As lines, so loves oblique, may well
Themselves in every angle greet;
But ours, so truly parallel,
Though infinite, can never meet.
Andrew Marvell
375
Chapter
Multiview Drawings
8
OBJECTIVES
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
1. Explain orthographic and multiview projection.
2. Identify frontal, horizontal, and profile planes.
3. Identify the six principal views and the three space
dimensions.
4. Apply standard line practices to multiview drawings.
5. Create a multiview drawing using hand tools or
6. Identify normal, inclined, and oblique planes in
multiview drawings.
7. Represent lines, curves, surfaces, holes, fillets,
rounds, chamfers, runouts, and ellipses in multiview
drawings.
8. Apply visualization by solids and surfaces to
multiview drawings.
9. Explain the importance of multiview drawings.
10. Identify limiting elements, hidden features, and
intersections of two planes in multiview drawings.
INTRODUCTION
Chapter 8 introduces the theory, techniques, and standards
of multiview drawings, which are a standard method for
representing engineering designs. The chapter describes
how to create one-, two-, and three-view drawings with
practices for representing edges, curves, holes, tangencies,
and fillets and rounds. The foundation of multiview draw-
ings is orthographic projection, based on parallel lines of
sight and mutually perpendicular views.
| | | |
8.1 PROJECTION THEORY
Engineering and technical graphics are dependent on pro-
jection methods. The two projection methods primarily
used are perspective and parallel. (Figure 8.1) Both
methods are based on projection theory, which has taken
many years to evolve the rules used today.
Projection theory comprises the principles used to
represent graphically 3-D objects and structures on 2-D
Projections
Perspective or Central
Projections
Parallel Projections
The Attributes of Each Projection Method
Projection Method
Linear Perspective
-One-Point
-Two-Point
-Three-Point
Oblique Projection
-Cavalier
-Cabinet
-General
Orthographic Projection
Axonometric
-Isometric
-Dimetric
-Trimetric
Multiview Projection
-Third Angle
-First Angle
Lines of
Sight
One principal
plane parallel
to plane of
projection
Application
(preferrred)
Converging;
inclined to
plane of
projection
Parallel;
normal to
plane of
projection
Parallel;
inclined to
plane of
projection
Parallel;
normal to
plane of
projection
Sometimes
Always
Never
For all
principal
views
Single view
pictorial
Single view
pictorial
Single view
pictorial
Multiview
drawings
Orthographic
Projections
One-Point
Perspective
Three-point
Perspective
Two-Point
Perspective
Cabinet
Projection
Cavalier
Projection
General
Projection
Isometric
oq = or = og
a =
b =
c
q
g
a
b
c
r
o
q
g
r
a
b
c
o
q
r
g
a
b
c
o
Dimetric
Trimetric
oq or og
a b c
Multiview
Projections
Axonometric
Projections
First-angle projection
Third-angle projection
RS
F
T
T
FRS
T
F
RS
F
T
RS
Linear
Perspectives
Aerial
Perspectives
Oblique
Projections
Aerial Perspective
Object features appear
less focused at a distance
Depth
Varies
Full
Depth
Half
Depth
oq = or og
a = b c
Figure 8.1 Projection
Methods
Projection techniques
developed along two lines:
parallel and perspective.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 377
media. An example of one of the methods developed to
accomplish this task is shown in Figure 8.2, which is a
impression of three dimensions.
All projection theory is based on two variables: line of
sight and plane of projection. These variables are de-
scribed briefly in the following paragraphs.
8.1.1 Line of Sight (LOS)
Drawing more than one face of an object by rotating the
object relative to your line of sight helps in understanding
the 3-D form. (Figure 8.3) A line of sight (LOS) is an
imaginary ray of light between an observer’s eye and an
object. In perspective projection, all lines of sight start at
a single point (Figure 8.4); in parallel projection, all lines
of sight are parallel (Figure 8.5).
