Pass the
available from
Ed Publishing:
Pass the TExES Theatre
A test prep manual for the TExES
Music EC-12 #177
Eighth Edition
by Caia McCullar BME, MM, Ph.D.
and David McCullar BME, MM
with Mark Mentze, M.Ed., M.A.
History 7-12 4th Ed Cover New for website.indd 1 5/4/18 10:28 AM
Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
Pass the TExES Music
Domain I:
Competencies 1-3
(25% of the test)
Music EC-12 Standard I:
The music teacher has a comprehensive visual and aural knowledge of musi-
cal perception and performance.
Music EC-12 Standard III:
The music teacher has a comprehensive knowledge of music notation.
Music EC-12 Standard V:
The music teacher has a comprehensive knowledge of music history and the
relationship of music to history, society, and culture.
Music EC-12 Standard VI:
The music teacher applies a comprehensive knowledge of music to evaluate
musical compositions, performances, and experiences.
Domain I:
Competencies 1-3
Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
Pass the TExES Music
1. Elements
Recognizes and interprets music symbols and
terms aurally.
Identifies melodic and harmonic intervals.
Recognizes scales and pitch collections.
Identifies and interprets rhythmic and
melodic concepts aurally.
Describes melodic, harmonic, and textural aspects
of a musical composition.
Analyzes chordal structures, harmonic
progressions, cadences, and textures.
Key Words:
Music Symbols and Terms
Melodic and Harmonic
Scales and Pitch
Rhythm and Meter
Dynamics and Form
Texture and Timbre
Aural Analysis of
Musical Works
Key Descriptors:
NOTE: Refer to the bullet points under each Competency
in the NES/SBEC study guide. Analyze each bullet point,
and synthesize it down to a paraphrase that is meaningful
to you, using no more than 5 words. List those phrases in
order on the lines above. It may help to number the bullet
points and the lines above. When complete, record them
again on Worksheet 4 in Appendix I.
Aural skills development is one of the most important
resources used by the music teacher in the classroom on a
daily basis. The ability to aurally recognize and describe
aspects of a musical composition or performance is a nec-
essary requirement for comprehensive musicianship.
The prospective music teacher must show evidence of a
thorough knowledge base of musical styles from the whole
of music history. In addition, the music teacher must have
a keenly developed ear in order to diagnose problems and
prescribe effective solutions related to student perfor-
A. MELODY - A succession of single pitches.
Intervals - the distance between two different
Scales - the orderly graduated arrangement of
ascending or descending pitches
Pitch Collections - the use of something other
than complete scales from which a melody or
composition is derived
B. RHYTHM - The organization of music over time
using long and short note and rest values.
Meter - a systematic grouping of beats and their
divisions in regularly recurring patterns
Syncopation - the disruption of the normal accent
in a measure by shifting it to an unexpected beat
Augmentation - the proportional enlargement of
rhythmic values
Diminution - the proportional reduction of
rhythmic values
Hemiola - a rhythmic device found in all periods
of Western music; alternation of triple meter at
two different metrical levels, as in juxtaposition
of 6/8 and 3/4
C. TEXTURE - The horizontal and vertical relationship
of musical elements.
Monophonic - music composed for a single unac-
companied voice or unison choir
Homophonic - music in which the parts move
more or less together (chordal), or in which
one prominent melody is given a chordal accom-
Polyphonic - music with more than one voice part
Chord Structures - combinations of concurrently
sounding or arpeggiated notes, the identity of
which is understood and named without
accounting for any foreground elaboration (i.e.,
suspensions, appoggiaturas, passing tones, auxil-
iary tones, etc.)
Chord Progressions - successions of functional
chords proceeding by strong root movements
which may be elaborated by intervening non-
functional chords (auxiliary chord, passing chord,
appoggiatura chord)
Cadences - a closing pattern or formula that ter-
minates a phrase, section, or complete composition
D. TIMBRE - Tone color or quality: Vocal,
Instrumental, Keyboard, Synthesized Sound.
