Resource Guide
330 C Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20201
Dear Colleagues:
Families, service providers, and communities work tirelessly year-round to protect and nurture children and
promote their well-being. For nearly 40 years, National Child Abuse Prevention Month has played an important
supporting role by increasing awareness and educating the public about child maltreatment prevention.
Today we know much more than we did 40 years ago about the neighborhood, community, and societal factors
that can either promote family well-being or make parenting more challenging. We have an abundance of
evidence about what leaves families vulnerable to maltreatment and how to support them effectively. If we are
serious about preventing child maltreatment, we know it is most effective to reduce those vulnerabilities before a
child is harmed.
The single most important thing we can do is support families all year long in ways that promote and
build upon their strengths and enable them to care for their children safely before maltreatment is even
a possibility. When we commit to partnering with families to help them access resources that focus on child and
family well-being, they are better able to cope with stress, mitigate risks before formal child welfare intervention is
needed, and realize their full potential.
These values are reected in the theme of the 22nd National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect and this
accompanying Resource Guide: “Thriving Children and Families: Prevention With Purpose.” One of the Children’s
Bureau’s most anticipated publications, the 2021/2022 guide recognizes that there are actions we can take at
all levels of the social ecology—as a society, within community systems, and in our organizations, as well as with
individual families—to address the root causes of maltreatment and provide meaningful support. The guide also
seeks to highlight the many innovative ways that communities around the country are already doing purposeful
prevention work to help children and families thrive.
The 2021/2022 Resource Guide was created with input from a broad representation of national experts, including
National Child Abuse Prevention Partners and colleagues on the Federal Inter-Agency Work Group on Child Abuse
and Neglect, as well as local community leaders. Our conversations with this large and varied group during the
past year have conrmed what we have been saying for years—to make child abuse less likely to occur, we need
to invest in communities and invest in families.
We can do this by addressing societal attitudes and values around parenting, making it clear that all parents
and families need support in overcoming life’s challenges at times. We can strengthen our resolve and ability to
organize effectively at the system level to identify the needs of parents and provide support while eliminating
stigma. We can be open to new approaches to service delivery that help the whole family, not just a single
member, and that recognize and actively mitigate the effects of trauma. We can recognize the importance of a
workforce that has access to quality training and is supported in building effective partnerships with families. And
we can do all these things with a steadfast commitment to addressing inequality and listening to the voices of
parents, caregivers, youth, and communities most directly impacted by child welfare intervention.
If we truly come together with a unied voice to address the root causes of family vulnerability and commit to
taking collective action toward this common goal, we can move beyond drawing awareness to the problem
of child abuse to supporting strong, healthy, and resilient families. We thank you for your work and hope this
Resource Guide supports you in your efforts to help all children and families thrive.
Elaine Voces Stedt, M.S.W.
Ofce on Child Abuse and Neglect
Children’s Bureau
Administration on Children, Youth and Families
Administration for Children and Families
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
ii 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Table of Contents
Setting the Context 1
Protective Factors 201 2
An Enhanced Social-Ecological Approach 3
New Protective Factors Conversation Guides 4
Other Resources 4
Creating a More Supportive Society for All Families 5
Federal Focus: CDC Essentials for Childhood 6
Promoting Norms That Support Positive Parenting 7
Seeking Family-Supportive Policies and Systems Change 10
Increasing Equity in Family Support Services 12
Questions to Consider 15
Building Protective Systems: A Public Health Approach to
Preventing Child Maltreatment 17
Federal Focus: Supporting Community Collaborations for Child Abuse Prevention 19
Using Community Data to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect 21
Taking a Collective Impact Approach to Family Support 23
Implementing Communitywide Primary Prevention Strategies 25
Questions to Consider 27
Aligning Organizations for Family Resilience and Healing 29
Employing Two-Generation Approaches to Strengthen Families 31
Implementing Trauma-Informed Care for Children and Their Families 33
Federal Focus: National Child Traumatic Stress Network 35
Understanding the Protective Effects of Positive Childhood Experiences 36
Questions to Consider 39
Embracing Community and the Wisdom of Lived
Experience 41
Federal Focus: Head Start/Early Head Start Policy Councils 42
Valuing Community Voice in Program Assessment, Implementation, and Evaluation 43
Growing Authentic Partnerships With Parents, Caregivers, and Youth 45
Questions to Consider 48
Protective Factors Conversation Guides for Partnering
With Families 50
How to Use These Guides 51
Protective Factors 101: Resources for Promoting Family Well-Being 51
We Love Each Other 52
Nos amamos unos a otros 54
I Can Choose What Works Best for My Children 56
Puedo elegir lo que funciona mejor para mis hijos 58
I Deserve Self-Care 60
Me merezco el autocuidado 62
We Are Connected 64
Estamos conectados 66
I Can Find Help for My Family 68
Puedo encontrar ayuda para mi familia 70
I Help My Child Learn Social Skills 72
Ayudo a mi hijo a aprender habilidades sociales 74
Partners and Resources 76
National Child Abuse Prevention Partners 76
Federal Inter-Agency Work Group on Child Abuse and Neglect 76
Acknowledgments 76
This Resource Guide was developed by the Ofce
on Child Abuse and Neglect (OCAN) within the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services’ Children’s
Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway, and the
FRIENDS National Center for Community-Based Child
Abuse Prevention. OCAN released its rst Resource
Guide more than 15 years ago with the goal of raising
awareness about emerging child abuse prevention
concepts. It was created primarily to support community-
based service providers who work to prevent child
maltreatment and promote family well-being. However,
over the years many others—including policymakers,
health-care providers, program administrators, teachers,
child care providers, parent leaders, mentors, and clergy—have found the resources useful.
Prevention is generally recognized as occurring at three levels: primary (directed at the general
population), secondary (focused on families where risk factors are present), and tertiary (focused on
families where maltreatment has already occurred). This guide has traditionally focused on primary
and secondary prevention activities, which endeavor to stop maltreatment before it occurs.
Promoting protective factors has been central to the Resource Guide for many years. Protective
factors are conditions or attributes in individuals, families, communities, or the larger society that
mitigate or eliminate risk in families and communities, thereby increasing the health and well-
being of children and families. Protective factors help parents nd resources, supports, or coping
strategies that allow them to parent effectively, even under stress. Since 2007, this Resource
Guide has employed a protective factors framework adapted from the Strengthening Families
framework developed by the Center for the Study of Social Policy. The following are the six
protective factors in this framework:
Nurturing and attachment
Knowledge of parenting and of child and youth development
Parental resilience
Social connections
Concrete supports for parents
Social and emotional competence of children
“Nurturing and attachment” is not delineated as a separate protective factor within Strengthening Families; however, it
is an implicit and valued component to the entire framework.
Setting the Context
Protective Factors 201
An Enhanced Social-Ecological
New Protective Factors
Conversation Guides
Other Resources
2 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
A protective factors approach to the
prevention of child maltreatment focuses
on positive ways to engage families by
emphasizing their strengths and what
parents and caregivers are doing well, as
well as identifying areas where families have
room to grow with support. This approach
also can serve as the basis for collaborative
partnerships with other service providers, such
as early childhood, behavioral health, maternal
and child health, and other family-serving
systems that support children and families and
promote child and family well-being.
Periodic revisions of the guide have
introduced other key concepts, such as the
How the experiences of early childhood,
including early trauma exposure, have a
lifelong impact on brain development
The effects of adverse childhood
experiences (ACEs), such as child abuse
and neglect, on physical and mental health
into adulthood
The ways that investments in prevention
strategies keep children safe, families
strong, and communities resilient and pay
dividends well into the future
Many of these concepts—once on the
cutting edge of practice—are now
generally accepted truths. They underlie
some of today’s most effective prevention
strategies, including home visiting programs,
therapies to strengthen parent-child bonds,
neighborhood-based family resource centers,
interdisciplinary community collaborations,
and more.
We live in an ever-evolving world, one we
could not have predicted 15 years ago.
The importance of protective factors,
ACEs awareness, and trauma-informed
approaches is widely recognized. Still, child
and family serving agencies and the broader
community face both systemic and practical
challenges to integrating and implementing
them in their daily work with families. Some
communities have overcome these barriers
and created comprehensive family well-being
systems that wrap an array of protective,
preventive interventions around families with
phenomenal results—but these communities
are still the exception, not the rule.
The current generation of child welfare and
parent leaders knows what they need to
be doing better for children and families,
but they continue to need support in how
to implement these concepts effectively.
That is why this year’s Resource Guide takes
a “Protective Factors 201” approach that
shifts the focus to a deeper understanding
of how successful families, neighborhoods,
communities, and States are using the
protective factors to protect children,
strengthen families, and promote well-being.
Throughout this guide, the protective factors
serve as a theoretical underpinning for many
of the strategies described. Although they are
not always referenced directly, they continue
to be infused in this work in countless ways.
Foundational information about the protective
factors can be found on the Information
Gateway website. For a list of Protective
Factors 101 resources, see page 51 of this
This year’s Resource Guide continues and
expands upon the tradition of addressing
prevention from the perspective of a
social-ecological model. This approach
acknowledges that there are many factors
beyond the individual child and family that
affect caregivers’ ability to nurture and protect
their children.
A social-ecological model helps us
understand the range of factors that place
children at risk for abuse or neglect or protect
them from experiencing maltreatment,
including Federal and State policies, norms
about child-rearing and asking for help,
community and neighborhood resources and
environments, and the approaches employed
by family-serving organizations and systems.
The overlapping rings in the model show
how factors at one level inuence those at
other levels. To prevent maltreatment, social-
ecological theory acknowledges that it is
critical to take action across multiple levels of
the model at the same time.
The next ve chapters of this guide each
address a different level of the social-
ecological model:
Chapter 2: Creating a More Supportive
Society for All Families
Chapter 3: Building Protective Systems:
A Public Health Approach to Preventing
Child Maltreatment
Chapter 4: Aligning Organizations for
Family Resilience and Healing
Chapter 5: Embracing Community and the
Wisdom of Lived Experience
Chapter 6: Protective Factors Conversation
Guides for Partnering With Families
These chapters offer caregivers, service
providers, and community leaders a wealth
of information, resources, and examples from
Federal partners, Community-Based Child
Abuse Prevention (CBCAP) programs, and
other communities and organizations that
have successfully employed the strategies in
this Resource Guide to effect real change for
children and families. CBCAP programs are
funded by the Children’s Bureau to—among
many important actions—develop, operate,
enhance, and coordinate efforts to prevent
child abuse and neglect and strengthen and
support families.
We have found that the most successful
prevention efforts are rarely accomplished by
implementing an isolated program or practice;
rather, they are achieved by employing and
integrating many of the concepts represented
here, in authentic partnership with families
and through collaboration with many partners
over extended periods of time.
At the end of chapters 2 through 5, you will
nd a series of questions to consider. We
invite you to use these both for individual
reection in your work with families and as a
starting point for conversations within your
community group, agency, or jurisdiction.
There is always room for learning and growth.
4 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Chapter 6 returns to the foundation of the
protective factors in a new series of caregiver
conversation guides. These guides were
created to help users engage parents and
caregivers in more personalized conversations
about how they care for their children and
themselves to create a stronger, more
resilient family.
The interactive conversation guides draw
on the legacy of Parent Cafés. These
structured peer-to-peer conversations to
strengthen families and prevent child abuse
and neglect have been happening since at
least 2007, when Strengthening Families
Illinois debuted Parent Cafés, based on
the World Café model. Parent Cafés were
designed to facilitate deep individual self-
reection and peer-to-peer learning around
the Strengthening Families protective factors.
Similar models, sometimes called community
cafés, have proliferated since then. Taking
a variety of forms, these gatherings bring
parents, caregivers, and other community
members together for structured
conversations that build leadership and
relationships as well as the protective factors
that help to strengthen their families.
For each protective factor, we provide talking
points and guidance for the service provider,
paired with a worksheet that can be used
while engaged one-on-one with a parent or
caregiver or as part of a group activity. After a
brief introduction about the protective factor
from a service provider, caregivers respond to
prompts about their own family’s strengths,
sources of support, and areas where they
may need additional support. Caregivers can
customize each worksheet to reect their
family’s unique circumstances and goals. Each
worksheet is available in both English and
Spanish. If you are missing a tip sheet you
found useful in the past, never fear! Many of
the former tip sheets are still available on the
Information Gateway website.
Additional resources for building strong
and thriving families are available from the
many national organizations and Federal
partners listed in chapter 7 that have been
vital in supporting and moving this important
prevention work forward.
The societal level of the social-ecological model
provides the context for all other layers. It describes
the climate within which systems, organizations,
communities, and individual families operate and live
their lives. When that climate is supportive of parents
and children, it is easier for all families to thrive. Three
societal factors play a signicant role in how we can
effectively support all families and prevent child abuse
and neglect: (1) social and cultural norms; (2) Federal,
State, and local policies; and (3) equal access to
resources and opportunities.
Social and cultural norms are (often unspoken) rules
or expectations for how we behave that are based on
shared beliefs within a specic cultural or social group.
The study of social norms has shown that our individual choices—including health-related
behaviors such as smoking or binge drinking—are highly inuenced by what we believe about
the choices others make. In other words, if we believe that (for example) wearing seat belts is a
common practice in our social group, we are more likely to engage in it whether or not others
actually do.
Creating a More
Supportive Society
for All Families
Federal Focus: CDC Essentials for
Promoting Norms That Support
Positive Parenting
Seeking Family-Supportive
Policies and Systems Change
Increasing Equity in Family
Support Systems
6 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
The power of social and cultural norms can
be harnessed to strengthen protective factors
within families by promoting norms that
encourage positive parenting practices.
Over time, this strategy can increase those
positive practices within a social or cultural
group and help to protect children from
Likewise, family-supportive policies at the
Federal, State, and local levels help families
succeed and thrive. Two critical policy areas
to consider are those that support household
nancial security and family-friendly
workplaces. When parents are nancially
secure and have a healthy work-life balance,
it is easier for them to provide for their
children’s basic needs, offer safe and nurturing
care, and experience good physical and
mental health themselves. Community-based
agencies can encourage greater well-being
by helping families access resources—such
as employment support, low-income tax
credits, nutrition assistance, stable housing,
family-friendly work policies and benets,
and affordable high-quality child care—and
advocating for these opportunities where they
do not exist.
Equity is an important consideration when
looking at the societal context within which
the families we serve live their lives. We
know that the policies and outcomes of our
current systems can be unequal and unjust.
Meaningful change will require an awareness
of, and a commitment to dismantle, the
policies, practices, and attitudes that
perpetuate inequality and interfere with
families’ ability to care for their children. This
means changing how we engage and work
with families—including how we respond
when they experience progress and set-
backs—as well as working to level the larger
societal inequities that systems across the
continuum are grappling with. We introduce
equity in more detail later in this chapter,
and you will nd it revisited in examples
and questions to consider throughout the
remaining chapters as well.
The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) has long been a leader in
Federal efforts to support families and prevent
child abuse and neglect at the societal level.
CDC’s Essentials for Childhood framework
outlines strategies to help create a society in
which every child can thrive.
Changing norms and policies are two parts
of the Essentials for Childhood framework.
The full framework has four goals and
suggests evidence-based strategies to
achieve each goal:
Goal 1: Raise awareness and commitment
to promote safe, stable, and nurturing
relationships and environments for all
Goal 2: Use data to inform actions.
Goal 3: Create the context for healthy
children and families through norms change
and programs.
Goal 4: Create the context for healthy
children and families through policies.
For example, the North Carolina Task
Force on Essentials for Childhood is
working toward goal 4 by funding grants
to support several partners in encouraging
family-friendly workplace policies. One of
the grantees, Family Forward NC, is an
employer-led initiative to increase access to
research-based, family-friendly practices—
big and small—that support children’s
healthy development. It offers resources
for employees, including information about
family-supportive Federal and State laws and
a directory of family-friendly workplaces and
the benets they offer. Family Forward also
offers an extensive online guide that can be
used to develop (or advocate for) family-
friendly workplace policies.
Linkinbach, J. W. (2017). An introduction to positive community norms. The Montana Institute.
For more information about other Essentials
for Childhood projects and resources
on norms and policy change, see the
CDC’s Essentials for Childhood: Creating
Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships and
Environments webpage.
The Positive Community Norms (PCN)
approach is a model for improving health-
related behaviors through the promotion
of positive social and cultural norms. PCN
has been demonstrated to be effective in
creating social change around issues such as
trafc safety and underage drinking, as well
as child maltreatment.
