Abbasids [uh
ihdz] n. a dynasty that ruled much of
the Muslim Empire from a.d. 750 to 1258. (p. 240)
Aborigine [ab
nee] n. a member of any of
the native peoples of Australia. (p. 665)
absolute monarch [MAHN
uhrk] n. a king or queen who
has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of
society. (p. 517)
absolute ruler n. a ruler who has total power. (p. 147)
accommodation [uh
shuhn] n. an accep-
tance of the ideas and customs of other cultures.
(p. 961)
acropolis [uh
lihs] n. a fortified hilltop in an
ancient Greek city. (p. 115)
Aksum [AHK
soom] n. an African kingdom, in what is
now Ethiopia and Eritrea, that reached the height of
its power in the fourth century a.d. (p. 199)
al-Andalus [al
LUS] n. a Muslim-ruled region in
what is now Spain, established in the eighth century
a.d. (p. 240)
Allah [AL
uh] n. God (an Arabic word, used mainly in
Islam). (p. 234)
Allies [uh
LYZ] n. in World War I, the nations of Great
Britain, France, and Russia, along with the other
nations that fought on their side; also, the group of
nations—including Great Britain, the Soviet Union,
and the United States—that opposed the Axis Powers
in World War II. (p. 748)
Almohads [AL
hadz] n. a group of Islamic reform-
ers who overthrew the Almoravid Dynasty and estab-
lished an empire in North Africa and southern Spain in
the 12th century a.d. (p. 370)
Almoravids [al
uhdz] n. an Islamic religious
brotherhood that established an empire in North Africa
and southern Spain in the 11th century a.d. (p. 370)
Anabaptists [an
tihst] n. in the Reformation, a
Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those
persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian
and in separation of church and state. (p. 434)
Anasazi [ah
zee] n. an early Native American
people who lived in the American Southwest. (p. 391)
Anatolia [an
uh] n. the Southwest Asian
peninsula now occupied by the Asian part of Turkey—
also called Asia Minor. (p. 58)
Pronunciation Key
Some of the words in this book are followed by respellings that show how the words are pronounced. The following key
will help you understand what sounds are represented by the letters used in the respellings.
Symbol Examples Symbol Examples
a apple [AP
uhl], catch [kach] oh road, [rohd], know [noh]
ah barn [bahrn], pot [paht] oo school [skool], glue [gloo]
air bear [bair], dare [dair] ow out [owt], cow [kow]
aw bought [bawt], horse [hawrs] oy coin [koyn], boys [boyz]
ay ape [ayp], mail [mayl] p pig [pihg], top [tahp]
b bell [behl], table [TAY
buhl] r rose [rohz], star [stahr]
ch chain [chayn], ditch [dihch] s soap [sohp], icy [EYE
d dog [dawg], rained [raynd] sh share [shair], nation [NAY
ee even [EE
vuhn], meal [meel] t tired [tyrd], boat [boht]
eh egg [ehg], ten [tehn] th thin [thihn], mother [MUH
eye iron [EYE
uhrn] u pull [pul], look [luk]
f fall [fawl], laugh [laf] uh bump [buhmp], awake [uh
g gold [gohld], big [bihg] happen [HAP
uhn], pencil [PEHN
h hot [haht], exhale [ehks
HAYL] pilot [PY
hw white [hwyt] ur earth [urth], bird [burd], worm [wurm]
ih into [IHN
too], sick [sihk] v vase [vays], love [luhv]
j jar [jahr], badge [baj] w web [wehb], twin [twihn]
k cat [kat], luck [luhk] y As a consonant: yard [yahrd], mule [myool]
l load [lohd], ball [bawl] As a vowel: ice [ys], tried [tryd], sigh [sy]
m make [mayk], gem [jehm] z zone [zohn], reason [REE
n night [nyt], win [wihn] zh treasure [TREHZH
uhr], garage [guh
ng song [sawng], anger [ANG
Syllables that are stressed when the words are spoken appear in CAPITAL LETTERS in the respellings. For example, the
respelling of patterns (PAT
uhrnz) shows that the first syllable of the word is stressed.
Syllables that appear in small capital letters are also stressed, but not as strongly as those that appear in capital
letters. For example, the respelling of interaction (ihn
shuhn) shows that the third syllable receives the main
stress and the first syllable receives a secondary stress.
The Glossary is an alphabetical listing of many of the key terms from the chapters, along with their meanings.
The definitions listed in the Glossary are the ones that apply to the way the words are used in this textbook. The
Glossary gives the part of speech of each word. The following abbreviations are used:
adj. adjective n. noun v. verb
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Page 1 of 16
Angkor Wat [ANG
kawr WAHT] n. a temple complex
built in the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu
god Vishnu. (p. 309)
Anglican [ANG
kuhn] adj. relating to the Church of
England. (p. 432)
animism [AN
uhm] n. the belief that spirits are
present in animals, plants, and other natural objects.
(p. 197)
annexation [an
shuhn] n. the adding of a region
to the territory of an existing political unit. (pp. 709, 723)
annul [uh
NUHL] v. to cancel or put an end to. (p. 431)
anti-Semitism [an
uhm] n. prejudice
against Jews. (p. 663)
apartheid [uh
hyt] n. a South African policy of
complete legal separation of the races, including the
banning of all social contacts between blacks and
whites. (p. 919)
apostle [uh
uhl] n. one of the followers of Jesus
who preached and spread his teachings. (p. 153)
appeasement n. the making of concessions to an aggres-
sor in order to avoid war. (p. 813)
aqueduct [AK
duhkt] n. a pipeline or channel built
to carry water to populated areas. (p. 167)
aristocracy [ar
see] n. a government in
which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class
or nobility. (p. 115)
armistice [AHR
stihs] n. an agreement to stop fight-
ing. (p. 757)
artifact n. a human-made object, such as a tool, weapon,
or piece of jewelry. (p. 7)
artisan [AHR
zuhn] n. a skilled worker, such as a
weaver or a potter, who makes goods by hand. (p. 18)
Aryans [AIR
uhnz] n. 1. an Indo-European people
who, about 1500 b.c., began to migrate into the Indian
subcontinent (p. 59). 2. to the Nazis, the Germanic
peoples who formed a “master race.” (p. 831)
assembly line n. in a factory, an arrangement in which a
product is moved from worker to worker, with each per-
son performing a single task in its manufacture. (p. 674)
assimilation [uh
shuhn] n. 1. the adoption
of a conqueror’s culture by a conquered people (p. 185).
2. a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a sub-
ject people to adopt its institutions and customs. (p. 691)
Assyria [uh
uh] n. a Southwest Asian kingdom
that controlled a large empire from about 850 to 612
b.c. (p. 88)
Atlantic Charter n. a declaration of principles issued in
August 1941 by British prime minister Winston
Churchill and U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt, on
which the Allied peace plan at the end of World War II
was based. (p. 826)
Atlantic slave trade n. the buying, transporting, and sell-
ing of Africans for work in the Americas. (p. 496)
autocracy [aw
see] n. a government in which
the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbi-
trary manner. (p. 100)
Axis Powers n. in World War II, the nations of Germany,
Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
(p. 813)
ayllu [EYE
loo] n. in Incan society, a small community or
clan whose members worked together for the common
good. (p. 408)
balance of power n. a political situation in which no one
nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others.
(p. 593)
Balfour Declaration n. a statement that the British gov-
ernment supported the establishment of a Jewish
national homeland in Palestine, made in a 1917 letter
by British foreign secretary Sir Arthur Balfour. (p. 901)
Balkans [BAWL
kuhnz] n. the region of southeastern
Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria,
Romania, the European part of Turkey, and the former
republics of Yugoslavia. (p. 609)
Bantu-speaking peoples n. the speakers of a related
group of languages who, beginning about 2,000 years
ago, migrated from West Africa into most of the south-
ern half of Africa. (p. 204)
baroque [buh
ROHK] adj. relating to a grand, ornate
style that characterized European painting, music, and
architecture in the 1600s and early 1700s. (p. 559)
barter n. a form of trade in which people exchange goods
and services without the use of money. (p. 21)
Battle of Britain n. a series of battles between German
and British air forces, fought over Britain in
1940–1941. (p. 824)
Battle of Guadalcanal [gwahd
NAL] n. a
1942–1943 battle of World War II, in which Allied
troops drove Japanese forces from the Pacific island of
Guadalcanal. (p. 830)
Battle of Midway n. a 1942 sea and air battle of World
War II, in which American forces defeated Japanese
forces in the central Pacific. (p. 829)
Battle of Stalingrad [STAH
grad] n. a 1942–1943
battle of World War II, in which German forces were
defeated in their attempt to capture the city of
Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. (p. 836)
Battle of the Bulge n. a 1944–1945 battle in which
Allied forces turned back the last major German offen-
sive of World War II. (p. 839)
Battle of Trafalgar [truh
guhr] n. an 1805 naval bat-
tle in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British
fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson. (p. 587)
Benin [buh
NIHN] n. a kingdom that arose near the
Niger River delta in the 1300s and became a major
West African state in the 1400s. (p. 377)
Beringia [buh
uh] n. an ancient land bridge
over which the earliest Americans are believed to have
migrated from Asia into the Americas. (p. 211)
Berlin Conference of 1884–85 n. a meeting at which
representatives of European nations agreed upon rules
for the European colonization of Africa. (p. 687)
Bill of Rights n. the first ten amendments to the U.S.
