed the pieces together to make
long scrolls. The Torah and writings that were
added later made up the Hebrew Bible.
Torah scrolls are carried in decorated cases
such as this one from the main synagogue
in Jerusalem. What larger text is made up
of the Torah and other important writing?
A rabbi reads
from the Torah.
Torah scrolls
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The Jews and the Greeks
Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek
world and regained control of Judah.
Reading Focus How do you show loyalty to friends
and family? In the following paragraphs, you’ll learn
how Jews showed loyalty to their religion and country.
In 334 B.C. a king named Alexander the
Great set out to conquer kingdoms in west-
ern Asia. In 331 B.C. his armies defeated the
Persians, so Judah came under his control.
Fortunately, Alexander allowed the Jews to
stay in Judah. However, Alexander, who
loved all things Greek, introduced the
Greek language and Greek ways to Judah.
What Was the Diaspora? At the time,
Jews were living throughout Alexander’s
empire. Many still lived in Babylon. Some
lived in Egypt and other lands bordering
the Mediterranean Sea. The scattering of the
Jews outside of Israel and Judah became
known as the Diaspora (dy AS pruh).
What Is in the Hebrew Bible? The Hebrew
Bible is really a series of 34 books collected
together. The Torah, the Prophets, and the
Writings that were added later make up the
Hebrew Bible. Some of these books describe
events in Jewish history. Others are books
of poetry, literature, and proverbs.
For example Genesis, the first book of
the Torah, tells how God punished the
world for its bad behavior. In Genesis, God
tells Noah to build an ark, or large boat.
Noah, his family, and two of every animal
on Earth boarded the ark. Then a great
flood covered the land, and only those on
the ark escaped drowning. After the flood,
God created a rainbow as a symbol of his
promise to never again destroy the world
with a flood.
Genesis also explains why the world
has languages. It tells how the people of
Babel tried to build a tower to heaven. God
disapproved and made the people speak in
different languages, then scattered them
across the earth.
The Jews Look to the Future Parts of the
Hebrew Bible describe God’s plan for a
peaceful future. The book of Daniel
addresses this issue. Daniel lived in
Babylon and was a trusted adviser
of the king. However, he refused to
worship Babylonian gods. The
Chaldeans threw Daniel into a
lion’s den, but God protected
Daniel from the lions. The story
was meant to remind Jews that
God would rescue them.
The Jews believed that evil and
suffering would eventually be
replaced by goodness. Christians
and Muslims share this idea of
good triumphing over evil.
Identify Who
allowed the Jews to return to Judah?
According to the Hebrew Bible, Daniel was
thrown into a lion’s den for refusing to worship
the Babylonian gods. God, however, kept Daniel
safe from the lions. What lesson did this story
present to the Jews?
Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK, National Museums Liverpool/Bridgeman Art Library
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Diaspora is a Greek word that means
Many Jews of the Diaspora learned the
Greek language and Greek ways but
remained loyal to Judaism. A group of them
copied the Hebrew Bible into Greek. This
Greek version helped people who were not
Jews to read and understand the Hebrew
Bible. As a result, Jewish ideas spread
throughout the Mediterranean world.
Who Were the Maccabees? In 168 B.C.a
Greek ruler named Antiochus (an TY uh
) controlled Judah. He decided to make
the Jews of Judah worship Greek gods and
goddesses. A priest named Judas Maccabeus
(JOO duhs MAK uh BEE uhs) and his fol-
lowers rebelled. They fled to the hills and
formed an army known as the Maccabees.
After many battles, the Maccabees drove
the Greeks out of Judah. They destroyed
all traces of Greek gods and goddesses in
their temple and rededicated it to the wor-
ship of God. Each year Jews recall the
cleansing of the temple when they celebrate
Hanukkah (HAHnuh kuh).
Priests from Judas Maccabeus’s family
became the new rulers of Judah. Under
their leadership, Judah took over land that
had been part of the kingdom of Israel.