In the same way that
protective factors focus on building family
strengths, PCN focuses on growing healthy,
normative attitudes and behaviors rather
than focusing solely on negative behaviors
we want to avoid. Examples of using positive
community norms to support families could
include promoting messages such as “We
all share responsibility for the well-being
of children” and “All parents need support
sometimes. It’s okay to ask for help.”
Understanding existing social and cultural
norms is often critical to the success of efforts
to support families. Different groups within
the same community may have very different
norms around parenting practices or seeking
and receiving help. For example, caregivers
in some communities may be reluctant to
participate in parenting programs because
they think they should be able to care for
their children on their own or because they
worry that their participation indicates they
are a “bad” parent or caregiver. To counter
this, program messages might emphasize that
learning effective parenting skills is a process,
all parents and caregivers need help at times,
and it’s okay to ask for help. Caregivers who
do attend parenting programs may need extra
support in using new skills at home if what
they learn is different from what is practiced
by other family or community members.
From 2014 to 2015, Prevent Child Abuse
America partnered with the Montana
Institute to conduct a nationwide telephone
poll of social and cultural norms regarding
child maltreatment prevention. Many of
their ndings were hopeful. For example,
they discovered that people accurately
perceived that abuse and neglect are serious
problems and that they generally believed
that prevention is possible. The survey also
revealed that people who believe that other
people would take action when they suspect
child abuse or neglect are themselves twice as
likely to take action (compared to those who
underestimate others’ willingness to do so).
This survey demonstrates how what we
believe about what is “normal” (true or
not) affects our behavior. It has implications
for child maltreatment prevention because
parents are more likely to nurture, protect,
and discipline their children in ways they see
as common in their community and culture.
Any strategies we can employ to surround
parents and caregivers with positive images of
loving and nurturing parent-child relationships
helps to counter possible misconceptions.
Other research tells us that what we believe
about the attitudes of certain people affects
our behavior more than others. In the case
of parenting practices, those who have
the strongest inuence include not just
8 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
friends and family members but certain
professionals, such as pediatricians, mental
health professionals, and faith leaders. This
provides an opportunity: Targeting people in
these professions with messages and tools to
support them in promoting positive parenting
practices may be an effective strategy to
change community norms and prevent child
Other parents can also be effective inuencers
of parenting norms because parents typically
view their peers as people they can trust.
Employing parents from the community as
mentors for at-risk families can help support
more positive parenting.
The CDC offers seven steps for promoting
positive community norms that could be
adopted to better support families and
promote child maltreatment prevention:
Planning, engaging, and educating a
diverse coalition of stakeholders
Assessing norms through surveys, focus
groups, and existing data sources
Establishing a common understanding and
prioritizing opportunities based on the
data collected
Developing a portfolio of strategies aimed
at different levels of the social ecology
Pilot testing, selecting, and rening
strategies and messages
Implementing the portfolio of strategies all
at once or in phases
Assessing effectiveness and future needs
through ongoing evaluation
For more information, see the CDC
publication Promoting Positive Community
The Hawaii Department of Health, the State’s CBCAP lead agency, is taking an
integrated approach to improving the well-being of Hawaii’s young children and
their families through public awareness and education efforts on multiple forms of
family violence. Baseline data, presented in an ACEs and resilience dashboard, will
help the team determine whether reframing and integrating several distinct violence
prevention campaigns promotes more positive community norms and results in
improved outcomes.
Recently, Hawaii’s CBCAP funds have been blended with funds from the State
Department of Human Services to develop an innovative communications campaign
that aims to prevent all forms of family violence. One outcome of this effort has been
Nurture Daily, a year-round media campaign that includes several 30-second public
service announcements framed around “serve and return” interactions that help
support healthy brain development in young children. Messages encourage and
normalize daily actions such as playing together, eating meals together, and sharing
thoughtful words with a partner.
Nurture Daily infographics that target early child care providers and other pre-K
community providers will soon be available in digital and printed formats.
of Health
Pediatricians Can Effectively Promote
Positive Norms Around Discipline
There is a growing body of evidence
that shows clear communication of
expectations, proactive guidance, and
positive reinforcement are effective discipline
techniques. However, a signicant number
of parents in the United States are still using
corporal punishment. Corporal punishment
puts children at risk for poor mental, physical,
and social/behavioral health outcomes, similar
to the risks of substantiated abuse. It also has
been shown to be ineffective for changing
behavior in a lasting way. We know from
tracking beliefs about the practice that, while
support for hitting children has decreased
over time, many parents still believe it is
necessary for good discipline.
There is some good news: research indicates
that parents’ attitudes about corporal
punishment are highly inuenced by the
advice of credible professionals, such as
pediatricians, religious leaders, and mental
health professionals. Changing the minds
of these professionals—encouraging them
to offer positive and effective discipline
alternatives—can make a difference.
More than 90 percent of parents bring their
children to a well-child visit, even when they
lack primary care themselves. This makes
pediatricians’ ofces an excellent place to
promote positive parenting practices. In
2018, the American Academy of Pediatrics
issued an updated policy statement about
the harm caused by corporal punishment and
the need to promote more effective means of
discipline. HealthySteps, a program of ZERO
TO THREE, is one evidence-based, team-
based pediatric primary care program that has
been shown to promote positive discipline
among parents of infants and toddlers, with
an emphasis on families living in low-income
In participating pediatric practices, children
ages birth to 3 and their families receive a set
of screenings and follow-up visits (as needed)
for a wide range of issues, including autism,
maternal depression, and social determinants
of health. The entire practice works together
to implement the model. HealthySteps
specialists (child development professionals
integrated into the primary care team)
connect with and guide families during and
between well-child visits.
Evaluations of the program found
that participants demonstrated better
understanding of infant development and
were less likely to use harsh or severe
discipline. HealthySteps currently supports
more than 275,000 young children in more
than 170 pediatric primary care practices
“In primary prevention, we are asking,
‘What can I do to prevent abuse from ever
happening?’ To answer that, we have to
look at the norms around hitting children
for discipline.”
—Catherine Taylor, Ph.D., professor, Boston College
School of Social Work
10 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
It is important for community-based family
support agencies and other family supports to
be aware of the impact of Federal, State, and
local policies that affect the lives of children,
youth, and families. For staff working directly
with families, this might simply mean being
aware of the programs and benets to which
families may be entitled and understanding
the requirements and procedures for
accessing them. Doing so will promote
access to concrete support and may increase
parental resilience. Frontline staff can also
help agency leaders understand the barriers
that families encounter and what systems
changes might be needed.
Agency leaders and community coalitions may
be in a position to educate legislators and
inform positive policy and systems changes
that improve the environments within which
families are raising their children. The CDC
Essentials for Childhood framework outlines
two steps to inform policies.
Step 1: Identify and assess which policies
may positively impact the lives of children
and families in your community.
There are three levels of policy to consider:
Legislative: Laws or ordinances passed by
local, State, or Federal governing bodies
Regulatory: Rules, principles, or methods
established by government agencies that
have regulatory authority for products or
Organizational: Rules and practices that
an organization or agency sets for how it
does business, conducts its activities, or
interacts with staff and constituents
Step 2: Provide decision-makers with
information on the benets of evidence-
based strategies and rigorous evaluation
when considering family-supportive policy
Systems change should be backed by
evidence of how policies can promote the
well-being of children, youth, and families. For
example, family-friendly workplace policies,
such as exible schedules, paid family leave,
and access to high-quality child care, have
been shown to help businesses recruit new
employees, retain current staff, increase
productivity, reduce sick days, and lower
health-care costs. Two sources of information
about evidence-based family-supportive
policies include the Essentials for Childhood
framework (as outlined on page 6) and the
Change in Mind Institute (see page 11).
Agencies should not take on systems change
alone. Implementing policy change that
promotes strong families and communities
requires a collective effort from organizations
in both the public and private sectors,
including State and local health departments,
the media, businesses, schools, and faith-
and community-based organizations. The
next chapter, Building Protective Systems:
A Public Health Approach to Preventing
Child Maltreatment, explores strategies for
strengthening community collaborations.
Change in Mind Institute: Infusing Brain
Science in Systems and Policy Change
The past two decades have seen tremendous
advances in our understanding of how the
brain develops and is affected by toxic stress.
This new body of knowledge has great
potential to improve the effectiveness of
services for children and families and the ways
that family-serving organizations successfully
engage and support their workforce. The
Change in Mind Institute at the Alliance for
Strong Families and Communities supports
organizations in infusing the latest behavioral
and social science research into policy,
programs, and practice.
The Change in Mind Institute is built on
the ndings of a “learning laboratory”
approach. In 2015, a cohort of 10 U.S. and
5 Canadian community-based organizations
demonstrated the impact of intentionally
infusing brain science into programs and
organizations and generated new insights
into the longer-term challenges of facilitating
and accelerating change at the systems and
policy levels.
Cohort members used two approaches to
facilitate changes in policies that supported
healthy child development, increased
resilience, and ensured community well-
being. First, they built their communities’
knowledge, networks, and skills to work
effectively on neuroscience-aligned systems
and policy change using the following
Educating their communities about
advances in neuroscience
Working with networks of collaborators
and strategic allies on systems and policy
Creating or adopting shared messages to
unify advocacy efforts
Strengthening local workforce capacity
through training and technical assistance
Aligning funding and other resources at
multiple levels to support systems and
policy change
Conducting research and evaluation
activities to inform change.
Once they built community capacity in these
ways, the sites worked with key partners
and collaborators to call for systems
change within and across social services,
including the child welfare, early childhood
development, K–12 education, housing
services, and juvenile justice systems.
“The science is very clear around brain
development, ACEs, and trauma. The
Change in Mind Institute looks to
provide knowledge, expertise, and
recommendations for transforming our
practices, policies, and systems based on
what the science is telling us.”
—Jennifer Jones, director, Change in Mind Institute,
Alliance for Strong Families and Communities
12 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Adapted from Center for Social Inclusion. What Is Racial Equity?
The impact of societal inequality can be
readily seen in child and family services,
including child welfare. Signicant research
has documented the overrepresentation
of certain racial and ethnic populations
particularly Black or African-American and
American Indian/Alaska Native families—in
child welfare systems when compared with
their representation in the general population.
In addition, studies have shown that racial
disparities occur at various decision points in
the child welfare continuum. These disparities
are not fully explained by differences in
rates of maltreatment or poverty. Children
and youth with diverse sexual orientations
and gender identities and expressions
are also signicantly overrepresented in
the child welfare system. As a group, they
experience more placements and lower
rates of reunication with family than their
heterosexual and cisgender peers.
If we want to improve outcomes for all
children and families, it is imperative that
we commit to equity, as both a process and
a goal. As a process, equity requires that
those negatively impacted by inequality
be meaningfully involved in the creation,
implementation, modication, and elimination
of policies and practices that affect their
lives. As a goal, we achieve equity when
all children and families experience similar
outcomes, regardless of race, ethnicity, marital
status, sexual orientation, gender expression,
income, or creed.
There has been increased attention in recent
years to the need for antiracist efforts,
particularly anti-Black racism. According to the
Center for the Study of Social Policy (CSSP),
“antiracism is the active process of identifying
and challenging racism, by changing systems,
organizational structures, policies and
practices, and attitudes to redistribute power
in an equitable manner.”
CSSP has 15 years of experience working
to become an antiracist organization. Its
publication Moving Forward Together notes
several requirements of this work:
“Brutal candor,” including a transparent
process to honestly identify and
differentiate between management issues
and racial equity issues
Agreement at all levels, beginning
with a commitment to antiracism at the
highest levels of leadership and active
engagement of a cross-section of staff (or,
ideally, the entire organization)
Commitment to examining and
improving both internal and external
efforts, including ongoing reection and
accountability measures to ensure that
diverse staff are recruited and retained,
policies and practices are continually
reexamined, and progress is sustained
Continuous commitment and constant
attention as partners leave a coalition or
staff members leave an organization and
new ones join
Efforts to measure impact, both
internally and for children and families
Evolving leadership, including—but
certainly not limited to—both institutional
leaders and champions (staff, board
members, key partners) who spearhead
the system’s or organization’s core
commitment to becoming antiracist
A More Perfect Union Parent Cafés:
Helping Caregivers Connect for Racial
Be Strong Families (BSF) has adapted the
Parent Café model to offer a way for parents
and caregivers to connect, learn, and get
support from each other on racial justice
issues. Parent Cafés are one approach to
structured peer-to-peer conversations (see
page 4).
A More Perfect Union Parent Cafés began in
2016 because BSF wanted to respond to how
many African-American parents were feeling
about the racism they were experiencing in
their day-to-day lives. Leadership realized that
what the organization does best—develop
transformative conversations—could allow
people to experience the emotional safety
needed to share their feelings, gain support
from each other, and brainstorm strategies
and solutions to keep their families safe.
What emerged was a realization and a tool:
When people have a safe space to connect
across differences, they develop compassion
for and understanding of other peoples’
realities, disrupt stereotypes, and create
stronger ties to each other. A More Perfect
Union Parent Cafés, organized around the
protective factors, honor the broader context
for parenting in a complex and often unjust
world and help parents and caregivers
positively and proactively navigate this
Movement-Building Organizations
Supporting Equity and Family
The recently established upEND
Movement, an emerging collaborative
launched by CSSP and the University of
Houston, argues that racism is deeply
rooted in child welfare systems’ history,
policies, and practices. It proposes to
dismantle (rather than reform) the current
system and create new, antiracist structures
and practices that address family poverty
and strengthen families while keeping
children safe and protected in their homes.
Through its UnSystem Innovation
Cohort, Alia committed to guiding a set
of 10 public child welfare agency leaders
representing ve jurisdictions through a
whole-system transformation process. Each
jurisdiction works with one professional
and one lived-experience guide toward the
common aspiration of “family connections
are always preserved and strengthened.”
After the rst year of practice, which
involved shifts in agency mindset with
no additional funding, participating
jurisdictions saw a 12-percent reduction
in the number of youth in foster care and
a 37-percent reduction of the number of
youth in congregate care.
The Movement for Family Power works
to end the foster care system and create a
world where the dignity and integrity of all
families is valued and supported. It does
so by building community with and among
people working to shrink the foster care
system, raising social consciousness around
the harms of the foster care system in order
to reclaim and reimagine safe and healthy
families, and disrupting and curtailing
foster care system pipelines to reduce the
harm inicted by family separation.
14 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
South Carolina’s CBCAP lead agency, Children’s Trust, is a member of the State’s
Race Equity and Inclusion (REI) Partnership. The partnership has identied three
overarching goals: to deepen relationships among its members; to infuse REI into
ongoing events of its members and provide support to REI events; and to develop a
resource to help partnership members, learning collaborative members, and others
advance REI into organizational practices and policies. In support of the last goal,
they recently developed and produced two workplace guides, one for leadership
and one for practitioners, that highlight practice and policy recommendations to
facilitate greater racial equity and inclusion. Partnership members also supported the
2019 Equity Summit, a space for those actively engaged in race equity and inclusion
efforts across the southeastern United States to lean on and learn from each other.
Minnesota’s Children and Family Services Administration, the State CBCAP lead
agency, recently updated its vision statement as follows: “An equitable Minnesota
where all communities thrive and children, families, and adults live with dignity.”
The vision is supported by four goals that represent a commitment to equity
through engagement and collaboration with communities, families, and children
throughout the child welfare system to prevent involvement with child protection.
The following goals were designed to help Minnesota provide a continuum of care
for children and families:
1. Improve engagement and collaboration with children, parents, relatives/kin, and
resource families
2. Reduce disparities for African-American and American Indian children
throughout the child welfare system
3. Improve access to and utilization of services that meet the needs of children and
4. Improve safety, permanency, and well-being outcomes for children and families
through utilization of a statewide continuous quality improvement system
South Carolina
Children’s Trust
Children and
Family Services
Questions to Consider
The following are questions to consider about social and cultural norms that encourage positive
parenting practices, family-supportive systems change, and racial equity in your community:
For Staff Working Directly With Families:
Have I asked the families I work with what being a “good parent” means to them? Who do they listen to
about parenting, or whose opinions matter to them the most?
What agency policies or practices support parents’ ability to care for their children? What policies or
practices serve as barriers for families to thrive? What role can I play in addressing those barriers?
How might my personal biases affect the way that I serve some families? How could I learn more about
implicit bias?
16 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
For Agency Leaders and Community Collaboratives:
How could we assess the social and cultural norms around parenting, positive discipline, and actions to
support children and families in our community as a whole and within various subcommunities?
How might these norms affect how parenting programs and offers of support are accessed and
How could we identify the key inuencers in our community that affect individuals’ attitudes and
behaviors? How can relationships with these inuencers be forged and strengthened?