E. DYNAMICS - Varying degrees of loud and soft.
Terraced Dynamics - expressive style typical of
some early music, particularly Baroque, in which
volume levels shift abruptly from soft to loud and
back without gradual crescendos and decrescendos
• Crescendo/Decrescendo
F. FORM - The organization and structure of a composition.
Binary - a 2-part form
Ternary - a 3-part form
Twelve Bar Blues - a I, IV, V chord progression,
often used in jazz style, making use primarily of
dominant 7th chords played over twelve bars or
Rondo - a repeated return of musical material in
phrases and sections interspersed with phrases and
sections of new musical material (ABACADA, etc.)
Theme and Variations - a style of composition
that first presents a basic theme and then develops
and alters that theme in successive statements
Sonata Allegro - a multi-sectional form often used
as a first-movement form
Fugue - a polyphonic procedure involving a specified
number of voices in which a motive (subject) is
exposed, in each voice, in an initial tonic/dominant
relationship, then developed by contrapuntal means
G. SYMBOLS AND TERMS - Interpretive and perfor-
mance markings on a musical score.
Tempo Markings • Dynamic Markings
Embellishments • Articulations
Pass the TExES Music
Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
1. Elements
Competency 1:
The teacher applies standard terminology to describe and analyze various elements in a
musical recording.
Pass the TExES Music Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
2. Styles and Genres
Key Words:
Western Influence
Middle Ages
Modern (20th - 21st Cen.)
Non-Western Music
U.S. Musical Heritage
Texas Musical Heritage
Identifies musical styles, characteristics, works,
and composers of Middle Ages, Renaissance,
Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern music
in a recorded example.
Characterizes and classifies examples of Non-
Western music (Indonesian gamelan, African
drumming, Indian raga, Cuban salsa) by genre,
style, culture, and historical period in a recorded
Recognizes and describes music that reflects
United States and Texas heritage (folk songs,
work songs, jazz, blues, gospel, Tejano, country,
bluegrass) in a recorded example
Key Descriptors:
NOTE: Refer to the bullet points under each Competency
in the NES/SBEC study guide. Analyze each bullet point,
and synthesize it down to a paraphrase that is meaningful
to you, using no more than 5 words. List those phrases in
order on the lines above. It may help to number the bullet
points and the lines above. When complete, record them
again on Worksheet 4 in Appendix I.
Pass the TExES Music
Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
2. Styles and Genres
Middle Ages (c. 500-1400)
Plainchant, Organum, Mass, Isorhythmic motet, Secular songs, Instrumental Dances
Significant Dates Events and Composers
590—604 During this time the Gregorian chant was developed. It is also known as plainchant or plainsong and
named after Pope St. Gregory the Great. This Pope was credited with bringing it to the West.
695 The organum was developed. It is an early form of counterpoint, which eventually led to polypho-
ny. This type of song had a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance the har-
mony. There is no real independent second voice, so, it is not yet considered polyphony.
1000—1100 During this time of liturgical musical drama unfolds throughout Europe. Also, the music of the
troubadour and trouvère, a vernacular tradition of monophonic, secular song is accompanied by
instruments and singers. Guillaume d’Aquitaine was one of the well-known troubadours with most
themes centered around chivalry and courtly love.
1030 It was around this time when a new method to teach singing was invented by a Benedictine monk
and choirmaster named Guido de Arezzo. He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical nota-
1098—1179 The lifetime of Hildegard von Bingen, a highly regarded abbess who was conferred the title of
doctor of the church” by Pope Benedict XVI. One of her works as a composer, the “Ordo
Virtutum,” is an early example of liturgical drama and arguably the oldest surviving morality play.
1100—1200 This period is the age of the Goliards. The Goliards were a group of clergy who wrote satirical
Latin poetry to mock the church. Some known Goliards were Peter of Blois and Walter of
1100—1300 This period was the birth of minnesang, which were lyrics and songs writing in Germany much like
the troubadour tradition of France. Minnesingers mainly sang of courtly love and some known min-
nesingers were Henric van Veldeke, Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Hartmann von Aue.