Constitution, which protect citizens’ basic rights and
freedoms. (p. 567)
bishop n. a high-ranking Christian official who supervises
a number of local churches. (p. 156)
blitzkrieg [BLIHTS
kreeg] n. “lightning war”—a form
of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast-moving
airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry
forces. (p. 822)
blockade [blah
KAYD] n. the use of troops or ships to
prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a
city or region. (p. 589)
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Page 2 of 16
Catholic Reformation [rehf
shuhn] n. a 16th-
century movement in which the Roman Catholic
Church sought to reform itself in response to the
Protestant Reformation. (p. 435)
caudillo [kaw
yoh] n. a military dictator of a Latin
American country. (p. 724)
centralized government n. a government in which
power is concentrated in a central authority to which
local governments are subject. (p. 181)
Central Powers n. in World War I, the nations of
Germany and Austria-Hungary, along with the other
nations that fought on their side. (p. 748)
Chaldeans [kal
uhnz] n. a Southwest Asian people
who helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire. (p. 90)
Chartist movement n. a 19th-century British movement
in which members of the working class demanded
reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suf-
frage for all men. (p. 660)
Chavín [chah
VEEN] n. the first major South American
civilization, which flourished in the highlands of what is
now Peru from about 900 to 200 b.c. (p. 221)
checks and balances n. measures designed to prevent
any one branch of government from dominating the
others. (pp. 566–567)
chivalry [SHIHV
ree] n. a code of behavior for
knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as
courage, loyalty, and devotion. (p. 328)
CIS n. the Commonwealth of Independent States—a
loose association of former Soviet republics that was
formed after the breakup of the Soviet Union. (p. 928)
city-state n. a city and its surrounding lands functioning
as an independent political unit. (p. 29)
civil disobedience n. a deliberate and public refusal to
obey a law considered unjust. (p. 786)
civilization n. a form of culture characterized by cities,
specialized workers, complex institutions, record keep-
ing, and advanced technology. (p. 18)
civil rights movement n. a grassroots effort to fight dis-
crimination in the United States and to make sure that
all U.S. citizens receive the rights guaranteed by the
Constitution. (p. 954)
civil service n. the administrative departments of a govern-
ment—especially those in which employees are hired on
the basis of their scores on examinations. (p. 183)
civil war n. a conflict between two political groups within
the same country. (p. 146)
clan n. a group of people descended from a common
ancestor. (pp. 197, 295)
classical art n. the art of ancient Greece and Rome, in
which harmony, order, and balance were emphasized.
(p. 121)
clergy [KLUR
jee] n. a body of officials who perform reli-
gious services—such as priests, ministers, or rabbis.
(p. 332)
cloning [KLOH
nihng] n. the creation of plants or ani-
mals that are genetically identical to an existing plant
or animal. (p. 944)
coalition [koh
uhn] government n. a govern-
ment controlled by a temporary alliance of several
political parties. (p. 801)
codex [KOH
dehks] n. a book with pages that can be
turned, like the one you are reading now. (p. 398)
Boer [bohr] n. a Dutch colonist in South Africa. (p. 689)
Boer War n. a conflict, lasting from 1899 to 1902, in
which the Boers and the British fought for control of
territory in South Africa. (p. 689)
Bolsheviks [BOHL
vihks] n. a group of revolution-
ary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia’s gov-
ernment in November 1917. (p. 770)
Boxer Rebellion n. a 1900 rebellion in China, aimed at
ending foreign influence in the country. (p. 719)
boyars [boh
YAHRZ] n. landowning nobles of Russia.
(pp. 275, 531)
Brahma [BRAH
muh] n. a Hindu god considered the
creator of the world. (p. 178)
Brahmin [BRAH
mihn] n. in Aryan society, a member of
the social class made up of priests. (p. 59)
brinkmanship n. a policy of threatening to go to war in
response to any enemy aggression. (p. 860)
Bronze Age n. a period in human history, beginning
around 3000 b.c. in some areas, during which people
began using bronze, rather than copper or stone, to
fashion tools and weapons. (p. 19)
bubonic plague [boo
ihk PLAYG] n. a deadly
disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-
14th century, killing millions of people. (p. 357)
bureaucracy [byu
see] n. a system of depart-
ments and agencies formed to carry out the work of
government. (p. 98)
burgher [BUR
guhr] n. a medieval town dweller. (p. 350)
Bushido [BUSH
doh] n. the strict code of behavior
followed by samurai warriors in Japan. (p. 307)
cabinet n. a group of advisers or ministers chosen by the
head of a country to help make government decisions.
(p. 539)
caliph [KAY
lihf] n. a supreme political and religious
leader in a Muslim government. (p. 238)
calligraphy [kuh
fee] n. the art of beautiful
handwriting. (p. 246)
Calvinism [KAL
uhm] n. a body of religious
teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John
Calvin. (p. 433)
Camp David Accords n. the first signed agreement
between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian
president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate
state and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin
agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. (p. 903)
canon law n. the body of laws governing the religious
practices of a Christian church. (p. 333)
capitalism n. an economic system based on private own-
ership and on the investment of money in business
ventures in order to make a profit. (pp. 502, 647)
Carolingian [kar
juhn] Dynasty n. a dynasty
of Frankish rulers, lasting from a.d. 751 to 987. (p. 320)
caste [kast] n. one of the four classes of people in the
social system of the Aryans who settled in India—
priests, warriors, peasants or traders, and non-Aryan
laborers or craftsmen. (p. 60)
cataract [KAT
rakt] n. a waterfall or stretch of rapids
in a river. (p. 33)
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Cold War n. the state of diplomatic hostility between the
United States and the Soviet Union in the decades fol-
lowing World War II. (p. 859)
collective bargaining n. negotiations between workers
and their employers. (p. 650)
collective farm n. a large government-controlled farm
formed by combining many small farms. (p. 777)
colony n. a land controlled by a distant nation. (p. 484)
Colossus of Rhodes [kuh
uhs uhv ROHDZ] n.
an enormous Hellenistic statue that formerly stood
near the harbor of Rhodes. (p. 135)
Columbian Exchange n. the global transfer of plants,
animals, and diseases that occurred during the
European colonization of the Americas. (p. 500)
comedy n. a humorous form of drama that often includes
slapstick and satire. (p. 123)
command economy n. an economic system in which the
government makes all economic decisions. (p. 776)
Commercial Revolution n. the expansion of trade and
business that transformed European economies during
the 16th and 17th centuries. (p. 500)
Committee of Public Safety n. a committee established
during the French Revolution to identify “enemies of
the republic.” (p. 582)
commune [KAHM
yoon] n. in Communist China, a col-
lective farm on which a great number of people work
and live together. (p. 864)
communism n. an economic system in which all means of
production—land, mines, factories, railroads, and busi-
nesses—are owned by the people, private property
does not exist, and all goods and services are shared
equally. (p. 649)
Concert [KAHN
surt] of Europe n. a series of alliances
among European nations in the 19th century, devised
by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the out-
break of revolutions. (p. 595)
concordat [kuhn
dat] n. a formal agreement—
especially one between the pope and a government,
dealing with the control of church affairs. (p. 586)
Congress of Vienna [vee
uh] n. a series of meet-
ings in 1814–1815, during which the European leaders
sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after
the defeat of Napoleon. (p. 593)
Congress Party n. a major national political party in
India—also known as the Indian National Congress.
(p. 886)
conquistadors [kahng
dawrz] n. the Spanish
soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part
in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century.
(p. 485)
conservatives n. in the first half of the 19th century,
those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and
nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monar-
chies of Europe. (p. 609)
constitutional monarchy [MAHN
kee] n. a monar-
chy in which the ruler’s power is limited by law. (p. 539)
consul [KAHN
suhl] n. in the Roman republic, one of the
two powerful officials elected each year to command
the army and direct the government. (p. 142)
containment n. a U.S. foreign policy adopted by
President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the
United States tried to stop the spread of communism
by creating alliances and helping weak countries to
resist Soviet advances. (p. 857)
Continental System n. Napoleon’s policy of preventing
trade between Great Britain and continental Europe,
intended to destroy Great Britain’s economy. (p. 589)
corporation n. a business owned by stockholders who
share in its profits but are not personally responsible
for its debts. (p. 645)
Council of Trent n. a meeting of Roman Catholic lead-
ers, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criti-
cized by the Protestant reformers. (p. 436)
coup d’état [KOO day
TAH] n. a sudden seizure of polit-
ical power in a nation. (p. 585)
covenant [KUHV
nuhnt] n. a mutual promise or
agreement—especially an agreement between God and
the Hebrew people as recorded in the Bible. (p. 73)
creoles [KREE
ohlz] n. in Spanish colonial society,
colonists who were born in Latin America to Spanish
parents. (p. 604)
Crimean [kry
uhn] War n. a conflict, lasting from
1853 to 1856, in which the Ottoman Empire, with the
aid of Britain and France, halted Russian expansion in
the region of the Black Sea. (p. 698)
crop rotation n. the system of growing a different crop in
a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.
(p. 633)
Crusade n. one of the expeditions in which medieval
Christian warriors sought to recover control of the
Holy Land from the Muslims. (p. 343)
cultural diffusion n. the spreading of ideas or products
from one culture to another. (p. 29)
Cultural Revolution n. a 1966–1976 uprising in China,
led by the Red Guards, with the goal of establishing a
society of peasants and workers in which all were
equal. (p. 865)
culture n. a people’s unique way of life, as shown by its
tools, customs, arts, and ideas. (p. 7)
cuneiform [KYOO
fawrm] n. a system of writing
with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the
Sumerians around 3000 b.c. (p. 18)
Cyrillic [suh
ihk] alphabet n. an alphabet for the
writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth cen-
tury a.d. by Saints Cyril and Methodius. (p. 273)
czar [zahr] n. a Russian emperor (from the Roman title
Caesar). (p. 278)
daimyo [DY
oh] n. a Japanese feudal lord who com-
manded a private army of samurai. (p. 474)
Daoism [DOW
uhm] n. a philosophy based on the
ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi, who taught that
people should be guided by a universal force called the
Dao (Way). (p. 98)
D-Day n. June 6, 1944—the day on which the Allies
began their invasion of the European mainland during
World War II. (p. 838)
Declaration of Independence n. a statement of the rea-
sons for the American colonies’ break with Britain,
approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776.