Which evidence-based policies identied by the Essentials for Childhood framework are currently in
place within our jurisdiction?
What do our data tell us about which policies are working well for children and families? Which
policies might need to change to enable all families to thrive?
Who might be willing to partner with us to develop shared messages in support of positive
parenting and systems change for families?
Do we have a shared understanding or agreement about racial equity within our community coalition or
organization today?
What is our understanding of the history of race and racism in our community? How does that
continue to affect children, youth, and families today?
What do the data show about the outcomes that different races and ethnicities experience from
systems, policies, and programs? If disparities are present, which policies or practices contribute
most to those differences?
Do our staff look like the families and communities they serve?
What policies and/or practices are currently in place to address systemic inequality in our
community? Is diversity (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, language, geography) represented in
leadership positions guiding the development and implementation of policies that impact children
and families?
How has our community coalition or organization committed to dismantling systemic inequities?
The system level of the social-ecological model explores
the community and jurisdictional settings within which
parenting occurs. Prevention strategies at the system
level impact the social and physical environment and
require collaboration among multiple organizations.
Increasingly, jurisdictions are embracing a public health
approach to collaborations aimed at preventing child
abuse and neglect. A public health approach focuses on
the health, safety, and well-being of entire populations
rather than on individuals. In a public health approach
to child maltreatment, system partners work collectively
to coordinate their family support efforts and resources,
with the goal of ensuring the greatest benet for the
largest number of people.
Building Protective
Systems: A Public Health
Approach to Preventing
Child Maltreatment
Federal Focus: Supporting
Community Collaborations for
Child Abuse Prevention
Using Community Data to
Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect
Taking a Collective Impact
Approach to Family Support
Implementing Communitywide
Primary Prevention Strategies
18 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Public health is a multidisciplinary, scientic
approach that draws from many elds,
including medicine, epidemiology, sociology,
psychology, and economics. It is grounded in
the analysis of multiple sources of data to
identify the underlying strengths and needs
of the local community: Which groups of
people are most affected by the problem?
Which specic needs are most prevalent?
Where are the areas of greatest need in the
community, and how are community assets
and resources positioned relative to these
areas of greatest need?
Comprehensive data analysis facilitates public
and private stakeholders’ ability to work
together to identify and implement strategies
that effectively address the community’s
unique strengths and needs. Stakeholders
should extend an invitation to participate to
anyone who has an interest in helping families
thrive, including government and nonprot
agencies, businesses, foundations, grassroots
organizers, and persons with lived experience.
Working together in a coordinated way
across sectors has proven more effective than
isolated efforts by individual organizations for
generating large-scale social change.
Such a coordinated effort by many partners
requires a strong sense of collective
responsibility and commitment to a
common goal. Some communities employ a
framework of collective impact, a structured
form of collaboration that brings together
stakeholders committed to solving a specic
social problem. These communities seek to
optimize the health and well-being of children
and families by implementing mutually
reinforcing activities across multiple agencies.
The other hallmark of a public health
approach to child maltreatment prevention
is the use of primary prevention strategies
to promote the skills, strengths, and supports
that all parents need to keep their children
safe and thriving. These efforts are available
to support all families and prevent harm
before it occurs. They include strategies
such as voluntary home visiting and family
resource centers, which are embedded
in the community and offer parents and
caregivers a variety of formal and informal
supports. Primary prevention strategies are
generally less expensive and less intrusive in
the lives of families than child welfare system
involvement and foster care placement.
Building family strengths in this way results in
increased safety, improved health, stronger
communities, and lasting self-sufciency.
Focused on families where
maltreatment has already occurred
Focused on families where risk
factors are present
Directed at the general
Many Federal agencies have an interest in
ensuring that children grow up in nurturing
and safe communities, free from violence.
The following recent Federal grant programs
support multidisciplinary, community-level
efforts to prevent child abuse and neglect.
Community Collaborations to
Strengthen and Preserve Families
In scal year 2018, the Children’s Bureau
funded the Community Collaborations to
Strengthen and Preserve Families grants to
support further development, implementation,
and evaluation of community-based primary
prevention strategies to strengthen families,
prevent maltreatment, and reduce entries
into the child welfare system. Applicants were
asked to consider how their projects would
support a continuum of integrated family
support and prevention services and enhance
the capacity of communities to address the
well-being needs of families before more
formal interventions were needed.
One grantee, the Nebraska Children
and Families Foundation, developed the
Community Collaborative Toolkit to help
communities assess readiness for change,
plan, build capacity, implement and evaluate
prevention strategies, develop sustainability
plans, and identify policy goals to improve
the impact and long-term outcomes for
children, youth, and families. Based on the
Institute of Medicine’s 2003 Framework for
Collaborative Community Action on Health,
the toolkit provides numerous turnkey tools
and processes to assist in the development of
a priority plan for community well-being.
Child Safety Forward Initiative
The U.S. Department of Justice, Ofce of
Justice Programs, Ofce for Victims of Crime
(OVC) is funding a 3-year demonstration
initiative in ve jurisdictions to develop
strategies and responses to address serious
or near-death injuries as a result of child
abuse or neglect and to reduce the number
of child fatalities. Grantees will take a public
health approach, based on recommendations
from the Commission to Eliminate Child
Abuse and Neglect Fatalities (CECANF).
CECANF’s recommended approach to
child safety engages a broad spectrum of
community agencies and systems to identify,
test, and evaluate strategies to prevent
harm to children. CECANF also emphasized
the importance of strong leadership, data-
driven decision-making, and multidisciplinary
support for families.
Each of the ve funded sites is implementing
CECANF’s vision of reducing serious
injuries and preventing fatalities in its own
way. Technical assistance for grantees
is coordinated by the Within Our Reach
ofce at the Alliance for Strong Families
and Communities and provided by a team
of national experts in data collection and
analysis, safety science and safety culture,
collective impact, engagement of persons
with lived experience, communication
and framing science, and developmental
More information can be found on the
Alliance for Strong Families and Communities
20 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
In 2018, following an
environmental scan
and feedback from key
stakeholders, Children’s Trust
of South Carolina, the State’s
CBCAP lead agency, designed
a cross-sector framework for
local communities that focuses
on supporting child well-being
and preventing ACEs. The
Empower Action Model merges
important frameworks within
public health and community
psychology—the social-
ecological model, protective
factors, the life course
perspective, and race equity
and inclusion—with actionable
items to prevent child
maltreatment, build resilience for all families, and address determinants of equity.
The model is focused on the principles of understanding, support, resilience,
inclusion, connection, and growth at each level of the social-ecological framework.
It provides concrete examples of how to apply each of these principles in a checklist
format. This model can help communities assess their needs and readiness for
change, build partnerships and collaborations, identify areas of opportunity for
growth and development, and create a plan.
Local partner coalitions apply the Empower Action Model to develop action plans to
increase family support and build parental protective factors within their respective
populations. Children’s Trust provides facilitation support and technical assistance
and measures the process and outcomes.
South Carolina is currently working with three communities to implement the
Empower Action Model. One of these efforts, Resilient Midlands, is a countywide
initiative to prevent and mitigate the effects of childhood trauma. Resilient Midlands
includes a communitywide awareness campaign that highlights the social and
economic impacts of ACEs through a series of training opportunities for community
members. The Resilient Midlands coalition includes more than 40 area organizations.
Find more information about the Empower Action Model on the Children’s Trust of
South Carolina website.
Early Childhood Adulthood
Public Policy
Interpersonal (Family)
Individual (Child)
South Carolina
Children’s Trust
Image courtesy of South Carolina Children’s Trust
Data are the foundation of a public health
approach. Robust, integrated, multisystemic
data help communities understand the nature
and extent of family risk and protective
factors, map community assets, effectively
direct prevention resources, and monitor the
progress and impact of chosen interventions.
The following are a few of the many ways to
enhance the use of community-level data in
child abuse prevention efforts:
Support and expand the practice of
data sharing among organizations
serving children, youth, and families,
including the courts, child welfare services,
law enforcement, mental health and
substance use disorder services, and
other systems, to better identify and
serve families in need of support before a
crisis occurs. Data-sharing efforts should
consider issues of condentiality, common
data elements, the integration of different
information systems, and other factors.
Review and present data with a racial
equity lens. According to Racial Equity
Tools, using an equity lens requires
consistently disaggregating data by
race and ethnicity. When disparity or
disproportionality is revealed, explore
structural causes to avoid perpetuating
group stereotypes.
Explore ethical uses of predictive
analytics, which is the use of past data
to predict what will happen in the future.
Such approaches may improve the
accuracy of decision-making and help
ensure scarce resources reach those
who need them most. Many experts
agree that predictive analytics are most
useful when data supports (rather than
supplants) human judgment and when
systems are implemented with community
transparency and input.
Use data mapping, which uses
geographic information systems to
visualize specic demographic information
along geographic boundaries. For
example, researchers can look at the
correlation between poverty rates or
other demographic data and reports of
child abuse in neighborhoods to begin
to understand where additional resources
may be needed or why certain areas have
higher rates of foster care.
Track the well-being of children and
families over time. Data can help monitor
the progress of individual prevention
strategies, assess how well they are
working, and inform where changes
are needed to improve outcomes.
Some communities are exploring the
development of community-level safety
and well-being indicators to provide
similar information about the success of
their collaborative efforts.
Predict Align Prevent: Data Mapping to
Support Child Abuse Prevention
Funding for child maltreatment prevention
and related social services is limited. To
benet the greatest number of children and
families, it is critical for communities to know
two things:
1. What is the most effective combination of
child maltreatment prevention services?
2. Where should those services be located?
Predict Align Prevent attempts to answer
those questions by using data mapping to
predict where future child maltreatment will
occur before it occurs and to determine
which protective factors will be most helpful
in preventing it in each unique community.
At a national level, Predict Align Prevent
hopes to eventually identify the combinations
of programs, services, and infrastructure
that reliably prevent child maltreatment and
related risks across jurisdictions.
22 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Predict Align Prevent undertakes a three-
step process in partnership with existing
community leaders, stakeholders, community
members, and coalitions:
Predict : Machine learning (a form of
articial intelligence) predicts where child
maltreatment is likely to occur in the future
by identifying the places where children
have historically been at greatest risk
of maltreatment in the community and
how that correlates to other risk factors. It
does this geographically, without proling
Align : Communities identify where
prevention services and other critical
supports are offered and how those
locations match up with the highest
risk areas for maltreatment. These data
support community partners in developing
and executing a data-driven strategic plan
for prevention.
Prevent : Over time, the effectiveness
of prevention efforts is evaluated using
objective, population-level measures
of child health and safety. This quality
improvement cycle is intended to
uncover, strengthen, and replicate
effective prevention initiatives.
Predict Align Prevent’s machine-learning
tools are open-source and available to all
communities. For more information, visit the
Predict Align Prevent website.
The Arkansas Children’s Trust Fund within the State’s Division of Children and
Family Services (DCFS) worked with Predict Align Prevent to complete an analysis
of child maltreatment risk in Little Rock, the State’s most populous city. The project
mapped past maltreatment, child and adult deaths, crime, and other risk factors
associated with maltreatment, as well as protective factors such as child care centers,
churches, and home visiting programs. The resulting maps clearly demonstrate
that child abuse and neglect cooccur geographically with other poor outcomes,
providing a powerful visualization of community needs.
The next step will be to align resources where they can do the most good. For
example, one of the most signicant ndings is the discovery that 53 percent of
all preventable child deaths in Little Rock occurred in the 15 percent of the city
where child maltreatment risk is highest. Furthermore, almost all child maltreatment
fatalities occurred in the two highest risk areas of the city. These insights can help
the city more precisely target primary prevention programs.
DCFS convened an advisory board of State and local stakeholders to review the
data. Members of this group represent a cross section of organizations related to
children and family services: early childhood education programs, the Little Rock
school district, City of Little Rock employees, domestic violence shelters, homeless
shelters, the local children’s hospital, substance use treatment providers, and many
more. Predict Align Prevent also invited input from local faith leaders and worked
with a team at the University of Arkansas to conduct focus groups with community
members of high-risk areas. The advisory board assisted DCFS in conducting an
environmental scan to identify the programs already serving children and families in
high-need areas and pinpoint any gaps.
Once the analysis and environmental scans are completed, the advisory board
will recommend evidence-based strategies to address identied risk factors and
promote more protective factors for families. These recommendations will serve as a
blueprint for securing and deploying new resources as they become available.
Children’s Trust
Collective impact is one strategy that
communities have found useful when
organizing diverse, multidisciplinary teams
in pursuit of a common goal, such as
preventing child maltreatment and increasing
protective factors within families. Collective
impact differs from collaboration in that it
involves structured, systemic attention to
the relationships between organizations and
how they work together. Agencies focused
on child abuse prevention may nd that their
goals are consistent with a community group
that is already employing a collective impact
approach. If not, they might consider starting
a collective impact group.
Effective collective impact initiatives include
meaningful engagement and leadership
of youth, caregivers, and others with lived
experiences from the communities they serve.
Without intentional community engagement
and involvement, proposed solutions may not
be appropriate, acceptable, or compatible
with community needs, and changes may
reinforce existing inequitable power structures.
The following are essential principles of
collective impact practice:
Design and implement the initiative with a
priority on equity.
Include community members in the
Recruit and cocreate with cross-sector
Use data to continuously learn, adapt, and
Cultivate leaders with unique system
leadership skills.
Focus on programs and system strategies.
Build a culture that fosters relationships,
trust, and respect across participants.
Customize for local context.
Find more information, visit the Collective
Impact Forum.
Collective impact is commonly identied by ve essential conditions:
Common agenda, including a shared vision for child and family well-being, a
common understanding of the problem of child maltreatment, and a joint approach
to preventing maltreatment or increasing protective factors within families
Shared measurement systems, with agreement on how child abuse prevention
and family well-being will be measured and reported for accountability
Mutually reinforcing activities undertaken by participants in ways that support
and coordinate with other partners within an overarching plan
Continuous communication among partners to develop trust and a common
Backbone support provided by a separate organization and staff with specic
skills in facilitation, technology, communications, data collection and reporting, and
24 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
90by30: Using Collective Impact to
Build a Prevention Partnership
90by30 is a community-campus primary
prevention partnership in Lane County, OR,
housed in the University of Oregon’s Center
for the Prevention of Abuse and Neglect. It
is rooted in local concerns and needs and
incorporates a collective impact framework
focused on the protective factors. Members of
90by30’s Regional Leadership Teams represent
faith-based communities, education systems,
child protection agencies, businesses, service
groups, governments, legal communities, and
survivors of abuse and neglect.
In 2013, 90by30 launched a countywide
telephone survey to achieve a baseline
understanding of community norms related
to child maltreatment prevention. The survey
found that the vast majority of Lane County
adults believed that everyone has a role in
preventing child abuse and neglect
(85 percent) and that keeping children safe
is one of the most important responsibilities
of adulthood (98 percent). By contrast, nearly
half (43 percent) of survey respondents were
not sure what they could do personally to
solve the problem.
The county was divided into seven
geographic regions. Each regional team, led
by local residents volunteering their time,
developed its own prevention plan with a
unique blend of research-informed strategies
and resources mapped to protective factors.
For example, several of the county’s rural
regions selected the Welcome Baby Bundle as
a key strategy to decrease parental isolation.
This program offers all new parents both
concrete support and social connections in
the form of a gift box stocked with essential
infant care items and information about
community resources. Numerous community
organizations and groups are involved in
creating and donating the contents.
90by30 has a vigorous research agenda,
including a prevalence study, which was
piloted recently in Lane County Schools,
that will track rates of abuse and neglect
in Lane County and Oregon over time.
The regional plans are also complemented
by an overarching countywide strategy:
the K(no)w More media campaign, which
emphasizes that once we know more about
child abuse and how to prevent it, we can
say no more to anything that harms children
and families. It emphasizes the idea that every
person in the community has a role to play in
ending child abuse. The K(no)w More website
launched in April 2019 and was bolstered by
radio public service announcements and a
social media presence.
“We want to give people the tools to
‘play their part’ in keeping kids safe and
healthy. If we can change the mindset that
child abuse is someone else’s problem—a
problem to be solved by the police or child
protective services or schools—we can shift
the social norms that keep us from coming
together as a ‘village’ to raise a child.”
—90by30 website
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. (2018). Strengthening families through primary
prevention of child maltreatment and unnecessary parent-child separation (ACYF-CB-IM-18-05).