1200s The spread of geisslerlieder or flagellant songs. The practice of flagellation was practiced by people
whipping themselves with various instruments as a way to repent to God with hopes of ending the
disease and wars of the time. Geisslerlieder music was simple and closely related to folk songs.
1150—1250 The Notre Dame school of polyphony firmly takes root. Rhythmic notation first appears during
this period. Also known as the ars antiqua; it is during this time when the motet (a short, sacred,
choral song) initially developed.
1300s The period of “ars nova”, or “new art,” coined by Philippe de Vitry. During this period, secular
music acquired polyphonic sophistication. The most notable practitioner of this style was
Guillaume de Machaut.
1375—1475 Known composers during this time were Leonel Power, John Dunstable, Gilles Binchois, and
Guillaume Dufay. Dunstable is credited with the contenance angloise, or “English manner,” which
was his stylistic trait of using full triadic harmony. It is a distinctive style of polyphony.
Competency 2:
The teacher recognizes and describes music of diverse genres, styles, and cultures
in a musical recording.
Pass the TExES Music Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
2. Styles and Genres, contd.
Renaissance (1400-1600)
Ordinary of the Mass (polyphonic settings), Motet, Chanson, Madrigal, Instrumental Dances,
Instrumental Pieces
Significant Dates Event and Composers
1397-1474 The lifetime of Guillaume Dufay, a French and Flemish composer, popular as a leading com-
poser of the early Renaissance. He is known for his church music and secular songs.
1450 - 1550 During this period composers experimented with cantus firmus. Known composers during this
period were Johannes Ockeghem, Jacob Obrecht, and Josquin Desprez.
1500-1550 Experimentation with French chansons. Known composers during this period were Clément
Janequin and Claudin de Sermisy.
1517 Protestant Reformation sparked by Martin Luther. Significant changes occurred to church
music such as the introduction of a chorale. It was also the period when the Psalms of the Bible
were translated into French and then set to music.
1500 - 1540 Composers Adrian Willaert and Jacob Arcadelt were among those who developed the earliest
Italian madrigals.
1525-1594 The lifetime of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, known as the high Renaissance composer of
Counter-Reformation sacred music. During this period Renaissance polyphony reached its
1550 Catholic Counter-Reformation. The Council of Trent met from 1545 to 1563 to discuss com-
plaints against the church including its music.
1540-1570 In the 1550s, thousands of madrigals were composed in Italy. Philippe de Monte was perhaps
the most prolific of all madrigal composers. Composer Orlando Lassus left Italy and brought
the madrigal form to Munich.
1548-1611 The lifetime of Tomas Luis de Victoria, Spanish composer during the Renaissance who com-
posed mainly sacred music.
1543-1623 The lifetime of William Byrd, leading English composer of the late Renaissance who composed
church, secular, consort and keyboard music.
1554-1612 The lifetime of Giovanni Gabrielli, known composer in Venetian high Renaissance music who
wrote instrumental and church music.
1563-1626 The lifetime of John Dowland,
known for his lute music in
Europe and composed beautiful
melancholic music.
1570-1610 The last period of madrigals was
highlighted by two reforms,
madrigals would take on a lighter
tone incorporating more whimsy,
and madrigals once a small,
intimate performance, would
be concertized. Known composers
were Luca Marenzio, Carlo
Gesualdo, and Claudio Monteverdi.
Monteverdi is also known as the
transitional figure to the Baroque
music era.
Pass the TExES Music
Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
2. Styles and Genres, contd.
Baroque (1600-1750)
Motet (with instrumental accompaniment), Mass (with instrumental accompaniment), Opera,
Cantata, Oratorio, Sonata, Concerto, Fugue, Suite
Significant Years Famous Musicians Description
1573 Jacopo Peri and
Claudio Monteverdi
(Florentine Camerata)
The first known meeting of the Florentine Camerata, a group of musicians
who came together to discuss various subjects including the arts. It is said
that the members were interested in reviving the Greek dramatic style.
Both the monodies and the opera are believed to have come out from their
discussions and experimentation.