(p. 564)
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Page 4 of 16
Declaration of the Rights of Man n. a statement of
revolutionary ideals adopted by France’s National
Assembly in 1789. (p. 577)
delta n. a marshy region formed by deposits of silt at the
mouth of a river. (p. 34)
demilitarization [dee
shuhn] n. a
reduction in a country’s ability to wage war, achieved by
disbanding its armed forces and prohibiting it from
acquiring weapons. (p. 844)
democracy n. a government controlled by its citizens,
either directly or through representatives. (p. 117)
desertification [dih
shuhn] n. a transfor-
mation of fertile land into desert. (p. 195)
destalinization [dee
shuhn] n. Nikita
Khrushchev’s policy of eliminating all memory of Joseph
Stalin and his programs in the Soviet Union. (p. 876)
détente [day
TAHNT] n. a policy of reducing Cold War
tensions that was adopted by the United States during
the presidency of Richard Nixon. (p. 878)
developed nation n. a nation with all the facilities
needed for the advanced production of manufactured
goods. (p. 946)
developing nation n. a nation in which the process of
industrialization is not yet complete. (p. 946)
devshirme [dehv
meh] n. in the Ottoman
Empire, the policy of taking children from conquered
Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers.
(p. 446)
Diaspora [dy
uh] n. the dispersal of the Jews
from their homeland in Palestine—especially during
the period of more than 1,800 years that followed the
Romans’ destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in
a.d. 70. (p. 155)
dictator n. in ancient Rome, a political leader given abso-
lute power to make laws and command the army for a
limited time. (p. 143)
direct democracy n. a government in which citizens rule
directly rather than through representatives. (p. 120)
dissident [DIHS
duhnt] n. an opponent of a govern-
ment’s policies or actions. (p. 918)
divine right n. the idea that monarchs are God’s repre-
sentatives on earth and are therefore answerable only
to God. (p. 517)
domestication n. the taming of animals for human use.
(p. 14)
dominion n. in the British Empire, a nation (such as
Canada) allowed to govern its own domestic affairs.
(p. 665)
domino theory n. the idea that if a nation falls under
Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under
Communist control. (p. 868)
Dorians [DAWR
uhnz] n. a Greek-speaking people
that, according to tradition, migrated into mainland
Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civiliza-
tion. (p. 113)
Dreyfus [DRY
fuhs] affair n. a controversy in France in
the 1890s, centering on the trial and imprisonment of a
Jewish army officer, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, who had
been falsely accused of selling military secrets to
Germany. (p. 663)
Duma [DOO
muh] n. a Russian national parliament
formed in the early years of the 20th century. (p. 771)
Dutch East India Company n. a company founded by
the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and
direct trade throughout Asia. (p. 468)
dynastic [dy
tihk] cycle n. the historical pattern of
the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties. (p. 50)
dynasty [DY
stee] n. a series of rulers from a single
family. (p. 29)
Eastern Front n. in World War I, the region along the
German-Russian border where Russians and Serbs bat-
tled Germans, Austrians, and Turks. (p. 750)
Edict of Nantes [EE
dihkt uhv NAHNT] n. a 1598 dec-
laration in which the French king Henry IV promised
that Protestants could live in peace in France and
could set up houses of worship in some French cities.
(p. 518)
Emancipation Proclamation [ih
shuhn] n. a declaration issued by U.S.
president Abraham Lincoln in 1863, stating that all
slaves in the Confederate states were free. (p. 671)
émigrés [EHM
grayz] n. people who leave their
native country for political reasons, like the nobles and
others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of
the French Revolution. (p. 579)
empire n. a political unit in which a number of peoples or
countries are controlled by a single ruler. (p. 31)
enclosure n. one of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields cre-
ated by wealthy British landowners on land that was
formerly worked by village farmers. (p. 633)
encomienda [ehng
dah] n. a grant of land
made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including
the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.
(p. 486)
English Civil War n. a conflict, lasting from 1642 to
1649, in which Puritan supporters of Parliament bat-
tled supporters of England’s monarchy. (p. 537)
enlightened despot [DEHS
puht] n. one of the 18th-
century European monarchs who were inspired by
Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the
rights of their subjects. (p. 561)
enlightenment [ehn
muhnt] n. in Buddhism, a
state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic
truths about the universe. (p. 64)
Enlightenment n. an 18th-century European movement
in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of
reason and the scientific method to all aspects of soci-
ety. (p. 551)
entrepreneur [ahn
NUR] n. a person who
organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a busi-
ness. (p. 636)
epics n. long narrative poems celebrating the deeds of
legendary or traditional heroes. (p. 114)
estate [ih
STAYT] n. one of the three social classes in
France before the French Revolution—the First Estate
consisting of the clergy; the Second Estate, of the
nobility; and the Third Estate, of the rest of the popu-
lation. (p. 573)
Estates-General [ih
uhl] n. an assem-
bly of representatives from all three of the estates, or
social classes, in France. (p. 575)
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Franks n. a Germanic people who settled in the Roman
province of Gaul (roughly the area now occupied by
France) and established a great empire during the
Middle Ages. (p. 318)
free trade n. commerce between nations without eco-
nomic restrictions or barriers (such as tariffs). (p. 947)
French and Indian War n. a conflict between Britain
and France for control of territory in North America,
lasting from 1754 to 1763. (p. 493)
fundamentalism [fuhn
uhm] n. a
strict belief in the basic truths and practices of a partic-
ular religion. (p. 953)
genetic [juh
ihk] engineering n. the transferring
of genes from one living thing to another in order to
produce an organism with new traits. (pp. 943–944)
genocide [JEHN
syd] n. the systematic killing of an
entire people. (p. 833)
gentry n. a class of powerful, well-to-do people who enjoy
a high social status. (p. 291)
geopolitics [jee
tihks] n. a foreign policy
based on a consideration of the strategic locations or
products of other lands. (p. 698)
Ghana [GAH
nuh] n. a West African kingdom that grew
rich from taxing and controlling trade and that estab-
lished an empire in the 9th–11th centuries a.d. (p. 371)
ghazi [GAH
zee] n. a warrior for Islam. (p. 443)
ghettos [GEHT
ohz] n. city neighborhoods in which
European Jews were forced to live. (p. 832)
gladiator [GLAD
tuhr] n. in ancient Rome, one of
the professional fighters who engaged in battles to the
death in public arenas. (p. 151)
glasnost [GLAHS
nuhst] n. a Soviet policy of openness to
the free flow of ideas and information, introduced in
1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev. (p. 921)
global economy n. all the financial interactions—involv-
ing people, businesses, and governments—that cross
international boundaries. (p. 947)
Glorious Revolution n. the bloodless overthrow of the
English king James II and his replacement by William
and Mary. (p. 539)
glyph [glihf] n. a symbolic picture—especially one used
as part of a writing system for carving messages in
stone. (p. 398)
Gothic [GAHTH
ihk] adj. relating to a style of church
architecture that developed in medieval Europe, fea-
turing ribbed vaults, stained-glass windows, flying but-
tresses, pointed arches, and tall spires. (p. 342)
Great Depression n. the severe economic slump that
followed the collapse of the U.S. stock market in 1929.
(p. 804)
Great Fear n. a wave of senseless panic that spread
through the French countryside after the storming of
the Bastille in 1789. (p. 576)
Great Purge n. a campaign of terror in the Soviet Union
during the 1930s, in which Joseph Stalin sought to
eliminate all Communist Party members and other citi-
zens who threatened his power. (p. 777)
Great Schism [SIHZ
uhm] n. a division in the medieval
Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes
were established in Avignon and in Rome. (p. 357)
ethnic cleansing n. a policy of murder and other acts of
brutality by which Serbs hoped to eliminate Bosnia’s
Muslim population after the breakup of Yugoslavia.
(p. 929)
excommunication [ehks
shuhn] n.
the taking away of a person’s right of membership in a
Christian church. (p. 273)
existentialism [ehg
uhm] n. a
philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning
to their lives through their choices and actions. (p. 796)
extended family n. a group that includes a person’s par-
ents, children, grandparents, grandchildren, aunts,
uncles, and cousins. (p. 197)
extraterritorial [ehk
uhl] rights
n. an exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a
country. (p. 716)
factors of production n. the resources—including land,
labor, and capital—that are needed to produce goods
and services. (p. 634)
factory n. a large building in which machinery is used to
manufacture goods. (p. 635)
fascism [FASH
uhm] n. a political movement that pro-
motes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of indi-
vidual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule. (p. 807)
Fatimid [FAT
mihd] n. a member of a Muslim dynasty
that traced its ancestry to Muhammad’s daughter
Fatima and that built an empire in North Africa,
Arabia, and Syria in the 10th–12th centuries. (p. 240)
favorable balance of trade n. an economic situation in
which a country exports more than it imports—that is,
sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad.