No family raises their children completely
alone or without support. All parents benet
from a temporary “boost”—someone to listen
and offer advice; a place to go for respite and
social connection; or help with rent, child care,
or transportation. These supports, whether
formal or informal, are primary prevention
strategies that strengthen the environment
within which all families—regardless of race,
income, or creed—raise their children.
“Primary prevention addresses
one simple question: How can
we be more proactive in helping
to strengthen the protective
capacities of families and keep
them safe and healthy? The goal
of primary prevention is to help all
families thrive.”
—Deborah Daro, Ph.D., senior research
fellow, Chapin Hall at the University of
Promising and successful primary prevention
programs include services and resources that
have the following characteristics:
Available to anyone who lives in the
community, not just to families deemed to
be at risk
Offered on a voluntary basis
Place-based and centrally located within
the communities where families live,
ensuring easy accessibility
Aligned with community values, norms,
and culture
Offered by public, nonprot, faith-based,
or private providers that are independent
of the government
Focused on enhancing parental protective
Inclusive of concrete supports (e.g., limited
nancial assistance, food assistance,
housing assistance, legal services, respite
or child care), clinical services, and peer
Provided through braided funding that
may include Federal, State, county, city,
and private dollars
Many of these things serve to support positive
community norms (see page 7) around
help-seeking. They create an environment
where the need to ask for help is not viewed
as a threat to the family’s integrity. In this
context, participating in services to prevent
problems from arising or becoming worse is
viewed as a strength rather than a weakness.
Universal Home Visiting Builds Family
Protective Factors
Home visiting is a service-delivery model
employed in many communities to offer
support to parents. When it is offered to
all families in the service area, regardless
of socioeconomic status or risk factors, it
is considered a “universal” program and a
primary prevention strategy.
Home visiting programs can target a
wide variety of family health and well-
being outcomes, including reduced child
maltreatment, increased protective factors,
better prenatal and postnatal health for
mothers and babies, increased use of
positive parenting strategies, and enhanced
connection of families to other supports and
services in the community.
26 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
A number of evidence-based home visiting
models have been developed. Many of these
models provide specialized support to parents
and children in high-priority families, such as
families with low incomes or young parents, or
to individuals serving in the military. However,
others take a universal, primary prevention
approach. Examples of these programs
include the following:
Family Connects, developed in
Durham, NC
Welcome Baby, Los Angeles, CA
Hello Baby, Allegheny County, PA
First Born, New Mexico
In these models, nurse visitors or parent
coaches work with all families who accept a
visit to identify what support they want and
need. If further support is desired, home
visitors provide an individualized, stigma-free
entry point into the community’s system of
care through referrals to other, more intensive
home visiting programs, income and housing
support, and health and social services.
For example, Family Connects is an evidence-
based program (EBP) that connects all parents
of newborns in the service area, regardless
of socioeconomic status, to the community
resources they need through postpartum
nurse home visits. The model was rst piloted
in Durham, NC, in 2008. It is now the country’s
most widely implemented universal home
visiting model.
Randomized controlled trials have shown
that Family Connects strengthens protective
factors, such as the following:
Parental resilience: Mothers were less
likely to report postpartum depression or
Knowledge of parenting and child
development: Mothers reported
signicantly more positive parenting
behaviors, such as hugging, comforting
and reading to their infants.
Nurturing and attachment: Mothers
expressed increased responsivity to, and
acceptance of, their infants.
Concrete supports: Home environments
were improved, with homes being safer
and having more learning materials to
support infant development.
Social connections: Community
connections increased.
In one trial, families who participated had
lower rates of investigation for suspected
child abuse and neglect through the second
year of life.
Questions to Consider
The following are questions to consider as you build more supportive systems for children and
For Staff Working Directly With Families:
What types of data, if any, does my agency provide me about the strengths and needs of families in the
community I serve? How can those data be used to support the families I serve?
What community-level collaborations am I aware of? Is there an opportunity to start or be more engaged
in a collaboration to support families?
Where do the families I serve already seek and receive support in their community? How can I connect
the families I work with to additional voluntary supports, if they identify a need?
28 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
For Agency Leaders and Community Collaboratives:
What are the sources of data that could help us understand families’ strengths and needs at a
population level?
What prevents or impedes data sharing in our community? Who could help us address these barriers?
Are we consistently viewing our organizational- and community-level data with an equity lens?
How might our community benet from the use of predictive analytics or data mapping? (Check
out Casey Family Programs’ free, interactive Community Opportunity Map.)
What collaborations already exist in our community to help families and children thrive? How can we
contribute? Consider lending your voice and skills to an existing collaboration before starting a new one,
if possible. Places to look for collaborators with similar goals include the elds of public health, early
childhood education, and violence prevention.
What sectors are currently represented in our collaborative groups? Which are missing or
underrepresented? Have we reached out to philanthropic partners, the business community, and
faith communities?
How are we engaging or inviting the voices and leadership of community members and persons
with lived experience in our efforts?
If we are not currently using collective impact, how could that model provide a helpful structure for
our efforts?
If our collaboration does not have a backbone organization, what organization(s) have the capacity
to provide that kind of support to further and sustain collaborative efforts?
What are the primary prevention strategies in our community? How can we strengthen those supports
to help all families thrive?
What evidence-based or evidence-supported child maltreatment prevention strategies are currently
available to all families in our community? Which could be expanded? Where are the gaps?
How could our community normalize seeking and receiving support by families? Which families are
more likely to engage in family support and prevention services and why? What steps do we need
to take to ensure a more universal approach to engaging all families in prevention services?
The third level of our social-ecological model recognizes
that organizations can and often must make changes
to their own programs and policies to better align with
communitywide prevention approaches and to more
effectively build protective factors within families.
The well-being of children cannot be separated from
the well-being of their families and communities. When
we support caregivers and other adults, in addition
to providing services directly to children, we naturally
enhance well-being and help prevent child abuse and
neglect (along with other poor outcomes). This is often
described as taking a “two-generation approach” or
a “whole-family approach.” Two-generation (2Gen)
approaches build family well-being by intentionally
and simultaneously working with children and the adults
in their lives together.
Aligning Organizations
for Family Resilience
and Healing
Employing Two-Generation
Approaches to Strengthen
Implementing Trauma-Informed
Care for Children and Their
Federal Focus: National Child
Traumatic Stress Network
Understanding the Protective
Effects of Positive Childhood
30 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
In working with the whole family, it is
important to recognize how trauma can
impact both children and their caregivers.
ACEs research has shown that exposure to
traumatic experiences—including divorce,
domestic violence, parental incarceration,
mental illness, and substance misuse—
can have lifelong health impacts. Recent
discoveries in neuroscience demonstrate
that a prolonged, unresolved “toxic” stress
response triggered by ACEs and other
traumatic experiences can physiologically
alter the structure of the brain. Becoming
more trauma-informed and healing-
centered helps organizations and systems
meet parents and caregivers where they are
and support them in building capacity to
protect and nurture their children. Becoming
more trauma-informed can also help
organizations better understand and support
their own staff, many of whom have personal
trauma histories and/or are exposed to
secondary traumatic stress (STS) through their
day-to-day work with families.
Research is now identifying positive
childhood experiences (PCEs) that may
reduce the long-term effects of ACEs. These
ndings underscore the importance of
focusing on the critical early relationships
between children and their caregivers, while
also suggesting evidence-informed ways to
build resilience for children into adolescence.
We know that changes in the brain continue
to occur at key periods throughout our
lifetimes. Healing is possible at any age, and
there is always room for hope. Understanding
the factors that support resilience, including
protective factors and other PCEs, helps
organizations develop and maintain a
positive focus.
Pennsylvania’s Department of Human Services, Ofce of Child Development and
Early Learning (the State’s CBCAP lead agency) supports responsible fatherhood
programs throughout the State, many of which receive CBCAP funding. These
programs take a 2Gen approach to supporting, counseling, and challenging fathers
to become strong and positive role models within their families. Studies have shown
that involved fathers provide practical support in raising children and serve as
models for their development. Children with involved, loving fathers are signicantly
more likely to do well in school, have healthy self-esteem, and exhibit empathy and
prosocial behavior compared to children who have uninvolved fathers. Fatherhood
programs help fathers achieve the following:
Strengthen positive father-child engagement
Improve employment and economic mobility opportunities
Improve healthy relationships (including coparenting)
Some agencies implement fatherhood classes; others provide more direct one-on-
one interventions. In Allegheny County, the Promoting Responsible Fatherhood
(PRF) program conducts outreach to target populations and participates in a
quarterly community dinner, hosting a table with activities and information for both
children and families. In Lancaster County, PRF collaborates closely with Head Start
and Parents as Teachers to ensure targeted outreach. The program also collaborates
with Teen ELECT to identify and support teen fathers.
Ofce of Child
and Early
Ascend, Aspen Institute. Advancing family economic mobility. A 2Gen approach.
The protective factors framework has long
recognized the interdependence of child and
family well-being, noting the importance of
parental resilience, concrete support, and
social connections to the prevention of child
abuse and neglect. However, many human
service organizations still offer support in
exclusively a child-focused or parent-focused
way. 2Gen approaches build family well-being
by intentionally and simultaneously working
with children and the adults in their lives.
For example, at the onset of the COVID-19
pandemic, many jurisdictions faced a
choice in how to respond to a sudden
decline in child protection hotline calls
and accompanying concerns about child
safety. Some took a strictly child safety-
focused approach by alerting mandatory
reporters to stay mindful and ensuring they
understood when and how to report safety
concerns. Others took a 2Gen approach,
working collectively with their communities to
promote both child safety and family well-
being through concrete supports, warmlines
and other mental health services for adults,
testing and treatment for COVID-related
illness, and child care for essential workers.
Research shows that supporting children and
their caregivers together through a 2Gen
approach yields benets for generations:
A college degree doubles a parent’s
A $3,000 increase in family income
during early childhood is associated with
a 17-percent increase in a child’s future
earnings as an adult.
High quality early childhood education
offers a 14-percent return on investment.
Parents with health insurance are more
likely to seek care for their children.
There are ve key components of the 2Gen
approach: postsecondary education and
employment pathways, early childhood
education and development, economic assets,
health and well-being, and social capital. For
child-focused programs (e.g., early childhood
development programs), embracing a 2Gen
approach means building in supports for
caregivers, such as parenting skills training,
family literacy, and health screening. Similarly,
for caregiver-focused programs (e.g.,
workforce education), it means incorporating
child-focused supports such as early learning
or food and nutrition programs.
2Gen programs and policies are ultimately
measured by how well they meet the needs of
the whole family. However, not all programs
can serve the needs of both children and the
adults in their lives. In many cases, taking
a 2Gen approach may require connecting
with other organizations in your community
to ensure that the communitywide system of
care supports the full continuum of child and
caregiver needs.
Image courtesy of Ascend at the Aspen Institute
32 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Ascend at the Aspen Institute Offers A
Roadmap for a 2Gen Approach
Ascend, one of 36 policy programs at the Aspen
Institute, is a hub for breakthrough ideas and
collaborations that move children and their parents
toward educational success and economic security
using a 2Gen approach. Ascend describes a 2Gen/
whole-family organization continuum that many
organizations progress through as they deepen their
2Gen work:
Approach: A 2Gen approach rst requires a new
mindset for designing programs and policies that
serve children and parents simultaneously. This often
begins with culture-change initiatives, training, and
professional development to help staff reenvision
services and supports for families.
Strategy: In the next phase, organizations begin
aligning and coordinating services with other
community partners to meet the needs of all family
members. Piloting new approaches to services also
occurs during the strategy phase.
Organization: In the third phase, organizations
provide services to both children and the adults in
their lives simultaneously, tracking outcomes for both.
The Ascend National Network includes more than 420
partners active in all 50 states, the District of Columbia,
and Puerto Rico. There are a number of case studies
and resources to advance 2Gen approaches available
on the Ascend website.
“The birth of a child is a time of biological
and neurological change, not just
for infants but also for their primary
caregivers. If you reach a parent at just
the right moment, they are often much
more open, ready, and motivated to
access education or job training because
they want to provide for their kids.”
—Anne Mosle, vice president, Aspen Institute, and
executive director, Ascend
The Yurok Tribe established Joint
Jurisdiction Family Wellness Courts with
Del Norte County and Humboldt County,
CA. The partnership developed a 2Gen
prevention program to help young families
struggling with maternal substance use
disorders stay together and thrive.
County child welfare agencies are often
unable to develop a plan of safe care or
provide services to families struggling with
substance misuse until after an infant is
born. Too many of those infants are then
separated from their families, at a critical
time for bonding and development, until
the care plan can be implemented. Through
this partnership with the Tribal court and
Tribal service providers, Tribal members
who are pregnant or have just given birth
and who are struggling with substance
use are now offered a voluntary, strength-
based, and culturally grounded family
wellness plan and can begin receiving
support before their infants are born.
These comprehensive plans provide
opportunities to decrease harm to an
unborn infant and address the needs of
all family members. When a child welfare
agency is notied of an infant affected by
prenatal substance exposure, it can factor
the plan into its decisions, often preventing
separation of the infant from the family.
The plans include linkages to services
such as medication-assisted treatment,
substance use disorder counseling,
and child care, as well as programs that
promote healthier connections to family,
Tribal identity, and culture.
The program is new but has already
shown some promise in preventing family
separation and strengthening infant well-
being. Partners hope that early successes
will help destigmatize support and
encourage more women with substance
use disorders to come forward for
treatment during their pregnancies.
Colorado’s Department of Human Services kicked off a departmentwide 2Gen
approach, 2GO, in 2015. The department employs an integrated framework of
economic supports, education, skills building, early childhood education, and
social supports.
CBCAP funds supported several 2GO grant opportunities. Focus Points Family
Resource Center’s Huerta Urbana program worked with immigrant women in
northeast Denver through an “earning while learning” model. The program taught
technical agricultural skills, business development skills, and transferable soft
skills through a healthy eating and nutrition curriculum with activities for adults
and children, both separately and together. Participants experienced at least a
15-percent increase in income during and after the program.
A second CBCAP-supported program, Joint Initiatives for Youth and Families in El
Paso County, TX, sought to reduce child maltreatment and improve economic and
educational success for parents in neighborhoods with concentrated poverty. This
was accomplished by building neighborhood-level leadership and maintaining its
Shared Leadership Consortium, which is composed of at least 51 percent parent
leaders. The project gathered data about effective family support through focus
groups, Parent Cafés, and community forums and created 2Gen services to meet
the community’s identied needs.
According to the National Child Traumatic
Stress Network (NCTSN), a trauma-informed
child and family service system is
… one in which all parties involved
recognize and respond to the impact
of traumatic stress on those who have
contact with the system including children,
caregivers, and service providers. Programs
and agencies within such a system infuse
and sustain trauma awareness, knowledge,
and skills into their organizational
cultures, practices, and policies. They act
in collaboration with all those who are
involved with the child, using the best
available science, to maximize physical and
psychological safety, facilitate the recovery
of the child and family, and support their
ability to thrive.
Agencies and programs within such a
system regularly screen children and families
for trauma exposure and provide or refer
to evidence-based, culturally responsive
treatment for symptoms of traumatic stress.
They also engage in efforts to strengthen
resilience and protective factors for children
and families vulnerable to trauma.
The following are characteristics of trauma-
informed organizations:
Understand that families play an
important role in preventing and
recovering from trauma. Carrying out
rituals and traditions, sharing memories
and feelings, and working together to
solve problems, manage stress, and plan
for the future are all ways that families
can weather a traumatic event and grow
stronger together.
Department of
Human Services
Texas (El Paso
Joint Initiatives
for Youth and
34 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Acknowledge that all families
experience trauma differently. Many
factors, including a child’s age and the
family’s culture or ethnicity, may inuence
how a family copes and recovers from
trauma. Trauma-informed systems
acknowledge structural inequalities and
respond to the unique needs of diverse
communities with cultural awareness and
humility. Even within families, different
members may have different reactions to
the same event.
Encourage partnership among families,
youth, and providers. Such partnerships
benet from both professional expertise
and personal experiences to achieve more
successful and meaningful outcomes
that are codened by all members of the
relationship. True partnerships require
mutual respect and shared responsibility
for planning, selecting, and evaluating
services and supports.
Attend to staff trauma and STS. When
individuals hear about the traumatic
experiences of others, they can experience
empathetic emotional distress. Exposure
to clients’ trauma may also activate trauma
triggers from the staff member’s own past.
These experiences can lead to symptoms
of STS, which is common among helping
professionals. Unaddressed, STS can
negatively affect staff’s professional and
personal lives. Organizations can address
STS through supervisory support, training,
and policies that encourage self-care (e.g.,
ex time, caseload management).