How did Alexander
the Great affect the Israelites?
of Year
or October
Yom Kippur
or October
2 days
8 days
(7 in
25 hours
Reason for
the Holy Day
to celebrate the Jewish
New Year
to celebrate the escape
of the Jews from slavery
in Egypt and their return
to the Promised Land
to make amends for
sins of the past year
plan changes for the new
year; no work; synagogue
services; a shofar (ram’s
horn) is blown in synagogues
foods with leavening are
not eaten to remember
the haste of the flight
from slavery to freedom
when there was not time
for the bread to rise
no work; synagogue services;
pray; fast; apologize for
wrongs during the past year
December 8 days to celebrate religious
freedom and the
rededication of the
temple in Jerusalem
light candles each night;
eat fried foods; play a game
called dreidel; give gifts
Major Jewish Holy Days
Major Jewish Holy Days
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Jews still wear head coverings,
but only the most conservative—
Orthodox Jews—wear them at all times.
Most Jewish men wear skull caps called
yarmulkes, or kippahs. Jewish women wear
scarves, hats, or skull caps.
Head Coverings
Under Greek rule, Jewish leaders began
covering their heads to distinguish themselves
from the Greeks and to remind themselves to
think about God. Gradually, all Jewish men
started wearing turbans or skull caps.
Jewish women always kept their heads
covered because a woman’s hair was
considered very private.
Ancient Jewish head covering
Jews in modern-day head coverings
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 97
The Jewish Way of Life
Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.
Reading Focus What types of things influence the
way you live? Read to find out how religion influenced
Jewish life.
Jewish law set out many rules for Jews to
follow that affected their daily life. These laws
influenced their education, the foods they ate,
and even the clothes they wore. They also
required Jews to provide for the poor, visit
the sick, do good deeds, give to charity, and
apply just laws to rich and poor alike. The
laws emphasized self-control and reminded
Jews of their religion.
Family Life The Jews placed great impor-
tance on family. Sons were especially val-
ued because they carried on the family
name. Upon a father’s death, the son
became head of the family.
Education was also important. Jewish
children’s first teachers were their mothers.
When sons grew old enough, fathers taught
them how to earn an income and to wor-
ship God. Later, elders took over the reli-
gious education of boys and taught them
the Torah. Because reading the Torah was
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Education in Ancient Israel and Judah
Early Israelites placed a high value on
education. Rabbis—Jewish religious
teachers—taught their followers, “If you
have knowledge, you have everything.”
Fathers taught their young sons the
commandments. They also taught them
about the meanings of Jewish traditions
and holy feasts. At age five, boys went
to a school that was connected with
the synagogue. There, the hazan, a
special teacher of the synagogue, taught
them the Torah. Everything the students
learned—from the alphabet to Jewish
history—they learned from the Torah.
Jewish laws decided the stages of
students’ education. Different subjects
were introduced at the ages of 5, 10,
and 13. Most Jewish boys finished
their education at age 13. At that age,
boys became adults.
Connecting to the Past
1. Why was education important to the
ancient Israelites?
2. What was a father’s role in his son’s
central to Jewish life, religious teachers
became important community leaders.
Mothers educated their daughters at
home. The girls learned to be good wives,
mothers, and housekeepers. This included
learning Jewish laws about food and
clothing. They also learned about the coura-
geous women of ancient Israel. One of these
women was Ruth. Her biography appears
on the next page. Her courage and devotion
to her family provided an example for
Jewish girls to follow.
The Jewish Diet Under Jewish law, Jews
could eat only certain animals. For example,
they could eat beef and lamb but not pork.
They could eat scaly fish, like salmon, but
not shellfish or smooth-skinned fish, like
eels. Laws about food are known as kashrut,
which means “that which is proper.”
Today, food that is prepared according to
Jewish dietary laws is called kosher. Animals
used for kosher meat must be killed in a spe-
cial way. The meat must be inspected, salted,
and soaked. To be kosher, Jews must not
cook or eat milk products with meat.