(p. 502)
federal system n. a system of government in which
power is divided between a central authority and a
number of individual states. (pp. 567, 917)
Fertile Crescent [FUHR
tuhl KREHS
uhnt] n. an arc of
rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian
Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea. (p. 27)
feudalism [FYOOD
uhm] n. a political system in
which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally
belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, mili-
tary service, and protection of the people who live on
the land. (p. 50)
fief [feef] n. an estate granted to a vassal by a lord under
the feudal system in medieval Europe. (p. 324)
filial piety [FIHL
uhl PY
tee] n. respect shown by
children for their parents and elders. (p. 97)
Final Solution n. Hitler’s program of systematically
killing the entire Jewish people. (p. 833)
FLN n. the National Liberation Front—an Algerian group
that waged a guerrilla struggle for independence from
France. (p. 899)
Four Modernizations n. a set of goals adopted by the
Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in the late 20th century,
involving progress in agriculture, industry, defense, and
science and technology. (p. 932)
Fourteen Points n. a series of proposals in which U.S.
president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achiev-
ing a lasting peace after World War I. (p. 760)
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Great Trek n. a migration of Dutch colonists out of
British-controlled territory in South Africa during the
1830s. (p. 689)
Greco-Roman culture n. an ancient culture that devel-
oped from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and
Roman cultures. (p. 164)
green revolution n. a 20th-century attempt to increase
food resources worldwide, involving the use of fertiliz-
ers and pesticides and the development of disease-
resistant crops. (p. 944)
griot [gree
OH] n. a West African storyteller. (p. 197)
guerrilla [guh
uh] n. a member of a loosely orga-
nized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on
enemy troops occupying his or her country. (p. 590)
guild [gihld] n. a medieval association of people working
at the same occupation, which controlled its members’
wages and prices. (p. 349)
guillotine [GIHL
teen] n. a machine for beheading
people, used as a means of execution during the
French Revolution. (p. 580)
Gulf War n. a 1991 conflict in which UN forces defeated
Iraqi forces that had invaded Kuwait and threatened to
invade Saudi Arabia. (p. 949)
Gupta [GUP
tuh] Empire n. the second empire in India,
founded by Chandra Gupta I in a.d. 320. (p. 175)
Gutenberg [GOOT
burg] Bible n. the first full-
sized book printed with movable type and a printing
press. (p. 426)
habeas corpus [HAY
uhs KAWR
puhs] n. a docu-
ment requiring that a prisoner be brought before a
court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or
her imprisonment is legal. (p. 538)
Hagia Sophia [HAY
uh soh
uh] n. the Cathedral
of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of
the Byzantine emperor Justinian. (p. 270)
haiku [HY
koo] n. a Japanese form of poetry, consisting of
three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables.
(p. 476)
hajj [haj] n. a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty
by Muslims. (p. 236)
Han [hahn] Dynasty n. a Chinese dynasty that ruled
from 202 b.c. to a.d. 9 and again from a.d. 23 to 220.
(p. 181)
Hausa [HOW
suh] n. a West African people who lived in
several city-states in what is now northern Nigeria. (p. 375)
heliocentric [hee
trihk] theory n. the idea
that the earth and the other planets revolve around the
sun. (p. 546)
Hellenistic [hehl
tihk] adj. relating to the civi-
lization, language, art, science, and literature of the
Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to
the late second century b.c. (p. 132)
helot [HEHL
uht] n. in the society of ancient Sparta, a
peasant bound to the land. (p. 116)
heresy [HEHR
see] n. religious beliefs or opinions that
differ from the official teachings of a Christian church.
(p. 157)
hieroglyphics [hy
ihks] n. an ancient
Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to
represent ideas and sounds. (p. 38)
Hijrah [HIHJ
ruh] n. Muhammad’s migration from
Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) in a.d. 622. (p. 235)
Hittites [HIHT
yts] n. an Indo-European people who
settled in Anatolia around 2000 b.c. (p. 58)
Holocaust [HAHL
kawst] n. a mass slaughter of Jews
and other civilians, carried out by the Nazi government
of Germany before and during World War II. (p. 831)
Holy Alliance n. a league of European nations formed by
the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the
Congress of Vienna. (p. 595)
Holy Roman Empire n. an empire established in Europe
in the 10th century a.d., originally consisting mainly of
lands in what is now Germany and Italy. (p. 333)
home rule n. a control over internal matters granted to the
residents of a region by a ruling government. (p. 668)
hominid [HAHM
nihd] n. a member of a biological
group including human beings and related species that
walk upright. (p. 8)
Homo sapiens [HOH
moh SAY
uhnz] n. the biologi-
cal species to which modern human beings belong. (p. 9)
House of Wisdom n. a center of learning established in
Baghdad in the 800s. (p. 243)
Hubble Space Telescope n. a powerful telescope put
into orbit around the earth by NASA and the European
Space Agency in 1990. (p. 942)
humanism [HYOO
uhm] n. a Renaissance
intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classi-
cal texts and focused on human potential and achieve-
ments. (p. 418)
Hundred Days n. the brief period during 1815 when
Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the
French king and again becoming emperor of France.
(p. 592)
Hundred Years’ War n. a conflict in which England and
France battled on French soil on and off from 1337 to
1453. (p. 359)
hunter-gatherer n. a member of a nomadic group whose
food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting
plant foods. (p. 12)
Hyksos [HIHK
sohs] n. a group of nomadic invaders from
Southwest Asia who ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570
b.c. (p. 83)
Ice Age n. a cold period in which huge ice sheets spread
outward from the polar regions, the last one of which
lasted from about 1,600,000 to 10,000 b.c. (p. 211)
I Ching [ee jihng] n. a Chinese book of oracles, con-
sulted to answer ethical and practical problems. (p. 99)
icon [EYE
kahn] n. a religious image used by eastern
Christians. (p. 272)
iconoclast [eye
klast] n. one of the eastern
Christians who destroyed religious images in churches
during the eighth and ninth centuries. (p. 272)
imperialism [ihm
uhm] n. a policy in
which a strong nation seeks to dominate other coun-
tries politically, economically, or socially. (p. 686)
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Page 7 of 16
impressionism [ihm
uhm] n. a move-
ment in 19th-century painting, in which artists reacted
against realism by seeking to convey their impressions
of subjects or moments in time. (p. 623)
Indo-Europeans [ihn
uhnz] n. a group
of seminomadic peoples who, about 1700 b.c., began
to migrate from what is now southern Russia to the
Indian subcontinent, Europe, and Southwest Asia.
(p. 57)
indulgence [ihn
juhns] n. a pardon releasing a
person from punishments due for a sin. (p. 429)
industrialization [ihn
shuhn] n. the
development of industries for the machine production
of goods. (p. 634)
Industrial Revolution n. the shift, beginning in England
during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to
making them by machine. (p. 633)
inflation n. a decline in the value of money, accompanied
by a rise in the prices of goods and services. (p. 158)
Inquisition [ihn
uhn] n. a Roman Catholic
tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of
heresy—especially the one active in Spain during the
1400s. (p. 346)
institution n. a long-lasting pattern of organization in a
community. (p. 18)
intendant [ihn
duhnt] n. a French government
official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and
administer justice. (p. 520)
Internet n. a linkage of computer networks that allows
people around the world to exchange information and
communicate with one another. (p. 943)
iron curtain n. during the Cold War, the boundary sepa-
rating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from
the mostly democratic nations of Western Europe.
(p. 857)
Iroquois [IHR
kwoy] n. a group of Native American
peoples who spoke related languages, lived in the east-
ern Great Lakes region of North America, and formed
an alliance in the late 1500s. (p. 393)
irrigation n. the bringing of water to crop fields by means
of canals and ditches. (p. 28)
Islam [ihs
LAHM] n. a monotheistic religion that devel-
oped in Arabia in the seventh century a.d. (p. 234)
isolationism n. a policy of avoiding political or military
involvement with other countries. (p. 814)
Israel [IHZ
uhl] n. a kingdom of the united Hebrews
in Palestine, lasting from about 1020 to 922 b.c.; later,
the northernmost of the two Hebrew kingdoms; now,
the Jewish nation that was established in Palestine in
1948. (p. 75)
Jainism [JY
uhm] n. a religion founded in India in
the sixth century b.c., whose members believe that
everything in the universe has a soul and therefore
should not be harmed. (p. 63)
janissary [JAN
ee] n. a member of an elite force
of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire. (p. 446)
jazz n. a 20th-century style of popular music developed
mainly by African-American musicians. (p. 797)
Jesuits [JEHZH
ihts] n. members of the Society of
Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by
Ignatius of Loyola. (p. 435)
“jewel in the crown” n. the British colony of India—so
called because of its importance in the British Empire,
both as a supplier of raw materials and as a market for
British trade goods. (p. 701)
joint-stock company n. a business in which investors
pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share
the profits. (p. 502)
Judah [JOO
duh] n. a Hebrew kingdom in Palestine,
established around 922 b.c. (p. 76)
Justinian [juh
uhn] Code n. the body of
Roman civil law collected and organized by order of
the Byzantine emperor Justinian around a.d. 534.