“When you have a workforce
that understands what trauma is,
the impact of it, and what they
can do about it in their role, and
when they feel supported and
have some skills to help them
cope with their own emotions and
trauma history, then you have a
staff who can engage, connect,
and be compassionate with
families. In simple terms, that’s
what it’s all about.”
—Jane Halladay Goldman, director of
service systems, NCTSN
The Northwest Ohio Regional Prevention Council provides trauma-informed
consultations and train-the-trainer trainings in early childhood settings throughout
the region. Consultation services take a collaborative approach that allows the child
care providers to better understand and problem-solve challenging child behaviors,
both in and outside of the classroom. As early child care providers assess children
for behavioral services, they are able to ensure that children who have experienced
trauma can be appropriately referred for services.
Trauma-informed consultants work onsite to help centers provide family-focused
technical assistance to parents and child care providers and to reinforce best
practices through modeling and activities with children. The training includes a unit
on STS called “Understanding Your Own Trauma and Building Resilience.”
Ohio Regional
NCTSN was created by Congress in 2000 to
raise the standard of care and increase access to
services for children and families who experience
or witness traumatic events. This unique
network of frontline providers, family members,
researchers, and national partners is committed
to changing the course of children’s lives by
improving their care and moving scientic gains
quickly into practice across the United States.
NCTSN is administered by the Substance Abuse
and Mental Health Services Administration and
coordinated by the UCLA-Duke University National
Center for Child Traumatic Stress (NCCTS).
The NCTSN Trauma-Informed Organizational
Assessment is a tool to help organizations assess
their current practices in the context of serving
children and families who have experienced
trauma. Results from the assessment can drive
change to facilitate the recovery of the child
and family, maximize physical and psychological
safety, provide for the needs and well-being of
staff, and support the child’s and family’s ability
to thrive. Created by NCCTS, the assessment
is arranged by domains and maps onto the
NCTSN denition of a trauma-informed child and
family service system. The following domains are
included in the assessment:
Trauma screening
Assessment, care planning, and treatment
Workforce development
Strengthening resilience and protective factors
Addressing parent and caregiver trauma
Continuity of care and cross-system
Addressing, reducing, and treating STS
Partnering with youth and families
Addressing the intersections of culture, race,
and trauma
When the Salt River Pima-Maricopa
Indian Community recognized that its
social services programs were seeing
recurring struggles in multiple generations
of the same families, the Tribal Council
undertook a new initiative to become
better informed as a community about
historical and intergenerational trauma.
They began with focus groups, an
organizational survey, and interviews
with staff in three departments (social
services, the family advocacy center, and
health and human services) that encounter
many of the same families. All staff, as
well as all members of the Tribal Council,
received training on trauma, historical
trauma, and developing a healthy racial
and ethnic identity.
The community’s behavioral health
services and family advocacy center now
employ trauma-trained therapists who
offer evidence-based, culturally responsive
treatment. They use the Medicine Wheel,
familiar to many American Indian/Alaska
Native people, to explain the impact of
trauma on families and encourage healing.
The Department of Social Services created
the Circles of Support program, which
accepts referrals from multiple Tribal
departments, including education, to
identify and wrap services around families
at risk before they reach a crisis. When
a crisis does occur and child protective
services are needed, a trauma response
team provides advocacy and support to
the family involved.
36 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Once deployed, the assessment will
contribute to the body of evidence around
the importance of being trauma informed. If
you are interested in using this tool, please
The Intermountain Healthcare (Utah) care
process model, Diagnosis and Management
of Traumatic Stress in Pediatric Patients, is
another tool funded by NCTSN. The guide
cites the high prevalence of traumatic
experiences, their disproportionate impact
on children of color, and poor health and
mental health outcomes as the reason the
guide was developed. It offers best-practice
recommendations for primary care and
children’s advocacy center settings,
age-appropriate screening tools and road
maps for care, and specic guidance for
immediate in-ofce interventions for specic
trauma symptoms. Care providers are urged
to follow up with children and families at
regular intervals.
In the same way that protective factors
balance our understanding of risk factors,
it is important to understand how positive
experiences, as well as adverse ones,
inuence brain development. Recent research
has begun to explore the ways in which
positive childhood experiences (PCEs)—
including supportive environments and strong
relationships with family and peers—help
children develop normally and become
resilient to adversity. Adding these ndings to
the body of research around ACEs provides
useful insight into how families, communities,
and organizations can help children thrive.
The Wisconsin Behavioral Risk Factor Survey
examined the impact of seven PCEs:
Feeling able to talk to family members
about feelings
Feeling that family stood by them during
difcult times
Enjoying participating in community
Feeling a sense of belonging in high school
Feeling supported by friends
Having at least two nonparent adults who
took genuine interest in them
Feeling safe and protected by an adult in
their home
An analysis of the data demonstrated that,
compared to people with none of the PCEs
included in the study, those who had six or
seven PCEs had a 72-percent lower chance
of having depression or poor mental health.
Adults with three to ve PCEs experienced
a 50-percent reduction in the odds of adult
depression. The analysis also found that,
although risk and resources are unequally
distributed in our society, the effect of
positive experiences to mitigate poor health
outcomes was similarly strong for all income
groups. These ndings led the researchers to
conclude that PCEs can protect children from
developing toxic stress in the face of adversity
and help them heal.
The family strengths and positive experiences
measured in this study are accessible to all
families. Agencies and staff working directly
with families can use this information,
alongside a protective factors framework, to
support families and adolescents in creating
more opportunities for these evidence-
informed PCEs.
The HOPE Framework: Building
Child-Level Protective Factors
HOPE (Healthy Outcomes from Positive
Experiences) combines insights from a
public health approach to preventing child
maltreatment with a broader understanding
of how children grow to become strong,
healthy, and resilient adults. HOPE focuses on
the buffering effects of PCEs and builds on
preexisting strengths in children and families.
A corollary to the CDC’s community-level
approach to emphasizing safe, stable, and
nurturing relationships and environments, the
HOPE framework focuses on the individual
child level. It echoes and builds upon the
protective factors framework.
The tenants of the HOPE framework were
derived by looking for common elements
among successful programs that help children
and adolescents. The framework developers
identied four building blocks for HOPE:
Nurturing and supportive relationships
with peers, parents, and adults outside
the family. In early childhood, the secure
attachments that children form with
affectionate and responsive parents
create the template for all their future
relationships. As kids grow up, peer
relationships and romantic relationships
become more important.
Safe and stable environments. We
know that children need protective and
equitable places to develop, learn, and
play. Positive environments support stable
housing, adequate nutrition and sleep,
high-quality learning and play, and access
to high-quality medical and dental care.
When communities provide these spaces,
kids can thrive.
Constructive engagement and social
connectedness. We all need to know
that we matter to other people and to our
communities. That starts when children
are given responsibilities for family chores.
Older children and teenagers benet
from opportunities to volunteer in their
communities and participate in their
school activities, faith communities, and
cultural traditions.
Opportunities to develop social and
emotional intelligence through playing
and learning with peers and collaboration
in art, drama, and music. Social and
emotional competencies like self-awareness
and self-regulation are key to lifelong
resilience and social support as adults.
Image courtesy of HOPE
(Healthy Outcomes from Positive Experiences)
38 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Idaho Children’s Trust Fund, the State’s CBCAP lead, launched its new HOPE
Conquers ACEs initiative to train professionals in organizations and institutions
that work directly with families on brain development, trauma, ACEs, and PCEs.
Trainers across the State offer presentations that open dialogue and foster
community engagement on a variety of parenting topics. They also offer facilitated
viewings of the lms Resilience and Paper Tigers, both of which highlight the
impacts of childhood trauma and ways it can be successfully addressed.
Trust Fund
“We need to see the people we interact
with in a more complete way than we can
with ACEs screening alone. Adversity is not
destiny—science shows that many people
who suffered quite a bit turn out okay. We
can use that knowledge to help people
so they don’t feel that they’re doomed or
damaged in some way because they’ve
had adversity. And we can begin to identify
specic things that parents can do to help
promote resilience as their children grow up.”
—Robert Sege, M.D., Ph.D., professor, Tufts University
School of Medicine
Questions to Consider
The following are questions to consider as you align your work with a whole-family, trauma-
informed approach to child abuse prevention.
For Staff Working Directly With Families:
Which partner agencies in the community provide services that could complement those I provide, to
ensure that every family member’s needs are met?
What training have I received in trauma-informed care? How does my recognition of trauma, including
historical and racial trauma, affect my practice with children, youth, and families?
Am I aware of how the experiences of families on my caseload trigger my own trauma history? How do I
care for myself, including seeking support when needed?
How might an awareness of PCEs change my work with families? Which PCEs can I help families create
for their children and youth?
40 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
For Agency Leaders and Community Collaboratives:
Is our organization more parent-focused or child-focused, or do we take a 2Gen approach?
How could we partner with other organizations to enhance the range of supports for all members
of the families we serve?
How could our organization move toward a 2Gen approach? If we provide child-focused services,
how might we supplement with services for parents, or vice versa?
In what areas has our organization become trauma-informed? (See the list of domains in NCTSN’s self-
assessment, referenced on page 35.) What are some opportunities for growth?
What are the roots of trauma in our communities? In what areas has our organization become
involved in preventing trauma? Are there times when our organization may further traumatize
children or families?
How does our agency recognize the role of race, culture, ethnicity, and inequality in family and
caregiver experiences of trauma and healing?
How does our agency partner with families and youth in planning, selecting, and evaluating
trauma-informed and healing-centered services and supports?
How do our agency’s training, supervision, and policies help to prevent and address STS among
our workforce?
How might we create or support positive childhood experiences through our programming and outreach?
The fourth layer of the social-ecological model
highlights the spaces where child abuse prevention
and family support agencies interact and engage
with the communities they serve. Community and
family members with lived experience offer a unique
perspective that, when heeded, can improve family
engagement and ultimately increase the effectiveness
of services.
We know that, despite our best efforts, child welfare
systems continue to disproportionately intervene in
families living in poverty and families of color, who
generally have very little power or voice in a system
that affects the most intimate aspects of their lives.
Their involvement with the system too often results
in additional trauma, instead of healing. Although
direct service providers are on the front lines of work
with families, the burden of this legacy cannot fall
on their shoulders alone. Frontline workers, agency
administrators, and community leaders alike must
Embracing Community
and the Wisdom of
Lived Experience
Federal Focus: Head Start/Early
Head Start Policy Councils
Valuing Community Voice
in Program Assessment,
Implementation, and Evaluation
Growing Authentic Partnerships
With Parents, Caregivers, and
42 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
commit to new ways of listening to the
wisdom of people with lived experience and
developing meaningful partnerships with the
communities and families they serve.
Community members are best positioned
to know the strengths their neighborhoods
possess, understand the challenges they
face, and propose innovative solutions.
Effective systems value the knowledge and
observations of community members about
their own lived experience, their strengths and
needs, and community capacities and seek to
share power equitably.
Meaningful and authentic partnership
with families and community members
with lived experience goes far beyond
seeking their input on initiatives or having
them represented on committees or
in meetings. It means giving parents,
caregivers, and youth the opportunity to
be heard and to actively contribute to all
decisions that affect their lives at all levels
of policy, research, and practice. It also
means soliciting and using the perceptions,
experiences, and recommendations of those
with lived expertise to inform system-level
improvements. Utilizing and integrating family,
youth, and community voice in all aspects of
decision-making is a strength-based approach
that can increase engagement. Parents,
caregivers, and youth should be compensated
for their expertise and provided with whatever
is needed to support their full involvement.
The strategies and examples highlighted in
this chapter show that it is possible to tap
into the tremendous wisdom and strength
present in our communities, align our efforts
with those of community leaders, and provide
real opportunities that enhance the inherent
strengths and leadership abilities of caregivers
and youth. Doing so will benet organizations,
families, and the overall community, as we are
all stronger when we work together toward a
shared goal.
Head Start and Early Head Start are national
models of early care and education with
strong foundations in family engagement and
community partnership. The founders of Head
Start viewed parents as essential partners in
the agency’s work to educate young children
and ensure their health and well-being.
They believed that parents receiving Head
Start services should help decide how those
services could most benet their family and
other families in the community.
As a result, Head Start created a formal
leadership and policymaking role for parents
and community members, referred to in
Head Start/Early Head Start programs as a
“Policy Council.” Today, every Head Start
and Early Head Start agency is required to
have a Policy Council as part of its shared
leadership structure. The Head Start Program
Performance Standards describe what Policy
Councils do and who can be a member.
Policy Council members make decisions about
how the program operates, including areas
such as approving the budget and hiring and
ring staff. Parents who serve on the council
receive training and support to ensure they
are prepared to make those decisions. Serving
on the Policy Council strengthens parents’
leadership and advocacy skills as well as their
connections to their peers and the community.
Head Start offers a number of useful Policy
Council resources for both organizations and
Smart, J. (2017). Critiques of collective impact: Need for policy and systems change. In: Collective impact: Evidence
and implications for practice. CFCA Paper No. 45. Child Family Community Australia.
Successful prevention program implementation
and assessment require a deep understanding
of the communities you hope to serve. That
means not only extending invitations but
listening to and incorporating input from
community leaders. This can best be achieved
by attending to power dynamics and seeking
ways to share power more equitably. Consider
taking the following actions:
Make meaningful community
engagement a priority. Community
engagement should not be limited
to consultation on specic issues or
campaigns. Seek opportunities to solicit
and use the perceptions, experiences, and
recommendations of community members
to make system-level improvements and to
use their input in making critical decisions
that affect their lives.
Partner “content experts” (those with
expertise about child abuse prevention
and family support) with “context
experts” (those with lived experience in
the community). Value the knowledge and
experience of both.
Implement culturally competent EBPs.
Implemented well, EBPs can increase
the likelihood of positive outcomes and
satisfy funders who increasingly require
this approach. However, it is important
for selected practices to be effective for
the targeted community. This requires
the involvement of the community in
identifying, assessing, and implementing
strategies that are both supported by
scientic research and consistent with the
community’s culture and values.
Recognize promising practices. Where
possible, consider implementing or
partnering with practices and services that
are highly valued within the community
but may lack the resources to establish a
robust level of evidence required to meet
EBP standards.
Engage community members in
designing and completing program
evaluations. Community voice should
help drive the questions asked and the
criteria for determining whether a program
is successful.
Seek out grassroots organizers.
Grassroots organizations are often
more exible in their use of funds, and
organizers typically have a different view of
and relationship with the community than
service providers.
Compensate community experts
and provide meaningful leadership
opportunities. Offering compensation
and opportunities for growth, in addition
to a “seat at the table,” shows you value
the community and builds trust.
Hire staff that represent the community,
ideally including people with lived
experience, but at minimum those who
reect the community served in race,
ethnicity, and culture.
Be present in the communities you
serve. The more you live, play, and
show up in the community you serve,
the more the people of that community
will trust you. Shop, recreate, and attend
community and school events to break
down articial barriers.
Be open to transformative change—
truly doing things differently.
Transformation is more likely when
meaningful community engagement
occurs, because community members
may be less attached to the status quo.
Organizations and systems will benet
most from community engagement when
they are open to new perspectives and
willing to engage in difcult conversations.
44 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Home Instruction for Parents of
Preschool Youngsters USA: Prioritizing
Community Fit
Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool
Youngsters (HIPPY) works closely with host
communities around the world to support
parents in their critical role as their child’s
rst and most important teacher. Local HIPPY
afliate programs are partnerships between
those who know the curriculum and those
who know the community where the program
will be implemented. Both are essential,
which is why one of the key factors in starting
a HIPPY program in a new community is
nding the right organizational partner, where
parents feel welcomed, comfortable, and
respected. Depending on the community,
this might be a school, family resource center,
or community-based agency (e.g., public
housing authority, hospital).
Fresno County, CA, has reduced the disproportionate representation of African-American children and
families in its child welfare system over time by strengthening the agency’s commitment to equity and
caseworkers’ ability to be responsive to families and community.
Beginning in 2003, early efforts included analyzing and sharing data disaggregated by race to identify the
problem, creating a Disproportionality Advisory Committee, and bringing Undoing Racism training to all
Department of Social Services (DSS) staff. The county also implemented the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s
Family to Family initiative and created a cultural broker program through which community members were
trained to advocate for families in the child welfare system.
By early 2009, these efforts had produced some positive results, but DSS leadership wanted to understand
why many of the system decits persisted. They partnered with CSSP to pilot an institutional analysis (IA).
A trained team of local and national partners conducted iterative and structured interviews with parents
and youth, agency leaders, community partners, and other stakeholders; observations; case reviews; and
text analysis to better understand the organizational factors contributing to disparate outcomes for African-
American children.
