1. Locate the cortex, the renal pyramids, and the renal columns of the medulla.
2. Locate the renal artery as it enters the kidney (it does not enter the renal pelvis as the diagram
suggests). The first branches of this artery that are located inside the kidney are the ________________
__________________ and these extend into the renal columns as __________________________________. The
branches that arc over each pyramid are called __________________________________, and smaller branches
called __________________________________ extend further into the cortex. These arteries supply the
3. Locate and select the large, light-colored tubule passing through the renal pyramid. In the content
box, select the arrow and choose Nephrons at the top. This will highlight all nephron structures.
There are three nephrons in this view, but there are approximately one million of them in each kidney.
Nephrons are complex structures that include a capsule, tubules, and associated blood vessels.
4. Locate the small, spherical glomerular capsule in the center nephron, at the top of the image.
Select this capsule and use the book icon to read the definition. Inside the capsule, you’ll see a
spherical capillary network called a __________________________________. High blood pressure in these
specialized capillaries forces fluid out of the blood vessels and into the capsular space. This fluid,
called filtrate because it has been filtered by the glomerulus, leaves the capsule and enters the
__________________________________. As the tubule travels down into the medullary pyramid, it is called the
__________________________________ and as it travels back up into the cortex, it is called the
__________________________________. As the filtrate passes through the loop of Henle (also called a
nephron loop), it is modified by the loop’s epithelium. These epithelial cells are
__________________________________ in shape and have a “brush border,” meaning they are covered with
__________________________________. As the tubule exits the medulla, it is called the
__________________________________. As the tubule straightens out again and exits via the renal pyramid, it
is called a __________________________________.
5. As filtrate travels through the nephron loop, the tubule cells secrete
___________________________________ and excess ions into the filtrate. As the loop travels down into the
medulla and back, it passes through salt gradients that facilitate the reabsorption of
__________________________________ and other necessary molecules as required.
6. When these processes are complete, the filtrate is called __________________________________. Fluid
from the collecting duct flows into the __________________________________.