(p. 270)
kabuki [kuh
kee] n. a type of Japanese drama in
which music, dance, and mime are used to present sto-
ries. (p. 476)
kaiser [KY
zuhr] n. a German emperor (from the Roman
title Caesar). (p. 618)
kamikaze [kah
zee] n. during World War II,
Japanese suicide pilots trained to sink Allied ships by
crashing bomb-filled planes into them. (p. 841)
karma [KAHR
muh] n. in Hinduism and Buddhism, the
totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a per-
son, which is believed to determine his or her fate after
rebirth. (p. 63)
Khmer [kmair] Empire n. a Southeast Asian empire,
centered in what is now Cambodia, that reached its
peak of power around a.d. 1200. (p. 309)
Khmer Rouge [roozh] n. a group of Communist rebels
who seized power in Cambodia in 1975. (p. 870)
knight n. in medieval Europe, an armored warrior who
fought on horseback. (p. 324)
Koryu [KAWR
yoo] Dynasty n. a dynasty that ruled
Korea from a.d. 935 to 1392. (p. 311)
Kristallnacht [krih
nahkt] n. “Night of Broken
Glass”—the night of November 9, 1938, on which Nazi
storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and
synagogues throughout Germany. (p. 831)
kulak [koo
LAK] n. a member of a class of wealthy
Russian peasants. (p. 777)
Kuomintang [kwoh
TANG] n. the Chinese
Nationalist Party, formed after the fall of the Qing
Dynasty in 1912. (p. 781)
Kush [kuhsh] n. an ancient Nubian kingdom whose rulers
controlled Egypt from 751 to 671 b.c. (p. 85)
laissez faire [lehs
FAIR] n. the idea that government
should not interfere with or regulate industries and
businesses. (p. 647)
land reform n. a redistribution of farmland by breaking
up large estates and giving the resulting smaller farms
to peasants. (p. 912)
La Reforma [lah reh
mah] n. a liberal reform
movement in 19th-century Mexico, founded by Benito
Juárez. (p. 730)
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Page 8 of 16
lay investiture [ihn
chur] n. the appointment
of religious officials by kings or nobles. (p. 334)
League of Nations n. an international association formed
after World War I with the goal of keeping peace
among nations. (p. 761)
lebensraum [LAY
rowm] n. “living space”—the
additional territory that, according to Adolf Hitler,
Germany needed because it was overcrowded. (p. 809)
Legalism n. a Chinese political philosophy based on the
idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is
the key to social order. (p. 99)
legion n. a military unit of the ancient Roman army, made
up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers
on horseback. (p. 143)
Legislative [LEHJ
tihv] Assembly n. a French
congress with the power to create laws and approve
declarations of war, established by the Constitution of
1791. (p. 578)
legitimacy [luh
see] n. the hereditary right
of a monarch to rule. (p. 594)
liberals n. in the first half of the 19th century, those
Europeans—mainly middle-class business leaders and
merchants—who wanted to give more political power
to elected parliaments. (p. 609)
lineage [LIHN
ihj] n. the people—living, dead, and
unborn—who are descended from a common ancestor.
(p. 368)
loess [LOH
uhs] n. a fertile deposit of windblown soil.
(p. 46)
Long March n. a 6,000-mile journey made in 1934–1935
by Chinese Communists fleeing from Jiang Jieshi’s
Nationalist forces. (p. 784)
lord n. in feudal Europe, a person who controlled land
and could therefore grant estates to vassals. (p. 324)
Lutheran [LOO
uhn] n. a member of a Protestant
church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.
(p. 430)
lycée [lee
SAY] n. a government-run public school in
France. (p. 585)
Macedonia [mas
uh] n. an ancient kingdom
north of Greece, whose ruler Philip II conquered
Greece in 338 b.c. (p. 128)
Maghrib [MUHG
ruhb] n. a region of western North
Africa, consisting of the Mediterranean coastlands of
what is now Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria. (p. 369)
Magna Carta [MAG
nuh KAHR
tuh] n. “Great
Charter”—a document guaranteeing basic political
rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by
King John in a.d. 1215. (p. 353)
Mahabharata [muh
tuh] n. a great Indian
epic poem, reflecting the struggles of the Aryans as
they moved south into India. (p. 60)
Mahayana [mah
nuh] n. a sect of Buddhism
that offers salvation to all and allows popular worship.
(p. 177)
maize [mayz] n. a cultivated cereal grain that bears its
kernels on large ears—usually called corn in the United
States. (p. 213)
Mali [MAH
lee] n. a West African empire that flourished
from 1235 to the 1400s and grew rich from trade.
(p. 373)
mamelukes [MAM
looks] n. Turkish slaves who
served as soldiers and bodyguards in the Abbasid
Empire. (p. 279)
Manchus [MAN
chooz] n. a people, native to Manchuria,
who ruled China during the Qing Dynasty
(1644–1912). (p. 471)
Mandate of Heaven n. in Chinese history, the divine
approval thought to be the basis of royal authority.
(p. 50)
manifest destiny n. the idea, popular among mid-19th-
century Americans, that it was the right and the duty of
the United States to rule North America from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. (p. 670)
manor n. a lord’s estate in feudal Europe. (p. 325)
Maori [MOW
ree] n. a member of a Polynesian people
who settled in New Zealand around a.d. 800. (p. 665)
Marshall Plan n. a U.S. program of economic aid to
European countries to help them rebuild after World
War II. (p. 858)
martial [MAHR
shuhl] law n. a temporary rule by mili-
tary authorities over a civilian population, usually
imposed in times of war or civil unrest. (p. 917)
mass culture n. the production of works of art and enter-
tainment designed to appeal to a large audience.
(p. 674)
materialism n. a placing of high value on acquiring mate-
rial possessions. (p. 960)
matriarchal [may
kuhl] adj. relating to a social
system in which the mother is head of the family.
(p. 176)
matrilineal [mat
uhl] adj. relating to a
social system in which family descent and inheritance
rights are traced through the mother. (p. 369)
Mau Mau [MOW mow] n. a secret society of Kikuyu
tribesmen that attempted to drive British settlers out of
Kenya in the mid-20th century. (p. 897)
Mauryan [MAH
yuhn] Empire n. the first empire in
India, founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 321 b.c.
(p. 173)
May Fourth Movement n. a national protest in China in
1919, in which people demonstrated against the Treaty
of Versailles and foreign interference. (p. 782)
Medes [meedz] n. a Southwest Asian people who helped
to destroy the Assyrian Empire. (p. 90)
Meiji [MAY
jee] era n. the period of Japanese history
from 1867 to 1912, during which the country was ruled
by Emperor Mutsuhito. (p. 721)
Mein Kampf [myn KAHMPF] n. “My Struggle”—a book
written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in
1923–1924, in which he set forth his beliefs and his
goals for Germany. (p. 809)
mercantilism [MUR
uhm] n. an economic
policy under which nations sought to increase their
wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold
and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
(p. 502)
mercenary [MUR
ee] n. a soldier who is paid
to fight in a foreign army. (p. 159)
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Mesoamerica [mehz
kuh] n. an area
extending from central Mexico to Honduras, where
several of the ancient complex societies of the
Americas developed. (p. 216)
mestizo [mehs
zoh] adj. of mixed Spanish and
Native American ancestry. (p. 486)
Middle Ages n. the era in European history that followed
the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500
to 1500—also called the medieval period. (p. 317)
middle class n. a social class made up of skilled workers,
professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers.
(p. 639)
middle passage n. the voyage that brought captured
Africans to the West Indies, and later to North and
South America, to be sold as slaves—so called because
it was considered the middle leg of the triangular
trade. (p. 497)
migration n. the act of moving from one place to settle in
another. (p. 57)
militarism [MIHL
uhm] n. a policy of glorify-
ing military power and keeping a standing army always
prepared for war. (p. 744)
Ming Dynasty n. a Chinese dynasty that ruled from 1368
to 1644. (p. 469)
Minoans [mih
uhnz] n. a seafaring and trading peo-
ple that lived on the island of Crete from about 2000 to
1400 b.c. (p. 67)
Mississippian [mihs
uhn] adj. relating to a
Mound Builder culture that flourished in North
America between a.d. 800 and 1500. (p. 393)
mita [MEE
tuh] n. in the Inca Empire, the requirement
that all able-bodied subjects work for the state a certain
number of days each year. (p. 409)
Moche [MOH
chay] n. a civilization that flourished on
what is now the northern coast of Peru from about a.d.
100 to 700. (p. 222)
monarchy [MAHN
kee] n. a government in which
power is in the hands of a single person. (p. 115)
monastery [MAHN
ee] n. a religious commu-
nity of men (called monks) who have given up their
possessions to devote themselves to a life of prayer and
worship. (p. 318)
monopoly [muh
lee] n. a group’s exclusive con-
trol over the production and distribution of certain
goods. (p. 185)
monotheism [MAHN
uhm] n. a belief in a
single god. (p. 73)
Monroe Doctrine n. a U.S. policy of opposition to
European interference in Latin America, announced
by President James Monroe in 1823. (p. 726)
monsoon [mahn
SOON] n. a wind that shifts in direction
at certain times of each year. (p. 42)
mosque [mahsk] n. an Islamic place of worship. (p. 236)
movable type n. blocks of metal or wood, each bearing a
single character, that can be arranged to make up a
page for printing. (p. 289)
Mughal [MOO
guhl] n. one of the nomads who invaded
the Indian subcontinent in the 16th century and estab-
lished a powerful empire there. (p. 451)
mulattos [mu
ohz] n. persons of mixed European
and African ancestry. (p. 604)
multinational corporation n. a company that operates
in a number of different countries. (p. 947)
mummification [muhm
shuhn] n. a process of
embalming and drying corpses to prevent them from
decaying. (p. 37)
Munich [MYOO
nihk] Conference n. a 1938 meeting of
representatives from Britain, France, Italy, and
Germany, at which Britain and France agreed to allow
Nazi Germany to annex part of Czechoslovakia in
return for Adolf Hitler’s pledge to respect
Czechoslovakia’s new borders. (p. 815)
Muslim [MUHZ
luhm] n. a follower of Islam. (p. 235)
Muslim League n. an organization formed in 1906 to
protect the interests of India’s Muslims, which later
proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim
and Hindu nations. (p. 886)
Mutapa [moo
uh] adj. relating to a southern
African empire established by Mutota in the 15th cen-
tury a.d. (p. 381)
Mycenaeans [my
uhnz] n. an Indo-European
people who settled on the Greek mainland around
2000 b.c. (p. 112)
myths n. traditional stories about gods, ancestors, or
heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs
and beliefs of a society. (p. 114)
Napoleonic [nuh
ihk] Code n. a compre-
hensive and uniform system of laws established for
France by Napoleon. (p. 586)
National Assembly n. a French congress established by
representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789,
to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French
people. (p. 575)
nationalism n. the belief that people should be loyal
mainly to their nation—that is, to the people with
whom they share a culture and history—rather than to
a king or empire. (p. 609)
nation-state n. an independent nation of people having a
common culture and identity. (p. 609)
toh] n. the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization—a defensive military alliance formed in
1949 by ten Western European nations, the United
States, and Canada. (p. 859)
natural rights n. the rights that all people are born
with—according to John Locke, the rights of life, lib-
erty, and property. (p. 551)
Nazca [NAHS
kah] n. a civilization that flourished on
what is now the southern coast of Peru from about 200
b.c. to a.d. 600. (p. 222)
Nazism [NAHT
uhm] n. the fascist policies of the
National Socialist German Workers’ party, based on
totalitarianism, a belief in racial superiority, and state
control of industry. (p. 808)
Negritude [NEE
tood] movement n. a movement
in which French-speaking Africans and West Indians
celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture
and values. (p. 896)
neoclassical [nee
kuhl] adj. relating to a sim-
ple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from
ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts
in Europe during the late 1700s. (p. 559)
1010whpe-Glossary-R30-R45 10/15/02 10:41 AM Page R39
Page 10 of 16
Neolithic [nee
ihk] Age n. a prehistoric
period that began about 8000 b.c. and in some areas
ended as early as 3000 b.c., during which people
learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops,
and raise animals—also called the New Stone Age. (p. 8)
Neolithic Revolution n. the major change in human life
caused by the beginnings of farming—that is, by peo-
ple’s shift from food gathering to food producing.