The report indicated that the system was not treating African-American families as individuals with unique
needs and strengths; rather, it was moving them through an assembly line of workers to services that did
not support families to be stable, heal, and safely care for their children. As a result, DSS leadership took
immediate steps and instituted long-term reform strategies to improve casework and implement institutional
change. Immediate steps included providing Racial Sobriety training to the entire workforce and expanded
the use of cultural brokers or parent partners in joint responses to initial child maltreatment reports.
Along with other long-term strategies, such as implementing a practice model, aligning its system to support
the model, and implementing continuous quality improvement, DSS continued to strengthen community
engagement. Key community advisors and leaders provided advice to DSS leadership on disparity issues and
the development of the new strategic plan and case practice model. The county also included community
partners in assessing caseworkers’ delity to the case practice model. DSS compensated community groups
and members for their time.
In 2000, 24 percent of children and youth in the Fresno County foster care system were African American,
despite the fact that African Americans composed only 6 percent of the county’s population. By 2013, the
disproportionality of the foster care population was greatly reduced (although not eliminated): African-
American children made up 14 percent of the foster care population and 5 percent of the general population.
Organizations interested in bringing HIPPY
to their community rst conduct a needs
assessment to determine the following:
Why a HIPPY program is needed in the
How the HIPPY program will address
community needs
What the relationship will be between
the HIPPY program and other community
How the HIPPY program will t into the
community history and culture
In addition to working closely with community
stakeholders, HIPPY places a high priority on
hiring home visitors from the community.
More than 50 percent of HIPPY home visitors
are former program recipients.
Today’s human service leaders are
recognizing that opportunities for meaningful
engagement with current and past program
recipients extend far beyond soliciting input,
inviting representation at meetings, or hosting
panel presentations at conferences. Parents,
caregivers, and youth can play meaningful
roles in all areas, including but not limited to
the following:
Strategic sharing of their lived experience
Selecting and improving programs
Developing practice models and standards
Ensuring greater attention to the diverse
cultural interests of families
Providing direct services, such as through
parent partner programs
Participating in governance and hiring
Setting organizational policy
Establishing research agendas
Helping with publications and messaging
Translating data into real-life experiences
Educating policymakers
Making funding decisions
Advising and engaging in community
The Children’s Trust Fund Alliance (CTFA)
outlines four stages of building and sustaining
effective parent partnerships—similar
strategies can apply to partnerships with other
caregivers and/or youth:
1. Strong partnerships begin with self-
reection. Before engaging parents,
caregivers, or youth, organizational
leaders are encouraged to reect on
why the partnership is important; what
strengths family members offer; what
the organization can offer in return;
and what benets they hope to achieve
for themselves, their programs, their
organization, and the families they serve.
2. Partnerships support participation
in a variety of forms. When parents,
caregivers, and youth can contribute
to a program in a way that builds on
their unique strengths, it respects their
voice and their culture, encourages their
participation, and supports opportunities
for growth.
3. Partnerships link organizations to
community. Parent, caregiver, and youth
partners can be strong allies in carrying the
mission and messaging of an organization
or program to the broader community. This
can help build credibility and trust with
other families. Many parents and youth
who come to the attention of a program
director are already established leaders in
their own communities. It is easier to build
relationships if these community leaders
feel their culture is respected and see the
direct benets their work with you can
have in their own community.
4. Partnerships invite experienced people
with lived experience to mentor others.
It is important to have more than one or
two partners with lived experience so
that the organization can benet from
diverse perspectives and individuals are
not overextended. With support and
encouragement, experienced parents,
caregivers, and youth can become
involved in State-level project design,
grant reviews, policy development, hiring
activities, and interagency activities.
The best way to ensure a continuum
of partnerships with people with lived
experience is to create a wide variety of
activities and encourage current partners
and leaders to invite others to participate.
CTFAs website offers useful resources on
partnering with parents. FRIENDS also offers
a guidebook for meaningful parent
leadership and parent-practitioner
Parent and Youth Advisory Councils
Grow Leaders
Parent advisory councils are one way that
many organizations create and sustain
authentic roles for parent partners in shaping
programs, policies, and strategies. They can
help to institutionalize parent partnerships so
that these relationships do not rely on a single
staff person or an individual parent and can
be sustained for the long term.
Youth also have valuable knowledge about
the communities in which they live and the
services designed for them. Youth advisory
boards and councils can engage young
people in examining programs, practices,
and policies that affect their lives and in
advocating for system improvement.
CTFA supports organizations in taking the
following steps toward developing effective
advisory councils:
Create a planning group that includes
both designated staff and parents (or
youth) right from the beginning.
Establish the council’s purpose,
membership, and structure. Some
organizations feel an inclusive approach is
best, while others nd benets in limiting
membership (to foster or birth parents, for
example, rather than both together).
“Prevention begins with authentic
relationships in the community and with
parents. The Birth Parent National Network
seeks to push our country forward by
elevating the voices of parents and
organizations that are bold enough to
scream ‘parents aren’t broken!’ We see
parents as treasured leaders—wise and
lled with hope. I encourage all to continue
mining for gold, not digging for dirt. There’s
a nugget inside of all of us. If you can’t nd
it, you’re not looking hard enough.”
—Corey Best, consultant and parent
Develop roles and responsibilities for
council members and the staff who will
support them.
Identify staff and budget. A designated
staff position and a set-aside budget are
cited as critical factors for sustainability.
Develop a recruitment plan and
selection process. Once established,
council members can be responsible for
joining with designated staff to recruit,
interview, and select new members.
Hold orientation meetings and trainings.
CTFA works closely with organizations and
council members to provide orientation
and trainings on strategic sharing;
successful partnerships; the protective
factors framework; team building;
leadership; and the programs, stafng,
and policies of the organization.
Evaluate and revise strategies as
needed for long-term success. It is
important for parents, caregivers, and
youth to have a voice in designing and
conducting the evaluation.
“Parent advisory councils are
changing the norm in terms of
systems beginning to incorporate
the voices of parents. They are
the way of the future and one
of the most effective strategies
we’ve seen. After the parents and
staff get to know and trust each
other and parents gain deeper
understanding of the policies and
practices that guide the system,
they can identify many new ways
to work together to create better
outcomes for children, families,
and communities.”
—Teresa Rafael, executive director, CTFA
Arizona’s Ofce of Prevention, within the Department of Child Safety (DCS), used
CBCAP funds to create and fund its Parent Advisory Collaborative (PAC) in 2018.
This group was developed to increase parent leadership, provide feedback to
DCS related to initiatives and improvement activities, and create an atmosphere of
compassion, trust, and respect.
The collaborative is composed of parents from the community, former foster
youth, kinship providers, adoptive parents, and former DCS clients and their
family members. PAC members receive a stipend, a meal during the meeting, and
reimbursement for child care and travel. The entire PAC meets quarterly. Seven
subcommittees (on topics such as housing, incarcerated parents, safe sleep, and
strengthening young parents) meet approximately monthly.
The insights provided by PAC members will increase DCS’s understanding of how
the community responds to various prevention efforts and allow the Ofce of
Prevention to adjust strategies accordingly. The group also reviews and provides
feedback on CBCAP reports and applications.
Ofce of
48 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Questions to Consider
The following are questions to consider as your organization enhances its partnerships with
people with lived experience:
For Staff Working Directly With Families:
Do I live, worship, or spend time in the communities I serve? If not, where are there opportunities to get
involved or connected to activities outside of work?
In my work with families, how do I seek out and demonstrate respect for the wisdom of their cultural and
community leaders?
Do I know about opportunities to promote the voice and leadership of parents, caregivers, and youth in
my agency or the community I serve? How could I help create those opportunities if they do not exist?
For Agency Leaders and Community Collaboratives:
How does our organization demonstrate that we value community voice?
Does our organization seek out and compensate community members for their expertise?
How are community members, especially in communities negatively impacted by racial
inequality, meaningfully involved in the creation and implementation of programs and policies
that affect their lives?
Does the composition of our staff reect the communities we serve?
How does our organization demonstrate that we value and incorporate parent, caregiver, and
youth voices?
Does our organization have a parent or youth advisory council? If not, is our leadership open
to starting one?
Are parents, caregivers, and youth offered a variety of meaningful ways to contribute their
perceptions, experiences, and recommendations at all levels of planning and decision-making
(according to their strengths and skills)? Are they compensated for their time and offered
training for leadership roles?
50 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Protective Factors
Conversation Guides
for Partnering With
The innermost layer of the social-ecological model represents ways that we can support
individual families in protecting their children and helping them thrive. The conversation
guides in this chapter were created to help you engage parents and caregivers in personalized,
constructive conversations about how the protective factors contribute to positive outcomes for
families. Each guide targets one of the six factors:
Nurturing and Attachment: “We love each other”
Knowledge of Parenting: “I can choose what works best for my children”
Parental Resilience: “I deserve self-care”
Social Connections: “We are connected”
Concrete Support for Families: “I can nd help for my family”
Social/Emotional Competence: “I help my child learn social skills”
They are designed for an interactive experience. Using the Guide for Professionals that
accompanies each conversation guide, professionals can walk families through the process of
selecting and adding content that applies to each family’s unique circumstances and goals. All
guides are provided in both English and Spanish and can be used one on one or in a group setting.
1 Prepare for the conversation by reviewing the content, reading the Guide for
Professionals, and identifying some local resources to share with families who need them.
2 Have the conversation in a calm environment. Consider meeting parents and children at a
local park, or take a walk with them on a nice day while you talk.
3 Review key points with the caregiver, using the Guide for Professionals that accompanies
each conversation guide.
4 Build on strengths. Encourage caregivers to talk about what they know and are doing well.
5 Encourage caregivers to consider other strategies that they could use, would like to use,
or have seen others use. Be sure to have the parents record those ideas in their own words,
if they are able, to help them remember later.
Ask them to try one new thing in the coming week.
Focus on the positive, but don’t minimize real concerns. Families’ openness to these
conversations will vary. Sometimes, overwhelming stressors will make it difficult to think
beyond a present crisis. Address those concerns first.
These conversation guides are intended to stimulate thinking—not to represent all possible ways
to discuss each factor. Feel free to adapt this approach and language to suit your community and
caregivers’ needs. Then, tell us about it by taking our survey at
We would love to hear how you’re using this information in your community!
Rain falls on every family, but protective factors can act like an umbrella
to keep families strong even when life is challenging. Although the
2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide takes a “protective factors 201”
approach, our tried and true protective factors 101 resources are still available:
Topical tip sheets (in English and Spanish)
Activity calendars (in English and Spanish)
Interactive vignettes for use in training and community cafés
Archived resource guides
52 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Strong early bonds with caregivers build healthy brains. Nurturing and attachment with caring adults in early
life is associated with better grades, healthier behaviors, stronger friendships, and an increased ability to cope
with stress later in life.
Nurturing is important at all ages. Parents nurture their children as they grow by making time to listen to them,
being involved and interested in their child’s school and other activities, staying aware of their interests and
friends, and being willing to advocate for their children and youth when necessary.
Trauma and stress can interfere with parents’ ability to nurture their children. Daily or acute stressors, such
as nancial stress, family or community violence, past traumas, or caring for a child with special needs, can make
taking time to focus on nurturing more challenging for some parents. They may need extra reassurance that
showing their children love and affection makes a difference.
It is important to explore and acknowledge differences in how families show affection.
Key Points to Cover With Families
More resources on nurturing and attachment can be found on the Child Welfare Information Gateway website.
Showing love for your
children matters a lot!
Ask: What gets in the way of nurturing?
Prompt for acute and/or daily stressors and challenging child behaviors.
Talk about how children’s ability to show affection can also affect
Ask: Did you know that the love you show for your children actually
grows their brains and makes them smarter? Little things every day
add up.
Families show affection in
different ways. A variety of
factors—including how our own
parents showed affection to us
or didn’t—can affect how we
nurture our children.
Set the tone: I’m interested in learning how love and affection are
expressed in your family.
Go through the list and ask parents to circle or check the ways they like
to show affection to their children.
Encourage parents to add other ways that aren’t on the list.
Some days are easier than
Ask: What gets in the way of nurturing? (Prompt for acute and/or daily
stressors and challenging child behaviors.)
Ask: What do you do to care for yourself so that these things don’t get
in the way of showing the love you feel for your child?
Children need nurturing
every day.
Encourage parents to write one thing on the calendar they could do
each day to show their children how much they are loved.
We Love Each Other
Nurturing and
2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Listen to their stories
Say “I love you”
Sing songs to them
Snuggle, hug, or connect in other
Make a meal or snack together
Take walks or play outside together
Do arts and crafts
Play a game
Talk about feelings
Laugh about something silly
Get to know their friends
Ask them about their day
Praise them and/or celebrate good
news together
Tell them what life was like when I
was a kid
Attend school or cultural events
Thank them for helping out
Read together
How I show my children love:
How I will show my children love this week:
We Love Each Other
54 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Los fuertes lazos tempranos con proveedores de cuidado construyen cerebros saludables. La crianza afectiva
y el apego a adultos afectuosos en la vida temprana se asocian con mejores calicaciones, comportamientos más
saludables, amistades más fuertes y una mayor capacidad para enfrentar el estrés en el futuro.
La crianza afectiva es importante en todas las edades. Los padres promueven el desarrollo de sus hijos al
dedicarles tiempo y escucharlos, participar y mostrar interés en la escuela y actividades de sus hijos, estar al tanto
de sus intereses y amigos, y estar dispuestos a abogar por sus hijos y jóvenes cuando sea necesario.
El trauma y el estrés pueden interferir con la capacidad de los padres para cuidar a sus hijos. Para algunos
padres, los factores estresantes diarios o agudos (como estrés nanciero, violencia familiar o comunitaria, traumas
pasados o cuidar a un niño con necesidades especiales) pueden hacer que sea difícil enfocarse en la crianza
afectiva. Pueden necesitar reconrmación de que mostrarles amor y afecto a sus hijos marca una gran diferencia.
Es importante explorar y reconocer las diferencias en cómo las familias muestran afecto.
Puntos clave a tratar con las familias
Puede encontrar más recursos acerca de la crianza afectiva y el apego (en inglés) en el sitio web de Child Welfare
Information Gateway.
Nos amamos unos a otros
Crianza afectiva
y apego
¡Mostrar amor por sus hijos
es muy importante!
Pregunte: ¿Qué impide el cuidado afectuoso?
Pregunte sobre factores estresantes agudos o diarios y comportamientos
difíciles de los niños. Explique que la capacidad de los niños para
mostrar afecto también puede afectar cómo los padres crían a sus hijos.
Pregunte: ¿Sabía que el amor que muestra por sus hijos en realidad
hace crecer sus cerebros y los hace más inteligentes? Las pequeñas
cosas se acumulan todos los días.
Las familias muestran afecto
de diferentes formas. Varios
factores, incluyendo cómo
nuestros propios padres nos
demostraron o no el afecto,
pueden afectar cómo criamos a
nuestros hijos.
Establezca el tono: Me interesa saber cómo se expresan el amor y el
afecto en su familia.
Repase la lista y pídales a los padres que marquen las formas en las
que les gusta mostrar afecto a sus hijos.
Anime a los padres a agregar otras formas que no están en la lista.
Algunos días son más fáciles
que otros.
Pregunte: ¿Qué impide el cuidado afectuoso? (Pregunte sobre factores
estresantes agudos o diarios y comportamientos difíciles de los niños).
Pregunte: ¿Qué hace para cuidar de sí mismo para que estas cosas no
le impidan mostrar el amor que siente por su hijo?
Los niños necesitan cariño y
afecto todos los días.
Anime a los padres a escribir en el calendario una cosa que podrían
hacer cada día para mostrarles a sus hijos cuánto los aman.
2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Escuchar sus cuentos
Decir “Te quiero”
Cantarles canciones
Acurrucarlos, abrazarlos o conectar
con ellos de otra manera
Hacer una merienda o comida
Caminar o jugar al aire libre juntos
Hacer manualidades
Jugar un juego
Hablar sobre los sentimientos
Reírnos juntos
Conocer a sus amigos
Preguntarles sobre su día
Elogiarlos y / o celebrar buenas
noticias juntos
Contarles cómo era la vida cuando
yo era niño
Asistir juntos a eventos escolares o
Darles las gracias cuando ayudan
Leer juntos
Domingo Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Sábado
Cómo les muestro amor a mis hijos:
Cómo les mostraré a mis hijos el amor esta semana:
Nos amamos unos a otros
56 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Knowledge of parenting and child development is an important protective factor. Parents who understand
the usual course of child development are more likely to provide their children with developmentally appropriate
limits, consistent rules and expectations, and opportunities that promote independence.