8.1.2 Plane of Projection
A plane of projection (i.e., an image or picture plane) is
an imaginary flat plane upon which the image created by
the lines of sight is projected. The image is produced by
connecting the points where the lines of sight pierce the
projection plane. (See Figure 8.5.) In effect, the 3-D ob-
ject is transformed into a 2-D representation (also called
a projection). The paper or computer screen on which a
sketch or drawing is created is a plane of projection.
Figure 8.2 Pictorial Illustration
This is a computer-generated pictorial illustration with shades
and shadows. These rendering techniques help enhance the 3-D
quality of the image.
(Courtesy of SDRC.)
O
R
TH
O
G
R
A
PH
IC
R
EVO
LVED
TIPPED
FO
R
W
A
R
D
O
rthographic
R
evolved
Tipped forw
ard
Paper
(Plane of projection)
Parallel lines of sight
Figure 8.3 Changing Viewpoint
Changing the position of the object relative to the line of sight creates different views of the same object.
| | | |
8.1.3 Parallel versus Perspective Projection
If the distance from the observer to the object is infinite
(or essentially so), then the projectors (i.e., projection
lines) are parallel and the drawing is classified as a paral-
lel projection. (See Figure 8.5.) Parallel projection
378 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
requires that the object be positioned at infinity and
viewed from multiple points on an imaginary line paral-
lel to the object. If the distance from the observer to the
object is finite, then the projectors are not parallel and the
drawing is classified as a perspective projection. (See
Picture plane
(paper or com
puter screen)
Nonparallel lines of sight
Observer (Station point)
One viewpoint
V
iew
of object projected onto
picture plane
Figure 8.4 Perspective Projection
Radiating lines of sight produce a perspective projection.
Parallel lines of sight
Observer (Station point)
Infinite viewpoint
Picture plane
(paper or com
puter screen)
View
of object projected onto
picture plane
Figure 8.5 Parallel Projection
Parallel lines of sight produce a parallel projection.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 379
Figure 8.4.) Perspective projection requires that the ob-
ject be positioned at a finite distance and viewed from a
single point (station point).
Perspective projections mimic what the human eye
sees; however, perspective drawings are difficult to cre-
ate. Parallel projections are less realistic, but they are
easier to draw. This chapter will focus on parallel projec-
tion. Perspective drawings are covered in Chapter 10.
Orthographic projection is a parallel projection
technique in which the plane of projection is positioned
between the observer and the object and is perpendicular
to the parallel lines of sight. The orthographic projection
technique can produce either pictorial drawings that
show all three dimensions of an object in one view or
multiviews that show only two dimensions of an object
in a single view. (Figure 8.6)
8.2 MULTIVIEW PROJECTION PLANES
Multiview projection is an orthographic projection for
which the object is behind the plane of projection, and the
object is oriented such that only two of its dimensions are
shown. (Figure 8.7) As the parallel lines of sight pierce
the projection plane, the features of the part are outlined.
Multiview drawings employ multiview projection
techniques. In multiview drawings, generally three views
of an object are drawn, and the features and dimensions
in each view accurately represent those of the object.
Each view is a 2-D flat image, as shown in Figure 8.8.
The views are defined according to the positions of the
planes of projection with respect to the object.
8.2.1 Frontal Plane of Projection
The front view of an object shows the width and height
dimensions. The views in Figures 8.7 and 8.8 are front
views. The frontal plane of projection is the plane onto
which the front view of a multiview drawing is projected.
Isometric MultiviewOblique
Figure 8.6 Parallel Projection
Parallel projection techniques can be used to create multiview
or pictorial drawings.