(p. 14)
New Deal n. U.S. president Franklin Roosevelt’s eco-
nomic reform program designed to solve the problems
created by the Great Depression. (p. 806)
New Kingdom n. the period of ancient Egyptian history
that followed the overthrow of the Hyksos rulers, last-
ing from about 1570 to 1075 b.c. (p. 83)
nirvana [neer
nuh] n. in Buddhism, the release from
pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment. (p. 65)
Nok [nahk] n. an African people who lived in what is now
Nigeria between 500 b.c. and a.d. 200. (p. 198)
nomad n. a member of a group that has no permanent
home, wandering from place to place in search of food
and water. (p. 12)
nonaggression [nahn
uhn] pact n. an
agreement in which nations promise not to attack one
another. (p. 821)
nonaligned nations n. the independent countries that
remained neutral in the Cold War competition
between the United States and the Soviet Union.
(p. 871)
Nuclear Non-Proliferation [NOO
shuhn] Treaty n. a 1968
agreement intended to reduce the spread of nuclear
weapons. (p. 953)
Nuremberg [NUR
burg] Trials n. a series of court
proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World
War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression,
violations of the rules of war, and crimes against
humanity. (p. 843)
obsidian [ahb
uhn] n. a hard, glassy volcanic
rock used by early peoples to make sharp weapons.
(p. 400)
Old Regime [ray
ZHEEM] n. the political and social sys-
tem that existed in France before the French
Revolution. (p. 573)
oligarchy [AHL
kee] n. a government in which
power is in the hands of a few people—especially one
in which rule is based upon wealth. (p. 115)
Olmec [AHL
mehk] n. the earliest known Mesoamerican
civilization, which flourished around 1200 b.c. and influ-
enced later societies throughout the region. (p. 216)
Open Door Policy n. a policy, proposed by the United
States in 1899, under which all nations would have
equal opportunities to trade in China. (p. 718)
Opium War n. a conflict between Britain and China, last-
ing from 1839 to 1842, over Britain’s opium trade in
China. (p. 716)
oracle bone n. one of the animal bones or tortoise shells
used by ancient Chinese priests to communicate with
the gods. (p. 48)
ozone layer n. a layer of the earth’s upper atmosphere,
which protects living things from the sun’s damaging
ultraviolet rays. (p. 949)
Pacific Rim n. the lands surrounding the Pacific Ocean—
especially those in Asia. (p. 706)
Paleolithic [pay
ihk] Age n. a prehistoric
period that lasted from about 2,500,000 to 8000 b.c.,
during which people made use of crude stone tools and
weapons—also called the Old Stone Age. (p. 8)
Panama Canal n. a manmade waterway connecting the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans, built in Panama by the
United States and opened in 1914. (p. 727)
papyrus [puh
ruhs] n. a tall reed that grows in the
Nile delta, used by the ancient Egyptians to make a
paperlike material for writing on. (p. 38)
parliament [PAHR
muhnt] n. a body of representa-
tives that makes laws for a nation. (p. 354)
partition n. a division into parts, like the 1947 division of
the British colony of India into the two nations of India
and Pakistan. (p. 886)
pastoralist [PAS
lihst] n. a member of a nomadic
group that herds domesticated animals. (p. 294)
paternalism [puh
uhm] n. a policy of
treating subject people as if they were children, provid-
ing for their needs but not giving them rights. (p. 691)
patriarch [PAY
ahrk] n. a principal bishop in the
eastern branch of Christianity. (p. 272)
patriarchal [pay
kuhl] adj. relating to a social
system in which the father is head of the family.
(p. 176)
patrician [puh
uhn] n. in ancient Rome, a
member of the wealthy, privileged upper class. (p. 142)
patrilineal [pat
uhl] adj. relating to a social
system in which family descent and inheritance rights
are traced through the father. (p. 369)
patron [PAY
truhn] n. a person who supports artists,
especially financially. (p. 418)
Pax Romana [PAHKS roh
nah] n. a period of
peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire,
lasting from 27 b.c. to a.d. 180. (p. 148)
Peace of Augsburg [AWGZ
burg] n. a 1555 agreement
declaring that the religion of each German state would
be decided by its ruler. (p. 430)
Peloponnesian [pehl
zhuhn] War n. a war,
lasting from 431 to 404 b.c., in which Athens and its
allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies. (p. 123)
penal [PEE
nuhl] colony n. a colony to which convicts
are sent as an alternative to prison. (p. 665)
peninsulares [peh
rehs] n. in Spanish colo-
nial society, colonists who were born in Spain. (p. 604)
Peninsular [puh
luhr] War n. a conflict, last-
ing from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with
the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon’s
French troops out of Spain. (p. 590)
perestroika [pehr
kuh] n. a restructuring of
the Soviet economy to permit more local decision-
making, begun by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985. (p. 922)
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Page 11 of 16
Persian Wars n. a series of wars in the fifth century b.c.,
in which Greek city-states battled the Persian Empire.
(p. 118)
perspective [puhr
tihv] n. an artistic technique
that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a
flat surface. (p. 419)
phalanx [FAY
langks] n. a military formation of foot sol-
diers armed with spears and shields. (p. 115)
pharaoh [FAIR
oh] n. a king of ancient Egypt, consid-
ered a god as well as a political and military leader.
(p. 35)
philosophe [FIHL
sahf] n. one of a group of social
thinkers in France during the Enlightenment. (p. 552)
philosophers n. thinkers who use logic and reason to
investigate the nature of the universe, human society,
and morality. (p. 124)
Phoenicians [fih
uhnz] n. a seafaring people of
Southwest Asia, who around 1100 b.c. began to trade
and found colonies throughout the Mediterranean
region. (p. 68)
Pilgrims n. a group of people who, in 1620, founded the
colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape reli-
gious persecution in England. (p. 491)
plebeian [plih
uhn] n. in ancient Rome, one of the
common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made
up most of the population. (p. 142)
plebiscite [PLEHB
syt] n. a direct vote in which a
country’s people have the opportunity to approve or
reject a proposal. (p. 585)
PLO n. the Palestine Liberation Organization—an organi-
zation dedicated to the establishment of an indepen-
dent state for Palestinians in the Middle East. (p. 905)
pogrom [puh
GRAHM] n. one of the organized cam-
paigns of violence against Jewish communities in late-
19th-century Russia. (p. 769)
polis [POH
lihs] n. a Greek city-state—the fundamental
political unit of ancient Greece after about 750 b.c.
(p. 115)
Politburo [PAHL
oh] n. the ruling committee
of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union. (p. 921)
polytheism [PAHL
uhm] n. a belief in many
gods. (p. 29)
pope n. the bishop of Rome, head of the Roman Catholic
Church. (p. 156)
Popol Vuh [POH
pohl VOO] n. a book containing a ver-
sion of the Mayan story of creation. (p. 398)
popular culture n. the cultural elements—sports, music,
movies, clothing, and so forth—that reflect a group’s
common background and changing interests. (p. 957)
potlatch [PAHT
lach] n. a ceremonial feast used to dis-
play rank and prosperity in some Northwest Coast
tribes of Native Americans. (p. 391)
predestination [pree
shuhn] n. the doc-
trine that God has decided all things beforehand,
including which people will be eternally saved. (p. 433)
Presbyterian [prehz
uhn] n. a member of
a Protestant church governed by elders (presbyters)
and founded on the teachings of John Knox. (p. 433)
PRI n. the Institutional Revolutionary Party—the main
political party of Mexico. (p. 914)
printing press n. a machine for reproducing written
material by pressing paper against arrangements of
inked type. (p. 426)
proliferation [pruh
shuhn] n. a growth or
spread—especially the spread of nuclear weapons to
nations that do not currently have them. (p. 953)
propaganda [prahp
duh] n. information or
material spread to advance a cause or to damage an
opponent’s cause. (p. 756)
Protestant [PRAHT
stuhnt] n. a member of a
Christian church founded on the principles of the
Reformation. (p. 430)
provisional government n. a temporary government.
