Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________________
Student Exploration: Element Builder
Vocabulary: atom, atomic number, electron, electron dot diagram, element, energy level, ion,
isotope, mass number, neutron, nucleus, periodic table, proton, radioactive, valence electrons
Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)
1. What are some of the different substances that make up a pizza? _____________________
2. What substances make up water? _____________________________________________
3. What substances make up an iron pot? _________________________________________
Elements are pure substances that are made up of one kind of atom. Pizza is not an element
because it is a mixture of many substances. Water is a pure substance, but it contains two kinds
of atom: oxygen and hydrogen. Iron is an element because it is composed of one kind of atom.
Gizmo Warm-up
Atoms are tiny particles of matter that are made up of
three particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. The
Element Builder Gizmoshows an atom with a single
proton. The proton is located in the center of the atom,
called the nucleus.
1. Use the arrow buttons ( ) to add protons, neutrons,
and electrons to the atom. Press Play ( ).
A. Which particles are located in the nucleus?
B. Which particles orbit around the nucleus?
2. Turn on Show element name. What causes the element name to change? _____________
Hannah Sonnentag
Sauce, cheeses, dough
two hydrogen and oxygen
the element iron
protons and neutrons
Adding or subtracting protons and neutrons.
Activity A:
Use the arrows to create an atom with two protons,
two neutrons, and two electrons.
Question: What are the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons?
1. Observe: Turn on Show element symbol and Element
notation. Three numbers surround the element symbol: the
mass number (A), electrical charge (no number is displayed if
the atom is neutral), and the atomic number (Z).
2. Investigate: Watch how the numbers change as you add or
remove particles.
A. Which number is equal to the number of protons in the atom? __________________
B. How can you calculate the number of neutrons (N) in an atom? _________________
C. Which particle (proton, neutron, or electron) has a positive charge? ______________
Negative charge? ______________ No charge at all? ______________
3. Analyze: An isotope is an alternative form of an element. Each isotope of an element has
the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. The isotope is represented
by the atomic symbol and mass number, such as He-4. Some isotopes are stable, while
others are radioactive, which means the atoms decay over time and emit radiation.
A. What are the stable isotopes of carbon? ___________________________________
B. What are the stable isotopes of nitrogen? __________________________________
C. List two radioactive isotopes of oxygen: ___________________________________
4. Practice: Use the Gizmo to answer the following questions.
A. How many electrons are in a neutral atom of lithium? ___________
B. How many neutrons are in an atom of Mg-25? ___________
C. What is the mass number of an atom with 5 protons and 7 neutrons? ___________
D. An ion is a charged atom. How many electrons are in O
? ___________
E. How many electrons are in Mg
? ___________
Atomic number
You subtract the atomic mass by the amount of protons.
Activity B:
Get the Gizmo ready:
Create a neutral hydrogen atom (1 proton, 0
neutrons, 1 electron).
Question: How are electrons arranged around the nucleus of an atom?
1. Observe: Add electrons to your atom until you have used all the available electrons. How
are the electrons arranged? __________________________________________________
2. Analyze: Electrons are arranged in orbits called energy levels, shown in the Gizmo.
A. How many electrons can fit in the first energy level? ___________
B. How many electrons can fit in the second energy level? ___________
C. How many electrons can fit in the third energy level? ___________
3. Observe: Click Reset ( ). The electrons in the outermost orbit, called valence electrons,
help to create chemical bonds. Create a lithium atom (3 protons, 4 neutrons, 3 electrons).
How many valence electrons are in a neutral lithium atom? ___________
4. Diagram: Turn on Show electron dot diagram. The valence electrons of an atom are
shown in an electron dot diagram. Each dot represents a valence electron.
Draw the electron dot diagram for neutral lithium: ___________
5. Practice: Turn off Show electron dot diagram. Use the Gizmo to create a neutral atom of
each of the following elements. Draw an electron dot diagram for each. When you are
finished, turn on Show electron dot diagram and check your answers.
H He Li Be B C N
O F Ne Na Mg Al Si
6. Extend your thinking: Many properties are determined by the number of valence electrons.
Which element probably has similar properties to lithium? _________ Beryllium? _________
Explain: __________________________________________________________________
The periodic table
Get the Gizmo ready:
Create a neutral hydrogen atom.
If you have access to a periodic table, open it now.
(Not required.)
Question: The 117 or so known elements are arranged in the periodic table. Why does
the periodic table have the shape it has?
1. Form a hypothesis: Look at the first three rows of the periodic table below.
Why do you think the elements are arranged the way that they are? ___________________
2. Draw diagrams: Create an electron dot diagram for each of the elements below. Use the
Gizmo to help you do this. To check your work, turn on Show electron dot diagram.
H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
3. Analyze: What do the elements in each column of the periodic table have in common?
4. Draw conclusions: How is the periodic table organized? ____________________________