Plane of
projection
(frontal)
Projectors perpendicular to
plane
(A)
Plane of
projection
(frontal)
Lines of sight
perpendicular to plane
of projection
Object’s depth is not
represented
Front
view
(B)
Depth
Figure 8.7 Orthographic Projection
Orthographic projection is used to create this front multiview drawing by projecting details onto a projection plane that is parallel to
the view of the object selected as the front.
| | | |
380 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Industry Application
CAD and Stereolithography Speed Solenoid Design
Source: “CAD and Stereolithography Speed Solenoid Design,” Machine Design, August 13, 1993, p. 80. Photos courtesy of Thomas J. Pellegatto, Senior Design
Engineer, Peter Paul Electronics Co. Inc., New Britain, CT 06050–1180.
When Peter Paul Electronics faced the need to quickly re-
design a humidifier solenoid valve, Senior Design Engi-
neer Thomas J. Pellegatto naturally turned his CAD-KEY-
based system loose on the physical parameters of the
new valve. But that wasn’t enough. The design required
lower-cost manufacturing technology as well as dimen-
sional and mechanical design changes.
Existing valves from the company feature an all-steel
sleeve, consisting of a flange nut, tube, and end stop, all
of which are staked together for welding. A weld bead se-
cures the end stop to the tube at the top edge and joins
the tube and threaded portion of the flange nut at the bot-
tom. Alignment of these components becomes critical be-
The three components created in plastic include the
overmolded valve housing with integral bracket (red), the
bobbin on which the coil is wound, and the valve body with
which the solenoid valve is connected (blue).
Redesign and simplification of the solenoid valve coil and
sleeve assembly (left) is easily compared with the coil-on-
bobbin assembly. The extended and molded one-piece
bobbin eliminates the use of two machined parts, two welds,
and one quality operation while providing an improved
magnetic circuit, reduced weight, and lower cost.
cause the sleeve sits inside the coil, which is the heart of
the solenoid valve. In addition, a plunger that causes air
or fluid to flow in the valve rises inside the sleeve.
According to Pellegatto, the simplest method for
reducing cost and complexity of the critical sleeve
assembly was to use the coil’s bobbin to replace the
sleeve and house the plunger. Working directly with engi-
neers at DuPont, designers selected a thermoplastic
named Rynite to eliminate misalignment and the need for
welding the new assembly. The CAD system fed Peter
Paul’s internal model shop with the data to develop bob-
bin prototypes from the thermoplastic. In addition, de-
signers decided to mold the formerly metallic mounting
bracket as part of the plastic housing.
Once designs were finalized, Pellegatto sent the CAD
file to a local stereolithography shop, which built demon-
stration models using a 3D Systems unit. Two copies
each of three molded components—the bobbin, valve
body, and overmolded housing—were produced for
about \$3,000. Finally, after sample parts were approved
by the customer, hard tooling was developed using re-
vised CAD files. This venture into “desktop manufactur-
ing” saved enormous amounts of design cycle time, ac-
cording to Pellegatto.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 381
8.2.2 Horizontal Plane of Projection
The top view of an object shows the width and depth di-
mensions. (Figure 8.9) The top view is projected onto the
horizontal plane of projection, which is a plane sus-
pended above and parallel to the top of the object.
8.2.3 Profile Plane of Projection
The side view of an object shows the depth and height di-
mensions. In multiview drawings, the right side view is
the standard side view used. The right side view is pro-
jected onto the right profile plane of projection, which
is a plane that is parallel to the right side of the object.
(Figure 8.10)
8.2.4 Orientation of Views from Projection Planes
The views projected onto the three planes are
shown together in Figure 8.11. The top view is always
positioned above and aligned with the front view, and the
right side view is always positioned to the right of and
aligned with the front view, as shown in the figure.
In order to produce a new product, it is necessary to
know its true dimensions, and true dimensions are not
adequately represented in most pictorial drawings. To
illustrate, the photograph in Figure 8.12 is a pictorial
perspective image. The image distorts true distances,
which are essential in manufacturing and construction.
Figure 8.13 demonstrates how a perspective projection
distorts measurements. Note that the two width dimen-
sions in the front view of the block appear different in
length; equal distances do not appear equal on a per-
spective drawing.