In ancient times, everyday meals were
made up of fish, fruit, vegetables, and barley
bread. Beverages included mainly milk,
water, wine, and beer.
Jewish Clothing Jewish law forbade mixing
some fabrics. So women used flax or wool
to make cloth but did not combine the two.
Jewish men wore tunics made of linen
next to their skin. Some men layered
another tunic on top of the first. In cold
weather, they wore wool or sheepskin
cloaks. On their heads, they wore caps or
turbans. On their feet, they wore sandals.
Women draped themselves in long, simple
dresses. They covered their heads with
shawls. Wealthy women wore leather
shoes, wore makeup, and owned jewelry.
Why were sons
especially valued in ancient Jewish society?
Children studying the Torah today
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To show the importance of family love and devotion, Jewish girls learned about the
relationship between Ruth and Naomi. The Book of Ruth in the Hebrew Bible tells about
Ruth’s life and of her dedication to her mother-in-law, Naomi. Years before, there was so little
food in Bethlehem that Naomi, her husband, and their two sons moved to Moab. There, one
of their sons married Ruth. Tragically, Naomi’s husband and both of her sons died. Naomi
wanted to return to Bethlehem, but she urged Ruth to stay in Moab with her parents and
friends. Ruth refused to leave Naomi by herself. She insisted on traveling with her to
Bethlehem. Ruth, a convert to the Israelite religion, said to Naomi, “Wherever you go, I will
go; wherever you lodge; I will lodge; your people shall be my people, and your God my God.
Naomi and Ruth arrived in Bethlehem at the
beginning of the barley harvest. Because Ruth
was from Moab, she was considered an outsider
by the Israelites. Furthermore, because Ruth was
a widow and did not have children, she did not
have any property rights. To survive in
Bethlehem, she had to rely upon her mother-in-
law’s advice and the kindness of a wealthy
landowner named Boaz.
During the harvest, Ruth worked in Boaz’s
fields, gathering grain left behind on the ground
by the reapers. It was hard work that began at
dawn and ended at dusk, but Ruth never
complained. She soon earned the respect and
admiration of her new people. In time, Ruth
married Boaz. They had a son named Obed.
In the Hebrew Bible, at the end of the Book
of Ruth, Obed is named as the grandfather
of David, the future king of Israel.
Naomi and Ruth
To survive in Bethlehem, Ruth had to rely on
Naomi and Boaz. If a present-day woman
moved to a new city, what resources would
she use to help her find work, shelter, and
other necessities?
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The Jews and the Romans
Under Roman rule, the Jews were
divided and rebellious. In response, the Romans
destroyed the temple and exiled the Jews.
Reading Focus Do you consider freedom worth
fighting for? Read to find out what happened to the
Jews after they fought for their freedom.
In 63 B.C. a people known as the Romans
conquered Judah. Led by powerful gener-
als, the Romans were intent on expanding
their empire. The Roman capital was far to
the west in what is today the country of
Italy. When the Romans conquered Judah,
they renamed it Judaea (joo DEE uh). At
first, the Romans allowed Jewish rulers to
run Judaea.
The Rule of King Herod The most famous
ruler of Judaea during this time was
King Herod (HEHRuhd). He is known for
the additions he made to the Jewish temple
in Jerusalem. He made the temple one of
the most awe-inspiring buildings in the
Roman world.
Shortly after Herod died, the Romans
replaced the Jewish king with Roman offi-
cials. The Jews were divided over the best
way to deal with the Romans. Different
groups had different opinions about the
best course of action.
One group of Jews was known as the
Pharisees (FAR uh seez). They taught the
Torah and how to apply its laws to daily
life. In doing so, they helped make Judaism
a religion of the home and family. The
Pharisees taught in synagogues and were
supported by the common people.
One of the main teachings that set the
Pharisees apart from other groups was their
support of the oral traditions. These were
teachings of Jewish leaders and interpreta-
tions of Jewish writings that had been
passed down over time by word of mouth.