(p. 772)
psychology [sy
jee] n. the study of the human
mind and human behavior. (p. 679)
pueblos [PWEHB
lohz] n. villages of large apartment-like
buildings made of clay and stone, built by the Anasazi
and later peoples of the American Southwest. (p. 391)
Puritans n. a group of people who sought freedom from
religious persecution in England by founding a colony
at Massachusetts Bay in the early 1600s. (p. 491)
pyramid [PIHR
mihd] n. a massive structure with a
rectangular base and four triangular sides, like those
that were built in Egypt as burial places for Old
Kingdom pharaohs. (p. 35)
Qin [chihn] Dynasty n. a short-lived Chinese dynasty
that replaced the Zhou Dynasty in the third century
b.c. (p. 99)
Qing [chihng] Dynasty n. China’s last dynasty, which
ruled from 1644 to 1912. (p. 471)
Quetzalcoatl [keht
uhl] n. the Feathered
Serpent—a god of the Toltecs and other Mesoamerican
peoples. (p. 401)
quipu [KEE
poo] n. an arrangement of knotted strings on
a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical informa-
tion. (p. 410)
Qur’an [kuh
RAN] n. the holy book of Islam. (p. 236)
racism [RAY
uhm] n. the belief that one race is
superior to others. (p. 686)
radicals n. in the first half of the 19th century, those
Europeans who favored drastic change to extend
democracy to all people. (p. 609)
radioactivity n. a form of energy released as atoms decay.
(p. 678)
Raj [rahj] n. the British-controlled portions of India in the
years 1757–1947. (p. 704)
rationing [RASH
nihng] n. the limiting of the
amounts of goods people can buy—often imposed by
governments during wartime, when goods are in short
supply. (p. 755)
realism n. a 19th-century artistic movement in which
writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather
than life as it should be. (p. 621)
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realpolitik [ray
teek] n. “the politics of
reality”—the practice of tough power politics without
room for idealism. (p. 617)
recession n. a slowdown in a nation’s economy. (p. 913)
Reconquista [reh
tah] n. the effort by
Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain,
lasting from the 1100s until 1492. (p. 346)
Red Guards n. militia units formed by young Chinese
people in 1966 in response to Mao Zedong’s call for a
social and cultural revolution. (p. 865)
Red Shirts n. the followers of the 19th-century Italian
nationalist leader Giuseppe Garibaldi. (p. 616)
Reformation [rehf
shuhn] n. a 16th-century
movement for religious reform, leading to the founding
of Christian churches that rejected the pope’s authority.
(p. 429)
Reign [rayn] of Terror n. the period, from mid-1793 to
mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France
nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures
and ordinary citizens were executed. (p. 582)
reincarnation [ree
shuhn] n. in Hinduism
and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn
again and again until it achieves perfect understanding.
(p. 63)
religious toleration n. a recognition of people’s right to
hold differing religious beliefs. (p. 174)
Renaissance [rehn
SAHNS] n. a period of European
history, lasting from about 1300 to 1600, during which
renewed interest in classical culture led to far-reaching
changes in art, learning, and views of the world. (p. 417)
republic n. a form of government in which power is in
the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by
the people. (p. 142)
Restoration [rehs
shuhn] n. the period of
Charles II’s rule over England, after the collapse of
Oliver Cromwell’s government. (p. 538)
reunification [ree
shuhn] n. a bringing
together again of things that have been separated, like
the reuniting of East Germany and West Germany in
1990. (p. 924)
romanticism [roh
uhm] n. an early-19th-
century movement in art and thought, which focused
on emotion and nature rather than reason and society.
(p. 619)
Roosevelt Corollary [ROH
ee] n. President Theodore Roosevelt’s
1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, in which he
declared that the United States had the right to exer-
cise “police power” throughout the Western
Hemisphere. (p. 727)
Royal Road n. a road in the Persian Empire, stretching
over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in
Anatolia. (p. 94)
Russo-Japanese War n. a 1904–1905 conflict between
Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries’ efforts
to dominate Manchuria and Korea. (p. 723)
sacrament [SAK
muhnt] n. one of the Christian cere-
monies in which God’s grace is transmitted to people.
(p. 332)
Safavid [suh
vihd] n. a member of a Shi’a Muslim
dynasty that built an empire in Persia in the 16th–18th
centuries. (p. 449)
Sahel [suh
HAYL] n. the African region along the south-
ern border of the Sahara. (p. 195)
salon [suh
LAHN] n. a social gathering of intellectuals
and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy
women in Paris and other European cities during the
Enlightenment. (p. 558)
SALT n. the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks—a series of
meetings in the 1970s, in which leaders of the United
States and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their
nations’ stocks of nuclear weapons. (p. 879)
samurai [SAM
ry] n. one of the professional warriors
who served Japanese feudal lords. (p. 307)
sans-culottes [sans
LAHTS] n. in the French
Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-
earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater
voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food
shortages. (p. 579)
satrap [SAY
trap] n. a governor of a province in the
Persian Empire. (p. 94)
savanna [suh
uh] n. a flat, grassy plain. (p. 195)
schism [SIHZ
uhm] n. a split or division—especially a
formal split within a Christian church. (p. 273)
Schlieffen [SHLEE
fuhn] Plan n. Germany’s military
plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to
which German troops would rapidly defeat France and
then move east to attack Russia. (p. 747)
scholastics [skuh
tihks] n. scholars who gathered and
taught at medieval European universities. (p. 351)
scientific method n. a logical procedure for gathering
information about the natural world, in which experi-
mentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
(p. 547)
Scientific Revolution n. a major change in European
thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study
of the natural world began to be characterized by care-
ful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
(p. 545)
scorched-earth policy n. the practice of burning crops
and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy
cannot live off the land. (p. 590)
scribe n. one of the professional record keepers in early
civilizations. (p. 18)
secede [sih
SEED] v. to withdraw formally from an asso-
ciation or alliance. (p. 670)
secular [SEHK
luhr] adj. concerned with worldly
rather than spiritual matters. (pp. 319, 418)
segregation [sehg
shuhn] n. the legal or social
separation of people of different races. (p. 672)
self-determination [sehlf
shuhn] n.
the freedom of a people to decide under what form of
government they wish to live. (p. 760)
Seljuks [SEHL
jooks] n. a Turkish group who migrated
into the Abbasid Empire in the 10th century and estab-
lished their own empire in the 11th century. (p. 279)
senate n. in ancient Rome, the supreme governing body,
originally made up only of aristocrats. (p. 143)
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separation of powers n. the assignment of executive,
legislative, and judicial powers to different groups of
officials in a government. (p. 553)
sepoy [SEE
poy] n. an Indian soldier serving under
British command. (p. 701)
Sepoy Mutiny [MYOOT
nee] n. an 1857 rebellion of
Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India.
(p. 703)
serf n. a medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord’s
estate. (p. 324)
Seven Years’ War n. a conflict in Europe, North
America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in
which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of
Austria, France, Russia, and other countries. (p. 530)
shari’a [shah
ah] n. a body of law governing the lives
of Muslims. (p. 237)
Shi’a [SHEE
uh] n. the branch of Islam whose members
acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful
successors of Muhammad. (p. 240)
Shinto [SHIHN
toh] n. the native religion of Japan.
(p. 303)
Shiva [SHEE
vuh] n. a Hindu god considered the
destroyer of the world. (p. 178)
“shock therapy” n. an economic program implemented
in Russia by Boris Yeltsin in the 1990s, involving an
abrupt shift from a command economy to a free-mar-
ket economy. (p. 928)
shogun [SHOH
guhn] n. in feudal Japan, a supreme mili-
tary commander who ruled in the name of the
emperor. (p. 307)
Sikh [seek] n. a member of a nonviolent religious group
whose beliefs blend elements of Buddhism, Hinduism,
and Sufism. (p. 454)
Silk Roads n. a system of ancient caravan routes across
Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other
trade goods. (p. 179)
silt n. the fine soil carried in the water of rivers. (p. 27)
simony [SY
nee] n. the selling or buying of a position
in a Christian church. (p. 341)
Six-Day War n. a brief 1967 conflict between Israel and
several Arab states, during which Israel took control of
Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, and
the West Bank. (p. 903)
skepticism [SKEHP
uhm] n. a philosophy based
on the idea that nothing can be known for certain.
(p. 519)
slash-and-burn farming n. a farming method in which
people clear fields by cutting and burning trees and
grasses, the ashes of which serve to fertilize the soil.
(p. 14)
Slavs [slahvz] n. a people from the forests north of the
Black Sea, ancestors of many peoples in Eastern
Europe today. (p. 274)
social contract n. the agreement by which people define
and limit their individual rights, thus creating an orga-
nized society or government. (p. 551)
Social Darwinism [DAHR
uhm] n. the applica-
tion of Charles Darwin’s ideas about evolution and
“survival of the fittest” to human societies—particularly
as justification for imperialist expansion. (p. 686)
socialism n. an economic system in which the factors of
production are owned by the public and operate for
the welfare of all. (p. 648)
socialist realism n. a style of art in which Communist
values and life under communism are glorified. (p. 778)
Solidarity [sahl
tee] n. a Polish labor union
that during the 1980s became the main force of oppo-
sition to Communist rule in Poland. (p. 922)
Songhai [SAWNG
HY] n. a West African empire that
conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to
1591. (p. 374)
soviet [SOH
eht] n. one of the local representative
councils formed in Russia after the downfall of Czar
Nicholas II. (p. 772)
Spanish-American War n. an 1898 conflict between the
United States and Spain, in which the United States
supported Cubans’ fight for independence. (p. 726)
specialization n. the development of skills in a particular
kind of work, such as trading or record keeping. (p. 18)
sphere of influence n. a foreign region in which a nation
has control over trade and other economic activities.