In the pictorial drawings in Figure 8.14, angles are also
distorted. In the isometric view, right angles are not
shown as 90 degrees. In the oblique view, only the front
surfaces and surfaces parallel to the front surface show
true right angles. In isometric drawings, circular holes ap-
pear as ellipses; in oblique drawings, circles also appear
as ellipses, except on the front plane and surfaces parallel
to the front surface. Changing the position of the object
will minimize the distortion of some surfaces, but not all.
Since engineering and technology depend on exact
size and shape descriptions for designs, the best approach
Width
Height
Figure 8.8 Single View
A single view, in this case the front view, drawn on paper or
computer screen makes the 3-D object appear 2-D; one
dimension, in this case the depth dimension, cannot be
represented since it is perpendicular to the paper.
Top View
T
o
p
vie
w
Plane of
projection
(horizontal)
Line of
sight
Perpendicular to plane
Depth
Width
Figure 8.9 Top View
A top view of the object is created by projecting onto the horizontal plane of projection.
| | | |
382 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
R side view
Plane of projection
(profile)
Perpendicular to plane
Right side view
Line of
sight
Depth
Height
Figure 8.10 Profile View
A right side view of the object is created by
projecting onto the profile plane of projection.
Top view
Front view Right side view
Figure 8.11 Multiview Drawing of an Object
For this object three views are created: front, top, and right
side. The views are aligned so that common dimensions are
shared between views.
Figure 8.12 Perspective Image
The photograph shows the road in perspective, which is how
cameras capture images. Notice how the telephone poles appear
shorter and closer together off in the distance.
(Photo courtesy of
Anna Anderson.)
Lines of sight
Front
Lines of sight
Side
WIDTH
HL
Front
What you see
Side
What you see
12345
1 2 340
SP
WIDTH
WIDTH
SP
1
2
Figure 8.13 Distorted Dimensions
Perspective drawings distort true dimensions.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 383
is to use the parallel projection technique called ortho-
graphic projection to create views that show only two of
the three dimensions (width, height, depth). If the object
is correctly positioned relative to the projection planes,
the dimensions of features will be represented in true size
in one or more of the views. (Figure 8.15) Multiview
drawings provide the most accurate description of three-
dimensional objects and structures for engineering, man-
ufacturing, and construction requirements.
In the computer world, 3-D models replace the multi-
view drawing. These models are interpreted directly from
the database, without the use of dimensioned drawings.
(Figure 8.16) See Chapter 7.
8.4 THE SIX PRINCIPAL VIEWS
The plane of projection can be oriented to produce an in-
finite number of views of an object. However, some
views are more important than others. These principal
views are the six mutually perpendicular views that are
produced by six mutually perpendicular planes of projec-
tion. If you imagine suspending an object in a glass box
with major surfaces of the object positioned so that they
are parallel to the sides of the box, the six sides of the
1
Right angle does
not measure 90°
Oblique
2
3
4
3
2
1
4
Right angle
does not
measure 90°
Isometric
Figure 8.14 Distorted Angles
Angular dimensions are distorted on pictorial drawings.
Figure 8.16 CAD Data Used Directly by Machine Tool
This computer-numeric-control (CNC) machine tool can
interpret and process 3-D CAD data for use in manufacturing,
to create dimensionally accurate parts.
(Courtesy of Intergraph
Corporation.)
8
57
R 9.5
ø 10
ø 14
11.1
R 7
3 X ø 5
38
19
4
R 9.5
Figure 8.15 Multiview Drawing
Multiview drawings produce true-size features, which can be used for dimensionally accurate representations.
| | | |
box become projection planes showing the six views.
(Figure 8.17) The six principal views are front, top, left
side, right side, bottom, and rear. To draw these views on
2-D media, that is, a piece of paper or a computer moni-
tor, imagine putting hinges on all sides of the front glass
plane and on one edge of the left profile plane. Then cut
along all the other corners, and flatten out the box to cre-
ate a six-view drawing, as shown in Figure 8.18.