The Pharisees believed the oral traditions
were very important in helping people
obey the commandments.
The Sadducees (SA juh SEEZ) also
accepted the Torah. However, they were
more concerned about how it applied to the
priests in the Temple. This was because
many of them were priests and scribes.
They did not agree with many of the
Pharisees’ teachings.
For example, they did not hold to the
oral traditions. Instead, they emphasized
the written law and commandments.
A third group was called Essenes (ih
SEENZ). They were priests who broke away
from the Temple in Jerusalem. Many
Essenes lived together in the desert. They
Dead Sea Scrolls
In A.D. 1947 shepherd children in the
Judaean desert near the Dead Sea
found the first of the Dead Sea Scrolls
in a cave. The Dead Sea Scrolls are
ancient scrolls of leather, papyrus, and
one of copper written between 200
.C. and A.D. 68. The documents include
the oldest complete copy of the Book
of Isaiah and pieces of many other
books of the Hebrew Bible. Most
scholars believe that the scrolls were
part of a library that belonged to an
early Jewish community.
100 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
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CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 101
spent their lives praying and waiting for
God to deliver the Jews from the Romans.
Like the Sadducees, the Essenes strictly
followed the written law.
In A.D. 1947 ancient scrolls were found in
caves near the Dead Sea. Because of this, they
became known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. The
scrolls have helped historians understand
more about Judaism during Roman times.
Jewish Revolts During the A.D. 60s, Jewish
hatred of Roman rule was at its peak. Many
Jews were waiting for a messiah (muhSY
uh), or deliverer sent by God. Other Jews
known as Zealots (ZEH luhts) wanted to
fight the Romans for their freedom.
A.D. 66 the Zealots revolted against
the Romans and drove them out of
Jerusalem. Four years later, the Romans
retook Jerusalem. They killed thousands of
Jews and forced many others to leave. The
Romans also destroyed the temple in
Jerusalem. The Western Wall is all that
remains of it today.
The Jews revolted again in
A.D. 132.
Three years later, the Romans crushed the
revolt. This time, the Romans forbade Jews
to live in or even visit Jerusalem. They
began calling Judah by the name of
Palestine. This name refers to the
Philistines, whom the Israelites had con-
quered centuries before.
Jewish Teachers Despite losing their land,
the Jews managed to survive. They no
longer had priests. Instead, leaders called
rabbis (RA BYZ) became important. Rabbis
were teachers of the Torah.
One of the most famous rabbis was
Yohanan ben Zaccai (YOH kahnahn behn
KY). After the sacking of Jerusalem in
A.D. 70, he made sure the study of the Torah
Today Jews come to the Western Wall to pray.
What structure is the Western Wall the remains of?
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The Talmud
One of the Ten Commandments tells Jews
to keep the Sabbath holy. Part of the Talmud
declares that most types of work and busi-
ness are not allowed on the Sabbath, or
Jewish day of worship. This passage identi-
fies the only times it is okay to break those
“One is permitted to remove debris on the
Sabbath in order to save a life or to act for the
benefit of the community; and we may assemble
in the synagogue on the Sabbath to conduct pub-
lic business [i.e., matters of community concern].”
The Talmud for Today,
Rabbi Alexander Feinsilver,
trans. and ed.
Why do you think these exceptions were
made for the benefit of the community?
Reading Summary
Review the
During their exile in Babylon, the
Jews developed their religion,
which is based upon the Hebrew
Jews spread their ideas to the
Greek world. About 168
they fought the Greeks for
control of Judah.
Religious laws concerning food
and clothing affected everyday
Jewish life.
In 63 B.C. Judah was taken over
by the Roman Empire.
1. What was the Diaspora?
2. What was education like within
a Jewish family?
Critical Thinking
3. Organizing Information
Draw a table to describe the
differences between these
three Jewish groups.
Summarize How did the Jews
practice their religion during
the exile in Babylon?