1597 Giulio Caccini, Peri,
and Monteverdi
This is the period of early opera which lasts until 1650. Opera is generally
defined as a stage presentation or work that combines music, costumes, and
scenery to relay a story. During the baroque period, operas were derived
from ancient Greek tragedy and there was often an overture at the begin-
ning, with a solo part and both an orchestra and chorus. Some examples of
early operas are two performances of “Eurydice” by Jacopo Peri.
1600 Caccini Start of monody which will last until the 1700s. Monody refers to an
accompanied solo music. Examples of early monody can be found in the
book “Le Nuove Musiche” by Giulio Caccini. The book is a collection of
songs for the figured bass and solo voice, it also included madrigals. “Le
Nuove Musiche” is considered one of Caccini’s most important works.
1650 Luigi Rossi, Giacomo
Carissimi, and
Francesco Cavalli
During this middle baroque era, musicians did a lot of improvisation. The
basso continuo or figured bass is music created by combining keyboard
music and one or more bass instruments. The period from 1650 to 1750 is
known as the Age of Instrumental Music where other forms of music devel-
oped including the suite, cantata, oratorio, and sonata. The most important
innovators of this style were the Romans Luigi Rossi and Giacomo
Carissimi, who were primarily composers of cantatas and oratorios.
1700 Arcangelo Corelli,
Johann Sebastian
Bach, and George
Frideric Handel
Until 1750 this is known as the high baroque period. Italian opera became
more expressive and expansive. The composer and violinist Arcangelo
Corelli became known and music for the harpsichord was also given impor-
tance. Bach and Handel are known as the figures of the late baroque music.
Other forms of music like the canons and fugues evolved during this time.
by Carl Jager (1833-1877)
by Balthasar Denner (1726-1728)
Pass the TExES Music Domain I: Listening • Competencies 1-3
2. Styles and Genres, contd.
Classical (c. 1750-c. 1820)
Mass, Opera, Oratorio, Solo Concerto, String Quartet, Symphony
1750 - Johann Sebastian Bach died. In chamber music, the string quartet (consists
of 2 violins, viola, and cello) was popular. In New York, John Gays “The Beggars
Opera” was performed.
1751 - In Europe, the minuet was a popular dance.
1752 - The composer and piano prodigy, Muzio Clementi was born.
1753 - Italian composer and violinist, Giovanni Viotti, was born.
1756 - The Austrian composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, was born.
1757 - The Italian composers Niccolo Pasquali and Domenico Scarlatti
passed away. Johann Stamitz, a German composer died.
1759 - Baroque composer George Frederic Handel passed away.
1761 - Franz Joseph Haydn, an important figure in Classical music history, worked as Kapellmeister for Prince Pál
Antal Esterházy. Haydn was instrumental in establishing the symphony and string quartet.
1762 - Benjamin Franklin improved the glass harmonica. In Charleston, South Carolina, a musical group called St.
Cecilia Society was founded. Now aged 6, music prodigy Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart toured Europe. “Orfeo ed
Euridice” by Christoph Willibald Gluck was created.
1764 - Johann Christian Bach performed in London. Mozart wrote his first symphony.
1767 - German composer Georg Philipp Telemann passed away. CPE Bach succeeded him as director of church music
in Hamburg.
1769 - Junipero Sérra led a group of Franciscan friars on a mission to teach Native Americans polyphony and plainsong.
1770 - German composer Ludwig van Beethoven was born. The New England Psalm Singer, the first collection of
music composed in America, was published by William Billings. In New York, Handel’s “Messiah,” was first per-
formed. Johann Christian Bach published his “6 Concerti for pianoforte,” Op. 7.
1773 - In Vienna, the waltz was popular.
1776 - La Scala, a major opera venue was built in Milan. A book on the history of music was published by Charles Burney.
1778 - Ludwig van Beethoven was presented by his father as a music prodigy. La Scala opened.
1780 - Sebastiano Carezo invented the Spanish dance called “bolero.”
1781 - The great classical musician, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, moved to Vienna where he created some of his most
popular works.
1782 - Johann Christian Bach passed away. Italian composer and violinist Niccolo Paganini was born.
1784 - Wilhelm Friedemann Bach passed away.