The following descriptions are based on the X, Y,
and Z coordinate system. In CAD, width can be as-
signed the X axis, height assigned the Y axis, and
depth assigned the Z axis. This is not universally true
for all CAD systems but is used as a standard in this
The front view is the one that shows the most fea-
tures or characteristics. All other views are based on
the orientation chosen for the front view. Also, all
other views, except the rear view, are formed by rotat-
384 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
ing the lines of sight 90 degrees in an appropriate di-
rection from the front view. With CAD, the front view
is the one created by looking down the Z axis (in the
negative Z viewing direction), perpendicular to the X
and Y axes.
The top view shows what becomes the top of the ob-
ject once the position of the front view is established.
With CAD, the top view is created by looking down the
Y axis (in the negative Y viewing direction), perpendicu-
lar to the Z and X axes.
The right side view shows what becomes the right
side of the object once the position of the front view is
established. With CAD, the right side view is created by
looking down the X axis from the right (in the negative X
viewing direction), perpendicular to the Z and Y axes.
The left side view shows what becomes the left side
of the object once the position of the front view is estab-
lished. The left side view is a mirror image of the right
FRONTAL PLANE
RIGHT SIDE VIEW
PROFILE PLANE
H
O
R
IZ
O
N
T
A
L
P
L
A
N
E
T
O
P
V
IE
W
FRONT VIEW
H
F
F
P
DEPTH
WIDTH
HEIGHT
Observer at
infinity
Multiple parallel
lines of sight
Figure 8.17 Object Suspended in a Glass Box, Producing the Six Principal Views
Each view is perpendicular to and aligned with the adjacent views.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 385
Frontal plane
R side view
Profile plane
Horizontal plane
Front view
F
F
P
DEPTH
W
IDTH
HEIGHT
Top view
H
F
P
Top
WIDTH
DEPTH
DEPTH
DEPTH
L sideRear
Bottom
R side
F
H
H
F
PFFPPF
Front
EQUAL EQUAL
DEPTH
Y
X
Y
Z
Y
X
Y
Z
HEIGHT
WIDTH
Z
X
Z
X
Figure 8.18 Unfolding the Glass Box to Produce a Six-View Drawing
| | | |
side view, except that hidden lines may be different.
With CAD, the left side view is created by looking down
the X axis from the left (in the positive X viewing direc-
tion), perpendicular to the Z and X axes.
The rear view shows what becomes the rear of the
object once the front view is established. The rear view is
at 90 degrees to the left side view and is a mirror image
of the front view, except that hidden lines may be differ-
ent. With CAD, the rear view is created by looking down
the Z axis from behind the object (in the positive Z view-
ing direction), perpendicular to the Y and X axes.
The bottom view shows what becomes the bottom of
the object once the front view is established. The bottom
view is a mirror image of the top view, except that hid-
den lines may be different. With CAD, the bottom view
is created by looking down the Y axis from below the ob-
ject (positive Y viewing direction), perpendicular to the
Z and X axes.
The concept of laying the views flat by “unfolding the
glass box,” as shown in Figure 8.18, forms the basis for
two important multiview drawing standards:
1. Alignment of views.
2. Fold lines.
The top, front, and bottom views are all aligned vertically
and share the same width dimension. The rear, left side,
front, and right side views are all aligned horizontally
and share the same height dimension.
Fold lines are the imaginary hinged edges of the glass
box. The fold line between the top and front views is la-
beled H/F, for horizontal/frontal projection planes; the
fold line between the front and each profile view is la-
beled F/P, for frontal/horizontal projection planes. The
distance from a point in a side view to the F/P fold line is
the same as the distance from the corresponding point in
the top view to the H/F fold line. Conceptually, then, the
fold lines are edge-on views of reference planes. Nor-
mally, fold lines or reference planes are not shown in en-
gineering drawings. However, they are very important
for auxiliary views and spatial geometry construction,
covered in Chapters 11 and 12. CAD Reference 8.2
386 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Practice Exercise 8.1
Hold an object at arm’s length or lay it on a flat surface.