Identify Who was Yohannan
ben Zaccai, and why was he
Draw Conclusions
Do you
think that Jewish beliefs and
values would have spread so
widely if the lands of Israel
and Judah had not been
conquered by other peoples?
Persuasive Writing Imagine
you are living in Judaea during
the Roman conquest. Write a
letter to a friend describing how
you might have felt about the
Romans and what actions you
would like to see taken to
make Judaea free again.
What Did You Learn?
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102 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
continued. He founded a school in northern
Palestine that became a center of Torah
studies for centuries. Other rabbis founded
Torah schools in places as far away as
Babylon and Egypt.
The rabbis wanted to save and pass on
teachings about the Torah. They combined
the teachings into books called commen-
taries, the most important of which is the
Talmud. It deals with almost every aspect of
daily life, including agricultural activities,
feasts, prayer, and marriages. To this day, the
Talmud remains an important record of
Jewish law.
For 2,000 years, most Jews lived outside
of Palestine. They made notable contribu-
tions to commerce and professions, but often
faced hatred and persecution. In A.D. 1947
Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish
nation called Israel was created in 1948.
How did the
Roman conquest affect the Jews?
Pharisees Sadducees Essenes
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The Growth of Judaism
The First Israelites
Focusing on the
The Israelites believed in one God who set
down moral laws for his people. They recorded
their history in the Hebrew Bible.
(page 81)
The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites to
return to their promised land.
(page 84)
Focusing on the
The Jews continued their religion
during their exile in Babylon.
(page 94)
Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek
world and regained control of Judah.
(page 95)
Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.
(page 97)
Under Roman rule, the Jews were
divided and rebellious. In response,
the Romans destroyed the temple
and exiled the Jews.
(page 100)
The Kingdom of IsraelSection
Focusing on the
The Israelites chose a king to unite them against their enemies. (page 87)
King David built an Israelite empire and made Jerusalem his capital city.
(page 89)
The Israelites were conquered and forced to leave Israel and Judah.
(page 90)
Moses with the
Ten Commandments
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 103
Torah scrolls
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Download quizzes and flash cards
to your PDA from
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Section 2 • The Kingdom of Israel
11. Why did the Israelites choose a king?
12. What happened when the Israelites were
Section 3 • The Growth of Judaism
13. How did Jewish ideas spread throughout
the Mediterranean world?
14. How did Romans respond to Jewish
Critical Thinking
15. Contrast How was the Jewish religion
different from religions of other ancient
Analyze Why do you think the Israelites
felt so strongly about a Promised Land?
Compare and Contrast How were Saul
and David similar, and how were they
Explain How did the Jewish religion
survive during the exile of the Jews?
Describe What is celebrated on the
Jewish holy day of Hanukkah?
Review Vocabulary
Match the definitions in the second column to
the terms in the first column.
1. tribe a. Jewish house of
2. prophet b. believed to be inspired
by God
3. synagogue c. family group
4. Sabbath d. holy day of worship
and rest
5. messiah e. forced absence
6. monotheism f. belief in only one god
7. covenant g. deliverer sent
by God
8. exile h. agreement
Review Main Ideas
Section 1 • The First Israelites
9. Where did the Israelites record their
history and religious beliefs?
10. Why did the Israelites fight the
Main Idea
Finding the Main Idea
20. Read the paragraph below from page 101. Create a graphic organizer that shows
the main idea and supporting details.
In A.D. 1947 ancient scrolls were found in caves near the
Dead Sea. Because of this, they became known as the Dead
Sea Scrolls. The scrolls have helped historians understand
more about Judaism during Roman times.
To review this skill, see pages 78–79.
104 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
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CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 105
100 km
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area
100 mi.
Israelite Kingdoms
Geography Skills
Study the map below and answer the follow-
ing questions.
Location Which kingdom—Israel or
Judah—had an advantage when it came
to trade? Why?
Identify What advantage did Judah have
over Israel?
Analyze Why did the Phoenicians focus
on trade rather than farming?