1786 - In Vienna, Mozart’s “ The Marriage of Figaro,” premiered. German composer Carl Maria von Weber was born.
1787 - Mozarts father, Leopold, passed away. In Prague, Mozart’s “Don Giovanni,” premiered.
1788 - CPE Bach passed away.
1790 - In Vienna, Mozart’s “Cosi fan tutte,” premiered.
1791 - Austrian composer, Carl Czerny, and German composer, Giacomo Meyerbeer, were born. In Vienna, Mozart’s
“Magic Flute,” was first performed. Mozart also passed away in the same year. Haydns first London Symphonies were
1792 - Haydn becomes Beethovens teacher. Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini was born.
1793 - Niccolo Paganini debuted as a violin virtuoso at age 11.
Mozart as a child at the harpsichord.
Painting by Joseph-Siffred Duplessis
Pass the TExES Music
Appendix I: Tips and Study Aids
1. Elements
2. Styles and Genres
3. Evaluation
4. Notation
5. Composition
6. Western Music
7. Culture and Music
8. Vocal Performance
9. Instrumental Performance
10. Conducting
11. Instruction
12. Learning Experiences
in Music
Competency 1:
The teacher applies standard terminology to describe and analyze various elements
in a musical recording.
Competency 2:
The teacher recognizes and describes music of diverse genres, styles, and cultures
in a musical recording.
Competency 3:
The teacher evaluates and critiques musical compositions and performances in a
musical recording.
Competency 4:
The teacher knows how to read, write, and interpret standard music notation.
Competency 5:
The teacher understands methods and techniques of musical composition and impro-
visation and knows how to arrange music for specific purposes and settings.
Competency 6:
The teacher demonstrates a comprehensive knowledge of the history of Western
Competency 7:
The teacher understands music of diverse genres, styles, and cultures and knows
how music can reflect elements of a specific society or culture.
Competency 8:
The teacher demonstrates knowledge of methods and techniques for singing.
Competency 9:
The teacher demonstrates knowledge of methods and techniques for playing musi-
Competency 10:
The teacher knows how to conduct vocal and instrumental performances.
Competency 11:
The teacher knows how to plan and implement effective music instruction.
Competency 12:
The teacher knows how to provide students with learning experiences that
enhance their musical knowledge, skills, and appreciation.
Domain I
Domain II
Competency Chart
Domain IIIDomain IVDomain V
Copy this chart and carry it with you for easy study.
*Texas Examinations
for Educator Standards
Test Prep for the Bilingual Supplemental!
Test Prep for the Bilingual Supplemental!
FAST. This material is straight-to-the-point. You’ll have greater
success faster.
EFFECTIVE. Uses proven methods of study that bring results!
USEFUL. Mastering this material will contribute to your successful teaching career.
This material prepares you for the TExES Music exam #177.
Interactive PowerPoint
study module for Mac or PC.
Excellent content, worksheets, study tools, resources, test-taking strategies, and exercises.
Includes seminar packet.
The focus of this program is on developing and strengthening your analysis and synthesis skills so
that you will choose the best answer on the test. This unique study system is proven. Thousands of
teachers have passed the tests by using the Pass the TExES method of study.
You are a Texas teacher. You have to
take a test...the TExES* test.
How do you best prepare for the exam?
This bo
ok provides the direction you need for success.
*Texas Examinations
for Educator Standards
History 7-12 4th Ed Cover New for website.indd 2 5/4/18 10:28 AM
ISBN 0-9671860-9-9
About the Authors:
Caia McCullar is Professor of Church Music
Education at Southwestern Baptist Theological
Seminary in Ft. Worth. As Professor of Music,
she developed and taught the Music ExCET
Review course for the University of Mary
Hardin-Baylor and continues teaching this course
as an adjunct faculty member at Dallas Baptist
David McCullar is the Director of Fine Arts for
the Denton Public Schools where he oversees
K-12 programs in elementary and secondary
visual art, elementary music, band, choir,
orchestra, theatre arts, and dance. Mr. McCullar
had a twenty-year career as a public school
choral director and university music professor.