Close one eye, then view the object such that your line of
sight is perpendicular to a major feature, such as a flat side.
Concentrate on the outside edges of the object and sketch
what you see. Move your line of sight 90 degrees, or rotate
the object 90 degrees, and sketch what you see. This
process will show you the basic procedure necessary to cre-
ate the six principal views.
8.4.1 Conventional View Placement
The three-view multiview drawing is the standard used in
engineering and technology, because many times the
other three principal views are mirror images and do not
views used in a three-view drawing are the top, front, and
right side views, arranged as shown in Figure 8.19. The
width dimensions are aligned between the front and top
views, using vertical projection lines. The height dimen-
sions are aligned between the front and profile views,
using horizontal projection lines. Because of the relative
positioning of the three views, the depth dimension can-
not be aligned using projection lines. Instead, the depth
dimension is measured in either the top or right side view
and transferred to the other view, using either a scale,
miter line, compass, or dividers. (Figure 8.20)
The arrangement of the views may only vary as
shown in Figure 8.21. The right side view can be placed
adjacent to the top view because both views share the
depth dimension. Note that the side view is rotated so
that the depth dimension in the two views is aligned.
8.4.2 First- and Third-Angle Projection
Figure 8.22A shows the standard arrangement of all six
views of an object, as practiced in the United States and
Canada. The ANSI standard third-angle symbol shown
in the figure commonly appears on technical drawings
to denote that the drawing was done following third-
angle projection conventions. Europe uses the first-
angle projection and a different symbol, as shown in
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 387
Figure 8.22B. To understand the difference between
first- and third-angle projection, refer to Figure 8.23,
which shows the orthogonal planes. Orthographic pro-
jection can be described using these planes. If the first
quadrant is used for a multiview drawing, the results
will be very different from those of the third quadrant.
(Figure 8.24) Familiarity with both first- and third-
angle projection is valuable because of the global nature
of business in our era. As an example, Figure 8.25
shows an engineering drawing produced in the United
States for a German-owned company, using first-angle
projection.
(A) Scale (B) Dividers (C) Miter Line
01
01
MITER LINE
45°
Figure 8.20 Transferring Depth Dimensions from the Top View to the Right Side View, Using Dividers, a Scale, or a
45-Degree Triangle and a Miter Line
Central view
Related views
RIGHT SIDE
FRONT
TOP
DEPTH
Projection line
Figure 8.21 Alternate View Arrangement
In this view arrangement, the top view is considered the central
view.
WIDTH
(X)
DEPTH
(Z)
HEIGHT
(Y)
Projection line
DEPTH
(Z)
Multiple parallel
projectors
Figure 8.19 Three Space Dimensions
The three space dimensions are width, height, and depth. A
single view on a multiview drawing will only reveal two of the
three space dimensions. The 3-D CAD systems use X, Y, and Z
to represent the three dimensions.
| | | |
388 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
BOTTOM
RIGHT FRONT LEFT
TOP
REAR
(B) European Standard
(A) U.S. Standard
LEFT
BOTTOM
RIGHTFRONT
TOP
REAR
Figure 8.22 Standard Arrangement of the Six Principal Views for Third- and First-Angle Projection
Third- and first-angle drawings are designated by the standard symbol shown in the lower right corner of parts (A) and (B). The
symbol represents how the front and right-side views of a truncated cone would appear in each standard.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 389
Adjacent views are two orthographic views placed next
to each other such that the dimension they share in com-
mon is aligned, using parallel projectors. The top and
front views share the width dimension; therefore, the top
view is placed directly above the front view, and vertical
parallel projectors are used to ensure alignment of the
shared width dimension. The right side and front views
share the height dimension; therefore, the right side view
is placed directly to the right of the front view, and hori-
zontal parallel projectors are used to ensure alignment of
the shared height dimension.