No parent can be an expert on all aspects of child development or on the most effective ways to support a
child at every age. As children grow, parents will need to continue to learn and respond to children’s emerging
Parenting styles need to be adjusted for each child’s unique temperament and circumstances. Parents of
children with special needs may benet from additional coaching and support.
Key Points to Cover With Families
More resources on knowledge of parenting and child development can be found on the Child Welfare
Information Gateway website.
Children have reasons for
behaving the way they do.
Work with the parent to identify a challenging behavior they have seen
Ask: What do you think your child is feeling or needing from you?
Parenting is a tough job!
Every parent has strategies
that work and areas where they
Ask: What is going well with your child? What is not working as well?
This is an opportunity to explore the parent’s perspective.
If a strategy is harmful (e.g., spanking), suggest positive alternatives.
How we were parented
affects our parenting.
It is natural to parent our children the way our parents did or to try to
avoid repeating our parents’ mistakes.
Ask: How do you think the way you were parented inuences your
parenting decisions?
No parent can know
everything. All parents need
advice at times.
Ask: Where do you go when you have questions about parenting?
(e.g., family, media, teachers, friends, books)
Offer resources where they could get expert advice, such as parenting
classes or online sources (e.g., CDC, Parents Anonymous).
It takes time to change
habits, but it is never too late
to try something new.
Encourage parents to commit to one small change.
Ask: What do you think will work best for your child and family?
I Can Choose What Works Best for
My Children
Knowledge of
2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Child’s Name:
Why do I think my child behaves this way?
What do I notice before this behavior occurs?
What makes it better or worse?
How do I handle this now?
How is this working for us?
My History
How did my parents handle this behavior when I
was a child?
How did I respond?
What do I like and dislike about their approach?
Who do I trust for parenting advice?
How do they suggest I handle this behavior?
What do I like and dislike about this approach?
Things to
What is the one thing I could try before, during,
or after the behavior occurs?
Where could I receive additional support, if I
need it?
Challenging Behavior:
I Can Choose What Works Best for My Children
Being a great parent is part natural and part learned. All parents face challenges and need
advice along the way.
58 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Tener conocimientos sobre la crianza y el desarrollo de los niños es un factor de protección importante. Los
padres que entienden el curso usual del desarrollo de los niños son más propensos a proporcionar a sus hijos límites
apropiados para su desarrollo, reglas y expectativas consistentes y oportunidades que promuevan la independencia.
Ningún padre puede ser un experto en todos los aspectos del desarrollo de los niños o en las maneras más
ecaces de apoyar a un niño en cada edad. A medida que los niños crecen, los padres necesitarán continuar
aprendiendo y respondiendo a las necesidades cambiantes de los niños.
Los estilos de crianza necesitan ser ajustados según el temperamento y las circunstancias únicas de cada
niño. Padres de niños con necesidades especiales pueden beneciarse de ayuda y apoyo adicionales.
Puntos clave a tratar con las familias
Puede encontrar más recursos acerca de conocimientos sobre la crianza y el desarrollo de los niños (en inglés) en
el sitio web de Child Welfare Information Gateway.
Los niños tienen razones para
comportarse de la manera
que lo hacen.
Trabaje con el padre para identicar un comportamiento difícil que ha
visto recientemente.
Pregunte: ¿Qué cree que su hijo está sintiendo o necesitando de usted?
¡La crianza de hijos es un
trabajo difícil! Todos los
padres tienen estrategias que
funcionan, como también áreas
que les causan dicultades.
Pregunte: ¿Qué está funcionando con su hijo? ¿Qué no está
funcionando tan bien?
Esta es una oportunidad para explorar la perspectiva de los padres.
Si una estrategia es dañina (por ejemplo, dar palmadas o nalgadas),
sugiera alternativas positivas (enlace en inglés).
La forma en que fuimos
criados afecta nuestra forma
de criar.
Es natural que criemos a nuestros hijos de la manera en que nuestros
padres nos criaron, o de tratar de evitar repetir los errores de nuestros
Pregunte: ¿Cómo cree que la forma en que fue criado inuye en sus
decisiones de crianza?
Ningún padre puede saberlo
todo. Todos los padres
necesitan consejos de vez en
Pregunte: ¿A dónde acude cuando tiene preguntas sobre la crianza? (por
ejemplo, familiares, medios de comunicación, maestros, amigos, libros)
Ofrezca recursos donde puedan recibir asesoramiento experto, como
clases de crianza o fuentes en línea (por ejemplo, los CDC o Parents
Anonymous [enlace en inglés]).
Se necesita tiempo para
cambiar los hábitos, pero
nunca es demasiado tarde
para probar algo nuevo.
Anime a los padres a comprometerse a hacer un cambio pequeño.
Pregunte: ¿Qué cree que funcionará mejor para su hijo y familia?
Puedo elegir lo que funciona mejor
para mis hijos
sobre la crianza
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Nombre del niño:
Qué está
¿Por qué creo que mi hijo se comporta así?
¿Qué noto antes de que ocurra este comportamiento?
¿Qué hace que empeore o mejore el comportamiento?
¿Cómo manejo esto actualmente?
¿Cómo nos está funcionando esta estrategia?
Mi historia
¿Cómo manejaban mis padres este comportamiento
cuando yo era un niño?
¿Cómo respondía yo?
¿Qué me gusta y qué no me gusta de su estrategia?
Expertos de
¿En quién confío para pedir consejos de crianza?
¿Cómo sugieren ellos que maneje este
¿Qué me gusta y qué no me gusta de esta estrategia?
Cosas para
¿Qué es una cosa que podría probar antes, durante o
después de que ocurra el comportamiento?
¿Dónde podría encontrar apoyo adicional, si lo
Comportamiento difícil:
Puedo elegir lo que funciona mejor para mis hijos
Ser un gran padre es en parte natural y en parte aprendido. Todos los padres enfrentan
desafíos y necesitan consejos de vez en cuando.
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Resilience is the exibility and inner strength to bounce back when things are not going well. Parents with
resilience are better able to protect their children from stress and can help children learn critical self-regulation
and problem-solving skills.
All parents have strengths and resources that can serve as a foundation for building their resilience. These may
include faith, exibility, humor, communication, problem-solving, caring relationships, or the ability to identify and
access needed services.
Self-care is important, but it is only part of the picture. Families experiencing multiple life stressors—such
as a history of trauma, health concerns, marital conict, substance use, or community violence—and nancial
stressors—such as unemployment, nancial insecurity, or homelessness—face more challenges coping effectively
with typical day-to-day stresses of raising children.
Addressing stressors in the family, community, and society will ultimately create stronger, more resilient
Key Points to Cover With Families
More resources on building parental resilience can be found on the Child Welfare Information Gateway website.
The National Parent Helpline may also be a valuable resource for families.
Parenting is stressful, and
some situations are more
difcult than others. Too
much stress can make it harder
to parent effectively.
Ask: What do you notice when you are under a lot of stress? How is
your parenting affected when you are stressed?
Share some common effects of stress—such as changes in eating or
sleeping habits or feelings of depression or hopelessness—if they are
having trouble coming up with ideas.
Stress affects children, too.
Talk with caregivers about how children can pick up on family stress and
show many of the same signs.
Ask: How can you tell when your child is feeling stressed?
Everyone has strengths that
they draw on during difcult
Ask: What kinds of things do you do to take care of yourself and
manage stress?
Encourage them to circle items on the guide or write their own answers
in the category where they t.
Then, prompt caregivers to think of and record other self-care strategies
that they could use, would like to use, or have seen others use.
Ask: What is one new self-care activity you can commit to this week?
I Deserve Self-Care
Parental Resilience
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One thing I will do this week
to care for myself is …
Have a cup of coffee or tea
Take a nap
Walk, stretch, or exercise
Play a game with my children
Spend time with family or friends
Connect to my local parent-
teacher association or other
support group
Body Community
Watch something that makes me
Write down my thoughts
Do something creative (draw, work
on a puzzle, sing, etc.)
Spend time outdoors
Meditate or pray
Connect with my faith community
(church, mosque, temple, etc.)
Mind Spirit
I Deserve Self-Care
When I am feeling stressed, I can:
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La resiliencia es la exibilidad y la fuerza interna para recuperarse cuando las cosas no van bien. Los
padres con resiliencia tienen más capacidad para proteger a sus hijos del estrés y pueden ayudarlos a aprender
habilidades esenciales de autorregulación y resolución de problemas.
Todos los padres tienen fortalezas y recursos que pueden servir como base para desarrollar su resiliencia. Estos
pueden incluir su fe, exibilidad, humor, comunicación, capacidad para resolver problemas, relaciones afectuosas o
su capacidad para identicar y acceder a los servicios necesarios.
El autocuidado (cuidar de sí mismo) es importante, pero es solo una parte del panorama. Las familias con
múltiples factores de vida estresantes (como un historial de trauma, problemas de salud, conictos matrimoniales, uso
de sustancias o violencia comunitaria) y factores estresantes nancieros (como el desempleo, la inseguridad nanciera
o la falta de hogar) enfrentan más dicultades para lidiar de manera efectiva con el estrés típico de criar hijos.
Abordar los factores estresantes en la familia, comunidad y sociedad creará familias más fuertes y resilientes.
Puntos clave a tratar con las familias
Puede encontrar más recursos acerca de la resiliencia parental (en inglés) en el sitio web de Child Welfare
Information Gateway. El National Parent Helpline (en inglés), incluyendo sus recursos en español, también puede
ser un buen recurso para familias.
Me merezco el autocuidado
Resiliencia parental
La crianza de los hijos
es estresante, y algunas
situaciones son más difíciles
que otras. Demasiado estrés
puede dicultar la crianza
Pregunte: ¿Qué nota cuando está muy estresado? ¿Cómo se ve
afectada la manera en que cría a sus hijos cuando está estresado?
Mencione algunos ejemplos de efectos comunes del estrés (como
cambios en los hábitos alimenticios o de sueño, o sentimientos de
depresión o desesperanza) si les cuesta pensar en ideas.
El estrés también afecta a los
Hable con los proveedores de cuidado sobre el hecho de que los
niños pueden detectar el estrés de su familia y mostrar muchos de los
mismos signos.
Pregunte: ¿Cómo sabe cuándo su hijo se siente estresado?
Todas las personas tienen
fortalezas a las que recurren
en tiempos difíciles.
Pregunte: ¿Qué tipo de cosas hace para cuidarse a sí mismo y manejar
el estrés?
Anime a los proveedores de cuidado a que encierren en un círculo los
elementos en la guía o que escriban sus respuestas en la categoría
Luego, pídales que piensen en y anoten otras estrategias de
autocuidado que podrían usar, les gustaría usar, o han visto a otros usar.
Pregunte: ¿Cuál es una nueva actividad de autocuidado que puede
comprometerse a hacer esta semana?
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Una cosa que haré esta
semana para cuidarme es …
Tomar una taza de café o té
Tomar una siesta
Caminar, hacer estiramientos o
Jugar un juego con mis hijos
Pasar tiempo con mi familia o
Conectarme a mi asociación local
de padres y maestros u otro grupo
de apoyo
Cuerpo Comunidad
Mirar algo que me hace reír
Anotar mis pensamientos
Hacer algo creativo (dibujar, hacer
un rompecabezas, cantar, etc.)
Pasar tiempo al aire libre
Meditar o rezar
Conectarme con mi comunidad de
fe (iglesia, mezquita, templo, etc.)
Mente Espíritu
Me merezco el autocuidado
Cuando me siento estresado, puedo:
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All parents need emotional support. Social connections (supportive friends, family, neighbors, and community
groups) help parents care for their children and themselves.
Social connections support children in multiple ways. A parent’s positive relationships give children access to
other caring adults, model important relational skills, and increase the likelihood that children will benet from
involvement in positive activities.
Building positive relationships may require extra effort for some families—including those who are new
to a community, recently divorced, or rst-time parents. Additionally, some parents may need to develop self-
condence and social skills before they can expand their social networks.
Key Points to Cover With Families
More resources on building social connections can be found on the Child Welfare Information Gateway website.
We Are Connected
Social Connections
All parents need
support sometimes.
Explain that this conversation guide is a tool to help the parent “map” their
sources of social support.
Emphasize that there is no wrong way to complete this worksheet.
Have the caregiver put their name or family name in the center circle.
Support can come
from family, friends,
neighbors, or other
helpful people.
Ask: Who are the people in your circle of support?
If needed, prompt for names of friends, family, neighbors, and helping
Add their names in circles or other shapes around the center circle of the ecomap.
Social support
can be found
by belonging to
Ask: What groups or organizations are part of your family’s life? (e.g., faith
communities, schools, workplaces, community centers)
Add them in the circles where they belong.
Not all connections
are equally
Ask: How well do each of these connections support you as a parent?
Invite the caregiver to show differences with different colors, solid vs. dotted
lines, or arrows indicating which direction(s) support ows.
Ask: Looking at this map, what do you notice about the connections in your life?
It may be important to take some time to help caregivers process their feelings
about the current amount of social support in their life.
Making new
connections can be
challenging, but it is
Ask: Would you like to have more support? How do you go about making new
connections? What are the challenges?
Ask: What is one thing you can commit to doing this week to strengthen your
social connections?
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One thing I will do this week to strengthen my connection to others is:
Support System
We Are Connected
All families need support. Connecting with others helps to build a strong support system.
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Todos los padres necesitan apoyo emocional. Las conexiones sociales (amigos de apoyo, familiares, vecinos y
grupos comunitarios) ayudan a los padres a cuidar de sus hijos y de sí mismos.
Las conexiones sociales apoyan a los niños de varias maneras. Las relaciones positivas de los padres con otras
personas dan a los niños acceso a otros adultos que se preocupan por ellos, modelan habilidades relacionales
importantes y aumentan la probabilidad de que los niños se benecien de la participación en actividades positivas.
La creación de relaciones positivas puede requerir un esfuerzo adicional para algunas familias, incluidas
familias que son nuevas en una comunidad, familias recientemente divorciadas o padres primerizos. Algunos
padres pueden necesitar desarrollar su conanza en sí mismos y sus habilidades sociales antes de poder expandir
sus redes sociales.
Puntos clave a tratar con las familias
Puede encontrar más recursos acerca de la creación de conexiones sociales (en inglés) en el sitio web Child Welfare
Information Gateway.
Estamos conectados
Todos los padres
necesitan apoyo
de vez en cuando.
Explique que esta guía de conversación es una herramienta para ayudar a los
padres a identicar sus fuentes de apoyo social.
Enfatice que no hay una manera incorrecta de completar esta hoja de trabajo.
Pídale al proveedor de cuidado que ponga su nombre o apellido en el círculo central.
El apoyo puede
provenir de
familiares, amigos,
vecinos u otras
Pregunte: ¿Quiénes son las personas en su círculo de apoyo?
Si es necesario, solicite nombres de amigos, familiares, vecinos y profesionales.
Anote los nombres dentro de círculos u otras formas alrededor del círculo central
del diagrama o “ecomap” (enlace en inglés).
El apoyo social se
puede encontrar
uniéndose a
Pregunte: ¿Qué grupos u organizaciones forman parte de la vida de su familia? (por
ejemplo, comunidades de fe, escuelas, lugares de trabajo, centros comunitarios)
Añádalos en círculos donde pertenecen.
No todas las
ofrecen el mismo
nivel de apoyo.
Pregunte: ¿Qué tan bien le apoyan cada una de estas conexiones como padre?
Invite al proveedor de cuidado a mostrar diferencias usando colores, líneas sólidas
o punteadas o echas indicando en qué dirección(es) uye el apoyo que recibe.
Pregunte: Mirando este diagrama, ¿qué nota sobre las conexiones en su vida?
Puede ser importante tomar tiempo para ayudar al proveedor de cuidado a
procesar sus sentimientos acerca de la cantidad actual de apoyo social en su vida.
Hacer nuevas
conexiones puede
ser difícil, pero sí
es posible.
Pregunte: ¿Le gustaría tener más apoyo? ¿Qué hace usted para formar nuevas
conexiones? ¿Cuáles son los desafíos?
Pregunte: ¿Qué es una cosa que puede comprometerse a hacer esta semana para
fortalecer sus conexiones sociales?
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Una cosa que haré esta semana para fortalecer mi conexión a otras personas es:
Sistema de
apoyo de
Estamos conectados
Todas las familias necesitan apoyo. La conexión con otras personas ayuda a crear un sistema
de apoyo fuerte.