Read to Write
24. Descriptive Writing Imagine you are liv-
ing in Jerusalem during the time of King
Solomon. Write a letter to a friend describ-
ing the things Solomon is doing as leader.
Be sure to mention which of these things
the people like and which they do not like.
Summarize Choose three events in this
chapter that you think were the most
important to the history of the Israelites.
Write a headline for each that might have
appeared in a newspaper of that time.
Using Your Use the information
you wrote in your three-pocket foldable
to create a fill-in-the-blank quiz for a class-
mate. Write a paragraph about one of the
sections, leaving blanks for your classmate
to fill in. Leave blanks for vocabulary
words or significant places and people.
Using Technology
27. Organizing Information Search the
Internet or your local library for informa-
tion about the early Phoenicians and
Philistines. Use the computer to create
a chart comparing the two cultures.
Include headings such as Location,
Time Period, Major Contributions, and
Linking Past and Present
28. Making Comparisons The Israelites
moved from place to place within the same
region along the Mediterranean. Trace the
route of one of their journeys on a map
of ancient times. Then trace the route
again on a map showing that region as
it is today. Identify the current nations
and landmarks in that region.
The following passage describes the
effects of the attack on Judaea. The
passage is written by Josephus, a
Jewish historian in the Roman era.
“Throughout the city people were dying
of hunger in large numbers....In every
house the merest hint of food sparked
violence, and close relatives fell to blows....
No respect was paid even to the dying; the
ruffians searched them, in case they were
concealing food somewhere in their clothes.
—Josephus, “The Siege of Jerusalem”
29. What does Josephus mean when he
says “No respect was paid even to
the dying”?
30. How might this account have been
different if it had been written by
a Roman soldier?
Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for
the Chapter Test, visit
Kingdom of Israel
Kingdom of Judah
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Where did these
Between the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers
Along the banks of the
Nile River
In Israel and Juddah
Who are some
people in these
King Khufu, c. 2540 B.C.
Hatshepsut, ruled
c. 1470 B.C.
Ramses II, c. 1279–
Kashta, c. 750
Compare the civilizations
that you have read about by
reviewing the information
below. Can you see how the
people of these civilizations
helped to build the world we
live in today?
Comparing Civilizations
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Some people lived in
large cities
Most people lived in
villages along the
Nile River
Most people lived in
small villages or near
the city of Jerusalem
Where did
most of the
people live?
Most people
lived on farms
near walled
The center
of the city
was the
Abraham, c. 1800 B.C.
Moses, c. 1250 B.C.
David, c. 1000–970 B.C.
The Maccabees, 168 B.C.
Sargon, c. 2340–2279 B.C.
c. 1792–1750 B.C.
c. 605–562 B.C.
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What was their
did they make?
What was their
language and
writing like?
Early Mesopotamians
were ruled by priests
Later, kings ruled the
people; they believed
kings had divine approval
Pharaoh was a ruler-priest
and a god
Pharaoh owned all land
in Egypt
Early Israelites were led
by prophets
Later, they
were led
by judges,
then kings
Early: cuneiform: wedge-
shaped characters
Later: a Semitic language
Hieroglyphics: images
that stood for ideas
Adapted Phoenician
characters to form
letters and words
Developed writing
Created system of
Studied systems of time
and created calendars
Introduced iron weapons
Built machines to move
water to crops
Developed a calendar
Built large temples
and pyramids
Developed ideas of legal
Passed on ideas of
justice, fairness, and
compassion in society
and government
Believed in one God
How do these
affect me? Can
you add any?
Similar measurements
are still used in building
Our system of time is
based on seconds,
minutes, and hours
Pyramids and other
structures still amaze
people today
Many religions today are
based on ideas similar
to those of the early
What were
these people’s
Worshiped many
different gods
The gods
the rulers
Worshiped gods and
Believed in
life after
Worshiped one God
Wrote the Hebrew Bible
as a record of their
history and religion
(t)Boltin Picture Library, (tr)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (c)Smithsonian Institution, (b)CORBIS
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