The manner in which adjacent views are positioned
illustrates the first rule of orthographic projection:
Every point or feature in one view must be aligned on a
parallel projector in any adjacent view. In Figure 8.26,
the hole in the block is an example of a feature shown
in one view and aligned on parallel projectors in the ad-
jacent view.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 1:
Alignment of Features
Every point or feature in one view must be aligned on a
parallel projector in any adjacent view.
The distance between the views is not fixed, and it can
vary according to the space available on the paper and
the number of dimensions to be shown.
8.4.4 Related Views
Two views that are adjacent to the same view are called
related views; in related views, distances between com-
mon features are equal. In Figure 8.26, for example, the
distance between surface 1 and surface 2 is the same in
the top view as it is in the right side view; therefore, the
top and right side views are related views. The front and
right side views in the figure are also related views, rela-
tive to the top view.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 2:
Distances in Related Views
Distances between any two points of a feature in related views
must be equal.
8.4.5 Central View
The view from which adjacent views are aligned is the
central view. In Figure 8.26, the front view is the central
view. In Figure 8.21, the top view is the central view.
Distances and features are projected or measured from
the central view to the adjacent views.
8.4.6 Line Conventions
The alphabet of lines is discussed in detail in Chapter
3, Section 3.4, and illustrated in Figure 8.27. The tech-
niques for drawing lines are described in detail in Sec-
tion 3.5.
Because hidden lines and center lines are critical ele-
ments in multiview drawings, they are briefly discussed
again in the following sections. CAD Reference 8.3
PROFILE PLANE
PROFILE PLANE
HORIZONTAL PLANE
SECOND
THIRD
FOURTH
FIRST
FRONTAL PLANE
Figure 8.23 The Principal Projection Planes and
Quadrants Used to Create First- and Third-Angle
Projection Drawings
These planes are used to create the six principal views of first-
and third-angle projection drawings.
| | | |
390 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
(A) Third-Angle Projection (B) First-Angle Projection
First-Angle Projection
( Europe )
2nd
1st
3rd
4th
HO
RIZO
N
TAL PLANE
FRONTAL PLANE
RIGHT PROFILE
PLANE
Third-Angle Projection
( U.S. )
FRONTAL PLANE
RIGHT PROFILE
PLANE
HORIZONTAL PLANE
FRONT VIEW
TOP VIEW
RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
FRONT VIEW
TOP VIEW
RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
Figure 8.24 Pictorial Comparison between First- and Third-Angle Projection Techniques
Placing the object in the third quadrant puts the projection planes between the viewer and the object. When placed in the first
quadrant, the object is between the viewer and the projection planes.
| | | |
Figure 8.25 First-Angle Projection
Engineering Drawing Produced in the United
States for a European Company
(Courtesy of Buehler Products, Inc.)
Vertical
parallel
projectors
Central view
Horizontal
parallel
projectors
Related views
Equal
RIGHT SIDEFRONT
TOP
2
1
1
2
1
2
Figure 8.26 Alignment of Views
Three-view drawings are aligned horizontally and vertically on
engineering drawings. In this view arrangement, the front view
is the central view. Also notice that surfaces 1 and 2 are the
same distance apart in the related views: top and right side.
| | | |
Hidden Lines In multiview drawings, hidden features
are represented as dashed lines, using ANSI standard line
types. (See Figure 8.27)
Dashed lines are used to represent such hidden fea-
tures as:
Holes—to locate the limiting elements.
Surfaces—to locate the edge view of the surface.
Change of planes—to locate the position of the
change of plane or corner.
For example, Figure 8.28 shows dashed lines repre-
senting hidden features in the front and top views. The
392 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
dashed parallel lines in the top and front views represent
the limiting elements of the hole drilled through the ob-
ject but not visible in these views. The hole is visible in
the right side view. The single vertical dashed line in the
front view represents the hidden edge view of surface C.