(p. 718)
standard of living n. the quality of life of a person or a
population, as indicated by the goods, services, and lux-
uries available to the person or people. (p. 912)
Star Wars n. a program to protect the United States
against attack by enemy missiles, proposed in 1983 by
President Ronald Reagan but never implemented—for-
mally known as the Strategic Defense Initiative. (p. 879)
stateless societies n. cultural groups in which authority is
shared by lineages of equal power instead of being
exercised by a central government. (p. 368)
steppes [stehps] n. dry, grass-covered plains. (p. 57)
strike v. to refuse to work in order to force an employer
to meet certain demands. (p. 650)
subcontinent n. a large landmass that forms a distinct
part of a continent. (p. 42)
Suez [soo
EHZ] Canal n. a manmade waterway connect-
ing the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, which was
opened in 1869. (p. 699)
Suez Crisis n. an international crisis that occurred after Egypt
seized control of the Suez Canal in 1956, when Israel,
with the support of Britain and France, invaded Egypt
and marched toward the canal but withdrew under pres-
sure from the United States and the Soviet Union. (p. 902)
suffrage [SUHF
rihj] n. the right to vote. (p. 659)
Sufi [SOO
fee] n. a Muslim who seeks to achieve direct
contact with God through mystical means. (p. 240)
Sunna [SUN
uh] n. an Islamic model for living, based on
the life and teachings of Muhammad. (p. 237)
Sunni [SUN
ee] n. the branch of Islam whose members
acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful suc-
cessors of Muhammad. (p. 240)
surrealism [suh
uhm] n. a 20th-century
artistic movement that focuses on the workings of the
unconscious mind. (p. 797)
sustainable development n. economic development that
meets people’s needs but preserves the environment
and conserves resources for future generations. (p. 950)
Swahili [swah
lee] n. an Arabic-influenced Bantu
language that is used widely in eastern and central
Africa. (p. 378)
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Taiping [ty
pihng] Rebellion n. a mid-19th century
rebellion against the Qing Dynasty in China, led by
Hong Xiuquan. (p. 717)
Taj Mahal [TAHZH muh
HAHL] n. a beautiful tomb in
Agra, India, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan
for his wife Mumtaz Mahal. (p. 454)
Tamil [TAM
uhl] n. a language of southern India—also,
the people who speak that language. (p. 175)
technology n. the ways in which people apply knowledge,
tools, and inventions to meet their needs. (p. 9)
Tennis Court Oath n. a pledge made by the members of
France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they
vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a
new constitution. (p. 576)
terrorism n. the use of force or threats to frighten people
or governments to change their policies. (p. 953)
theocracy [thee
see] n. 1. a government in
which the ruler is viewed as a divine figure (p. 35). 2. a
government controlled by religious leaders. (p. 433)
theory of evolution n. the idea, proposed by Charles
Darwin in 1859, that species of plants and animals arise
by means of a process of natural selection. (p. 678)
theory of relativity [rehl
tee] n. Albert
Einstein’s ideas about the interrelationships between
time and space and between energy and matter.
(p. 795)
Theravada [thehr
duh] n. a sect of Buddhism
focusing on the strict spiritual discipline originally
advocated by the Buddha. (p. 177)
Third Reich [ryk] n. the Third German Empire, estab-
lished by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s. (p. 814)
Third Republic n. the republic that was established in
France after the downfall of Napoleon III and ended
with the German occupation of France during World
War II. (p. 663)
Third World n. during the Cold War, the developing
nations not allied with either the United States or the
Soviet Union. (p. 871)
Thirty Years’ War n. a European conflict over religion,
over territory, and for power among ruling families,
lasting from 1618 to 1648. (p. 526)
three-field system n. a system of farming developed in
medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into
three fields of equal size and each of these was succes-
sively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring
crop, and left unplanted. (p. 348)
Tiananmen [tyahn
mehn] Square n. a huge public
space in Beijing, China—in 1989, the site of a student
uprising in support of democratic reforms. (p. 932)
tithe [tyth] n. a family’s payment of one-tenth of its
income to a church. (p. 325)
Tokugawa Shogunate [toh
niht] n. a dynasty of shoguns that ruled a
unified Japan from 1603 to 1867. (p. 475)
Torah [TAWR
uh] n. the first five books of the Hebrew
Bible—the most sacred writings in the Jewish tradition.
(p. 72)
totalitarianism [toh
uhm] n.
government control over every aspect of public and
private life. (p. 775)
total war n. a conflict in which the participating countries
devote all their resources to the war effort. (p. 755)
totems [TOH
tuhmz] n. animals or other natural objects
that serve as symbols of the unity of clans or other
groups of people. (p. 394)
tournament n. a mock battle between groups of knights.
(p. 328)
tragedy n. a serious form of drama dealing with the
downfall of a heroic or noble character. (p. 123)
Trans-Siberian [trans
uhn] Railway n. a
rail line built between 1891 and 1904 to connect
European Russia with Russian ports on the Pacific
Ocean. (p. 770)
Treaty of Kanagawa [kah
wah] n. an 1854
agreement between the United States and Japan,
which opened two Japanese ports to U.S. ships and
allowed the United States to set up an embassy in
Japan. (p. 720)
Treaty of Tordesillas [tawr
yahs] n. a 1494
agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that
newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line
in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly
discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to
Portugal. (p. 466)
Treaty of Versailles [vuhr
SY] n. the peace treaty signed
by Germany and the Allied powers after World War I.
(p. 761)
trench warfare n. a form of warfare in which opposing
armies fight each other from trenches dug in the bat-
tlefield. (p. 749)
triangular trade n. the transatlantic trading network
along which slaves and other goods were carried
between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and
the colonies in North America. (p. 497)
tribune [TRIHB
yoon] n. in ancient Rome, an official
elected by the plebeians to protect their rights. (p. 142)
tribute n. a payment made by a weaker power to a
stronger power to obtain an assurance of peace and
security. (p. 76)
Triple Alliance n. 1. an association of the city-states of
Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan, which led to the
formation of the Aztec Empire (p. 402). 2. a military
alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
in the years preceding World War I. (p. 744)
Triple Entente [ahn
TAHNT] n. a military alliance
between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years
preceding World War I. (p. 745)
triumvirate [try
iht] n. in ancient Rome, a
group of three leaders sharing control of the govern-
ment. (p. 147)
Trojan War n. a war, fought around 1200 b.c., in which
an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the indepen-
dent trading city of Troy in Anatolia. (p. 113)
troubadour [TROO
dawr] n. a medieval poet and
musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining
people with songs of courtly love. (p. 330)
Truman Doctrine n. a U.S. policy of giving economic
and military aid to free nations threatened by internal
or external opponents, announced by President Harry
Truman in 1947. (p. 858)
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tyrant [TY
ruhnt] n. in ancient Greece, a powerful indi-
vidual who gained control of a city-state’s government
by appealing to the poor for support. (p. 116)
Umayyads [oo
adz] n. a dynasty that ruled the
Muslim Empire from a.d. 661 to 750 and later estab-
lished a kingdom in al-Andalus. (p. 239)
union n. an association of workers, formed to bargain for
better working conditions and higher wages. (p. 650)
United Nations n. an international peacekeeping organi-
zation founded in 1945 to provide security to the
nations of the world. (p. 855)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights n. a 1948
statement in which the United Nations declared that
all human beings have rights to life, liberty, and secu-
rity. (p. 954)
unrestricted submarine warfare n. the use of sub-
marines to sink without warning any ship (including
neutral ships and unarmed passenger liners) found in
an enemy’s waters. (p. 754)
urbanization [ur
shuhn] n. the growth of
cities and the migration of people into them. (p. 638)
U.S. Civil War n. a conflict between Northern and
Southern states of the United States over the issue of
slavery, lasting from 1861 to 1865. (p. 671)
utilitarianism [yoo
uhm] n. the
theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s,
that government actions are useful only if they promote
the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
(p. 648)
Utopia [yoo
uh] n. an imaginary land described
by Thomas More in his book Utopia—hence, an ideal
place. (p. 425)
U-2 incident n. the shooting down of a U.S. spy plane
and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960.
(p. 860)
vassal [VAS
uhl] n. in feudal Europe, a person who
received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a
pledge of loyalty and services. (p. 324)
Vedas [VAY
duhz] n. four collections of sacred writings
produced by the Aryans during an early stage of their
settlement in India. (p. 59)
vernacular [vuhr
luhr] n. the everyday language
of people in a region or country. (pp. 350, 421)
Vietcong [vee
KAHNG] n. a group of Communist
guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought
against the South Vietnamese government in the
Vietnam War. (p. 868)
Vietnamization [vee
shuhn] n.
President Richard Nixon’s strategy for ending U.S.
involvement in the Vietnam War, involving a gradual
withdrawal of American troops and replacement of
them with South Vietnamese forces. (p. 869)
Vishnu [VIHSH
noo] n. a Hindu god considered the pre-
server of the world. (p. 178)
vizier [vih
ZEER] n. a prime minister in a Muslim king-
dom or empire. (p. 280)
War of the Spanish Succession n. a conflict, lasting
from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European
states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from con-
trolling Spain as well as France. (p. 523)
Warsaw Pact n. a military alliance formed in 1955 by the
Soviet Union and seven Eastern European countries.
(p. 859)
Weimar [WY
mahr] Republic n. the republic that was
established in Germany in 1919 and ended in 1933.
(p. 802)
Western Front n. in World War I, the region of northern
France where the forces of the Allies and the Central
Powers battled each other. (p. 748)
westernization n. an adoption of the social, political, or
economic institutions of Western—especially European
or American—countries. (p. 533)
yin and yang n. in Chinese thought, the two powers that
govern the natural rhythms of life (with yin represent-
ing the feminine qualities in the universe, and yang the
masculine qualities). (p. 99)
Yoruba [YAWR
buh] n. a West African people who
formed several kingdoms in what is now Benin and
southern Nigeria. (p. 375)
Zapotec [zah
TEHK] n. an early Mesoamerican civi-
lization that was centered in the Oaxaca Valley of what
is now Mexico. (p. 218)
ziggurat [ZIHG
rat] n. a tiered, pyramid-shaped
structure that formed part of a Sumerian temple.
(p. 21)
Zionism [ZY
uhm] n. a movement founded in
the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish
homeland in Palestine. (p. 663)
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