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Caregivers whose concrete needs are met have more time and energy to devote to their children’s safety
and well-being. When families do not have steady nancial resources, lack a stable living situation, or cannot
afford food or health care, their ability to support their children’s healthy development may be at risk. Partnering
with parents to identify and access resources in the community helps them protect and care for their children.
Caregivers may need more than just a phone number. Consider providing support during initial calls, introducing
them directly to a personal contact, or otherwise offering a warm hand-off to a fellow service provider. Be sure to
refer families to providers who speak their language, are culturally competent, and are committed to equity.
Key Points to Cover With Families
More resources on concrete supports can be found on the Child Welfare Information Gateway Information
Gateway website.
Consider: What resources are available in your area to help caregivers meet their families’ basic needs for
food, safe housing, transportation, child care, health care, and employment?
One simple way to learn more about local organizations that support families is by calling 2-1-1. (Visit the 211
website to ensure availability of this service in your area.)
All families need help
Ask: Can you think of a time when you asked for help in the past? (For
example, when they connected with your organization.)
Point out how brave they were to accept help and ask what made that
experience successful for them.
Unmet basic needs like
nutritious food and safe,
stable housing can be harmful
to children’s development
and ability to learn.
Review the basic needs in the rst column of the conversation guide.
Talk with the family about other needs not mentioned in that list. Add
those to the empty row(s) in their own words.
In column 2, ask parents to circle the response that best ts their family
for each need.
There are many places to go
for help in our community.
They include government
agencies, as well as nonprot
organizations and faith
In column 3, give caregivers as many options as possible so they can
choose what is right for their own families.
Ask: What is one small step you can take this week?
I Can Find Help for My Family
Concrete Support
for Families
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Help is available in our community.
These things are important
for my family...
This is true for my family A place I can go for help if I need
it is…
My family has enough to eat.
Always Sometimes Never
My family has a safe place to live.
Always Sometimes Never
My family can get to work and
school on time.
Always Sometimes Never
My children have a safe place to
go when I can’t be with them.
Always Sometimes Never
My family has the medical care we
Always Sometimes Never
I have regular work that pays
enough to meet my family’s needs.
Always Sometimes Never
Always Sometimes Never
Always Sometimes Never
Help may be just a phone call away!
2-1-1 is a service that connects people all over the country with helpful services where they live.
I Can Find Help for My Family
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Los proveedores de cuidado cuyas necesidades concretas están satisfechas tienen más tiempo y energía
para dedicar a la seguridad y el bienestar de sus hijos. Cuando las familias no tienen recursos nancieros
constantes, carecen de una situación de vivienda estable o no tienen los medios para comprar alimentos o pagar
por atención médica, su capacidad para apoyar el desarrollo saludable de sus hijos puede estar en riesgo. Trabajar
junto a los padres para identicar y acceder a recursos en la comunidad les ayuda a proteger y cuidar a sus hijos.
Los proveedores de cuidado pueden necesitar más que solo un número de teléfono. Considere brindar
asistencia durante las llamadas iniciales o presentarles directamente a un colega proveedor de servicios.
Asegúrese de referir a las familias a proveedores que hablen su idioma, sean culturalmente competentes y estén
comprometidos con la equidad.
Puntos clave a tratar con las familias
Puede encontrar más recursos acerca de apoyos concretos (en inglés) en el sitio web de Child Welfare Information
Considere: ¿Qué recursos están disponibles en su área para ayudar a los proveedores de cuidado a
satisfacer las necesidades básicas de sus familias (alimento, vivienda, transporte, cuidado para los niños,
cuidados médicos, empleo)?
Puede aprender más sobre las organizaciones locales que apoyan a las familias llamando al 2-1-1. (Visite el sitio
web de 211 [en inglés] para asegurarse de la disponibilidad de este servicio en su área).
Puedo encontrar ayuda para mi familia
Apoyo concreto
para las familias
Todas las familias necesitan
ayuda de vez en cuando.
Pregunte: ¿Puede pensar en una ocasión en la que pidió ayuda en el
pasado? (por ejemplo, cuando se conectaron con su organización)
Señale cuán valientes fueron para aceptar ayuda y pregúnteles qué hizo
que esa experiencia fuera exitosa para ellos.
Las necesidades básicas no
satisfechas, como alimentos
nutritivos y viviendas
seguras y estables, pueden
ser perjudiciales para el
desarrollo y la capacidad de
aprendizaje de los niños.
Revise las necesidades básicas en la columna 1 de la guía de
conversación. Hable con la familia sobre otras necesidades no
mencionadas en esa lista. Anote esas necesidades en las las vacías.
En la columna 2, pídales a los padres que encierren con un círculo la
respuesta que mejor reeja a su familia para cada necesidad.
Hay muchos lugares para
buscar ayuda en nuestra
comunidad. Estos incluyen
agencias gubernamentales,
organizaciones sin nes de
lucro y comunidades religiosas.
En la columna 3, ofrézcales a los proveedores de cuidado tantas
opciones como sea posible para que puedan elegir lo que es mejor
para sus propias familias.
Pregunte: ¿Cuál es un pequeño paso que puede tomar esta semana?
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La ayuda está disponible en nuestra comunidad.
Estas cosas son importantes
para mi familia…
Esto es cierto para mi familia… Un lugar donde puedo buscar
ayuda si la necesito es…
Mi familia tiene suciente para comer.
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
Mi familia tiene un lugar seguro para
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
Mi familia puede llegar al trabajo y a
la escuela a tiempo.
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
Mis hijos tienen un lugar seguro para
ir cuando no puedo estar con ellos.
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
Mi familia tiene la atención médica
que necesitamos.
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
Tengo un trabajo regular que paga
lo suciente para satisfacer las
necesidades de mi familia.
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
Siempre Algunas veces Nunca
¡La ayuda puede estar a solo una llamada de distancia!
2-1-1 (en inglés) es un servicio que conecta a personas de todo el país con los servicios donde viven.
Puedo encontrar ayuda para mi familia
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Children who exhibit social and emotional competence are likely to have better relationships and greater
resilience to stress as adults. Social and emotional competence refers to children’s ability to form bonds and
interact positively with others, self-regulate their emotions and behavior, communicate their feelings, and solve
problems effectively.
Helping children to develop these skills can result in stronger parent-child relationships that are mutually
rewarding. Parents grow more responsive to children’s needs—and less likely to feel stressed or frustrated—as
children learn to say what they need, rather than “acting out” difcult feelings.
Children’s delays in social-emotional development can create extra stress for families. It is important to
identify any such concerns as early as possible and to provide services to children and their parents that facilitate
healthy development.
Key Points to Cover With Families
More resources on building social and emotional competence of children can be found on the Child Welfare
Information Gateway website.
I Help My Child Learn Social Skills
Social skills are important for
children to become successful
adults. Social skills are dened and
prioritized a little differently for each
unique family and community.
Give some examples of social skills, such as taking turns, sharing,
or using manners.
Ask: Which social skills are most important in your family/
community/culture? Why?
Children and youth develop
social skills gradually. Share some
information about social skills that
they might expect to see at their
children’s current ages.
Help the parent connect important social skills with typical child
development. (For example, I hear you saying that sharing is
really important to you. Most children develop the ability to share
their toys around age 5.)
Ask: Which of these skills do you see your child doing well?
Which would you like to help them improve?
Our children learn by watching us. Ask: What are some situations where your child might see you
using [chosen skill]?
For example, how does the caregiver use this skill with their
coparent, family members, or friends?
Parents can help their children
learn social skills. One great way to
teach children is by “catching them”
doing something well.
Ask: When have you seen your child do [action/behavior] well
recently? How do you let your child know you like what they’re
Ask: How else could you encourage this skill?
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One thing I will do this week to encourage social skills:
Praising them when they do this well
Reading books about emotions and/or social situations
Pointing out when characters on TV use the skill
Naming feelings (my own and/or my child’s)
Setting up play dates for practice
Celebrating my child’s unique self
Teaching my child about his or her cultural identity
Talking about and celebrating differences
Having a “no technology” day
I Help My Child Learn Social Skills
Children with strong social skills get along better with others. You are your child’s first and
most important teacher.
One social skill I would like
to help my child improve:
I show my child these skills
when I:
I encourage this skill by:
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Los niños que muestran capacidades sociales y emocionales son propensos a tener mejores relaciones y
una mayor resiliencia al estrés como adultos. “Capacidad social y emocional” se reere a la capacidad de
los niños para formar vínculos e interactuar positivamente con otras personas, regular sus propias emociones y
comportamientos, comunicar sus sentimientos y resolver problemas ecazmente.
Ayudar a los niños a desarrollar estas habilidades puede resultar en relaciones más fuertes y
enriquecedoras entre padres e hijos. Los padres pueden responder mejor a las necesidades de los niños (y
sentirse menos estresados y frustrados) a medida que los niños aprenden a expresar sus necesidades, en vez de
“portarse mal” para expresar sentimientos difíciles.
Los retrasos en el desarrollo social y emocional de los niños pueden crear estrés adicional para las familias.
Es importante identicar tales preocupaciones lo antes posible y proporcionar servicios a los niños y sus padres
que faciliten un desarrollo saludable.
Puntos clave a tratar con las familias
Puede encontrar más recursos acerca de la creación de capacidades sociales y emocionales en los niños (en
inglés) en el sitio web de Child Welfare Information Gateway.
Ayudo a mi hijo a aprender
habilidades sociales
Capacidades sociales
y emocionales
Las habilidades sociales son
importantes para que los niños se
conviertan en adultos exitosos.
Estas habilidades se denen y
priorizan de manera diferente para
cada familia y comunidad.
Dé algunos ejemplos de habilidades sociales, como esperar su
turno, compartir con los demás o usar buenos modales.
Pregunte: ¿Cuáles habilidades sociales son más importantes en
su familia, comunidad y cultura? ¿Por qué?
Los niños y jóvenes desarrollan
habilidades sociales gradualmente.
Comparta información sobre las
habilidades sociales que podrían
esperar ver según las edades
actuales de sus hijos.
Ayude a los padres a conectar habilidades sociales con el
desarrollo típico de un niño. (Por ejemplo, Le escuché decir que
para usted es importante que su hijo sepa compartir. La mayoría
de los niños desarrollan la capacidad de compartir sus juguetes
alrededor de los 5 años).
Pregunte: ¿Cuáles de estas habilidades cree que su hijo hace
bien? ¿Cuáles le gustaría ayudarle a su hijo a mejorar?
Nuestros hijos aprenden
Pregunte: ¿Cuáles son algunas situaciones en las que su hijo
podría verlo a usted modelando [habilidad elegida]?
Por ejemplo, ¿cómo usa el proveedor de cuidado esta habilidad
con su pareja, familiares o amigos?
Los padres pueden ayudar a
sus hijos a aprender habilidades
sociales. Una excelente manera de
enseñar a los niños es “pillándolos”
haciendo algo bien.
Pregunte: ¿Cuándo ha visto a su hijo hacer [acción o
comportamiento] bien recientemente? ¿Cómo le hace saber a su
hijo que le gusta lo que está haciendo?
Pregunte: ¿De qué otra manera podría fomentar esta habilidad?
2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Una cosa que haré esta semana para fomentar las habilidades sociales:
Felicitando a mi hijo cuando la hacen bien.
Leyendo libros sobre emociones y / o situaciones sociales
Señalando cuando los personajes de la televisión usan la
Nombrando los sentimientos (los míos y / o los de mi hijo)
Programando citas para jugar con otros niños para practicar
Celebrando a mi hijo como persona única
Enseñando a mi hijo sobre su identidad cultural
Hablando sobre y celebrando las diferencias
Teniendo un día “sin tecnología”
Una habilidad social que me gustaría
ayudar a mi hijo a mejorar:
Le muestro a mi hijo estas
habilidades cuando:
Fomento esta habilidad:
Ayudo a mi hijo a aprender habilidades sociales
Los niños con fuertes habilidades sociales se llevan mejor con los demás. Usted es el primer
y más importante maestro de su hijo.
76 2021/2022 Prevention Resource Guide
Like the work of building strong families and communities, this Resource Guide is a collective
effort. The resources featured here represent the efforts of many National Prevention Partners,
Federal agencies, community-based organizations, and parents committed to strengthening
families and communities. We list many of those committed people and organizations by name
on the pages that follow. We also recognize the countless unnamed others who are doing this
work tirelessly on the ground in their own families and communities.
We can do more, together.
The National Child Abuse Prevention Partners are national organizations that work to promote
well-being in children, families, and communities. More information about each organization,
including contact information, is available on the Information Gateway website.
The Ofce on Child Abuse and Neglect within the Children’s Bureau leads and coordinates the
Federal Inter-Agency Work Group on Child Abuse and Neglect (FEDIAWG). Information about
the Work Group and its members, including contact information, can be found on the Children’s
Bureau website.
The Resource Guide’s content has benetted greatly from the collective wisdom of many of
the eld’s top practitioners, thinkers, and subject-matter experts in primary prevention and
community collaboration. OCAN specically recognizes the contributions of the following
people who were interviewed for this guide:
Kiersten Beigel, M.S.W., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for
Children and Families, Ofce of Head Start
Kristin Bernhard, J.D., Ounce of Prevention Fund
Melissa Brodowski, Ph.D., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for
Children and Families, Ofce of Early Childhood Development
Carol Colmenero, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Family Advocacy Center
Partners and Resources
Valerie C. Cuffee, L.C.S.W., M.S.W., C.P.M., Loudoun County (VA) Department of Family
Dyann Daley, M.D., Predict Align Prevent, Inc.
Deborah Daro, Ph.D., Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago
Tiffany Day, Ascend at the Aspen Institute
Karin Downs, R.N., M.P.H., Massachusetts Department of Public Health
Anita Fineday, Casey Family Programs
Monte Fox, Casey Family Programs
Suzanne Garcia, Tribal Law and Policy Institute and Child Welfare Capacity Building Center for
Shawn Ginwright, Ph.D., San Francisco State University
Jane Halladay Goldman, Ph.D., National Center for Child Traumatic Stress
Angela S. Guinn, M.P.H., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease
Control & Prevention, Division of Violence Prevention
Stacey D. Hardy-Chandler, Ph.D., J.D., L.C.S.W., Alexandria (VA) Department of Community
and Human Services, Center for Children and Families
Stephen Hudson, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community Social Services
Jennifer Jones, Alliance for Strong Families and Communities, Change in Mind Institute
Joanne Klevens, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Violence Prevention
Bart Klika, M.S.W., Ph.D., Prevent Child Abuse America
Patrice Leary-Forrey, Maine Kids Free to Grow
Meryl Levine, Children’s Trust Fund Alliance
Jason Mahoney, Wake County (NC) Family Services
Melissa Merrick, Ph.D., Prevent Child Abuse America
Deborah Mutschler, Mutschler Consulting
Patrick Patterson, National Responsible Fatherhood Clearinghouse
Teresa Rafael, Children’s Trust Fund Alliance
Juan Ramirez, Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic
Michelle Ries, North Carolina Institute of Medicine
Robert Sege, M.D., Ph.D., Tufts University School of Medicine
Deborah Sendek, U.S. Alliance to End the Hitting of Children
Heather Stenson, National Parent Advisory Council - Montana
Catherine Taylor, Ph.D., M.S.W., M.P.H., Boston College School of Social Work
Amy Templeman, Alliance for Strong Families and Communities, Within Our Reach
Kristen Weber, Center for the Study of Social Policy
Miriam Westheimer, Ph.D., Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters
Thought partnership, concept development, and writing provided by Jill Currie Consulting.
April Is National
Child Abuse
Prevention Month
The Resource Guide is only the beginning. Visit
the National Child Abuse Prevention Month
website for additional information and resources.
Join the Campaign
Help families thrive by connecting your community to key resources and
information. Find free graphics, engaging social media posts, and more
to help spread the word!
Access Resources on the Go
Use the Resource Guide anytime, anywhere. Print and share the
Protective Factors Conversation Guides or download a digital version of
the entire guide!
Stay Connected
Find out what’s new by signing up for email updates on the
website, and follow @childwelfare on Facebook and @childwelfaregov
on Twitter.
Give Us Your Feedback
Let us know how you are using this year’s Resource Guide and provide
feedback on the overall campaign by completing a brief survey.
FRIENDS National Center for
Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention
800 Eastowne Drive, Suite 105
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
A Service of the Children’s Bureau/ACYF
330 C Street SW - 3rd Floor
Washington, D.C. 20024
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Administration for Children and Families
Administration on Children, Youth and Families
Children’s Bureau