PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
1. When an odorant enters the nose, what are all the structures it passes on its way to becoming a fully
processed conscious neural signal (in the cortex). Fill in the blanks below.
The odorant enters the ________________________ cavity and passes along the ________________________,
which divides the nose into two nostrils, on its way past the ________________________, which make the
air more turbulent. Then, it reaches the cilia on the receptors of the ________________________, where it
binds, creating a neural signal. That signal travels through the ________________________ of the ethmoid,
on its way to the ________________________. The signal is then transferred to the ________________________,
which takes it to the olfactory area in the ________________________ of the cerebral cortex.
2. When a tastant enters the mouth, what are all the structures it passes on its way to becoming a fully
processed neural signal? Fill in the blanks below.
The food enters the mouth, passing the ________________________ (tip) of the tongue. It is moved
around by the motion of the tongue and teeth as the food is chewed. Its movement is facilitated by
________________________ on the tongue, which are jagged, aiding them in their ability to move food.
________________________, on the ________________________ of the tongue, and ________________________,
located _________________________________, come in contact with the ________________________. Both types
of papillae have ________________________ that have receptors for the individual tastes—sweet, sour,
salty, umami (savory), and bitter. Once a tastant is bound to the receptor, it creates a signal that
travels through one of three cranial nerves, depending on the location of the taste bud. For a taste
bud located on the front of the tongue, the signal travels through the ________________________. For a
taste bud located on the back of the tongue, the signal travels through the ________________________.
For a taste bud located on the middle and back of the tongue, the signal travels through the
_____________________________. These signals travel to the ________________________ of the brainstem, where
they are relayed to the ________________________ for higher processing.