Surface C is visible in the side view and is on edge in the
top and front views.
tice for representing hidden lines. The user must decide if
the drawn hidden lines effectively communicate the de-
VISIBLE LINE
.6 mm
HIDDEN (DASHED) LINE
.3 mm
CENTER LINE
.3 mm
DIMENSION & EXTENSION LINES
1.25
.3 mm
PHANTOM LINE
.3 mm
CUTTING PLANE LINES
.6 mm
CONSTRUCTION LINE
.3 mm
SECTION LINES
.3 mm
2
2
Construction line
Hidden (dashed) line
Center line
Visible line
Cutting plane line
Extension line
Dimension line
.6 mm
Figure 8.27 Alphabet of Lines
ANSI standard lines used on technical drawings are of a specific type and thickness.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 393
Center Lines Center lines are alternating long and
short thin dashes and are used for the axes of symmetri-
cal parts and features, such as cylinders and drilled
holes (Figure 8.29), for bolt circles (Figure 8.30D), and
for paths of motion (Figure 8.30E). Center lines should
not terminate at another line or extend between views
(Figure 8.30C). Very short, unbroken center lines may
be used to represent the axes of very small holes (Fig-
ure 8.30C).
Some CAD systems have difficulty representing cen-
ter lines using standard practices. This is especially true
of the center lines for circles. Other CAD systems auto-
matically draw the center lines to standards. CAD
Reference 8.5
One- and Two-View Drawings Some objects can be ade-
quately described with only one view. (Figure 8.31) A
sphere can be drawn with one view because all views
will be a circle. A cylinder or cube can be described
with one view if a note is added to describe the missing
feature or dimension. Other applications include a thin
gasket or a printed circuit board. One-view drawings are
used in electrical, civil, and construction engineering.
Other objects can be adequately described with
two views. Cylindrical, conical, and pyramidal shapes
are examples of such objects. For example, a cone
can be described with a front and a top view. A
profile view would be the same as the front view. (Figure
Three-View Drawings The majority of objects require
three views to completely describe the objects. The fol-
lowing steps describe the basics for setting up and devel-
oping a three-view multiview drawing of a simple part.
Creating a Three-View Drawing
Step 1. In Figure 8.33, the isometric view of the part repre-
sents the part in its natural position; it appears to be rest-
ing on its largest surface area. The front, right side, and
top views are selected such that the fewest hidden lines
would appear on the views.
Step 2. The spacing of the views is determined by the total
width, height, and depth of the object. Views are carefully
spaced to center the drawing within the working area of
the drawing sheet. Also, the distance between views can
vary, but enough space should be left so that dimensions
can be placed between the views. A good rule of thumb
is to allow about 1.5′′ (36 mm) between views. For this
example, use an object with a width of 4′′, height of 3′′,
and a depth of 3′′. To determine the total amount of
space necessary to draw the front and side views in
SURFACE
C
1
C
A
C
B
C
Figure 8.28 Hidden Features
The dashed lines on this drawing indicate hidden features. The
vertical dashed line in the front view shows the location of
plane C. The horizontal dashed lines in the front and top views
show the location of the hole.
Small dashes
cross at the
center
Extends past
edge of object
8mm or 3/8"
Figure 8.29 Center Lines
Center lines are used for symmetrical objects, such as
cylinders. Center lines should extend past the edge of the
object by 8 mm or c′′.
| | | |
394 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
PATH OF MOTION
(E)
SPACE
CENTER LINE IN
LONGITUDINAL
VIEW FOR HOLES
(A) (B)
NO SPACE
SPACE
BOLT CIRCLE
(C) (D)
TOO SMALL TO
BREAK THE
CENTER LINE
SPACE
Figure 8.30 Standard Center Line Drawing Practices for Various Applications
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 395
PC BoardBushing Sphere Plot PlanWasher
THK
O.D. I.D.
O.D.
I.D.
LENGTH
DIAMETER
WIDTH
LENGTH
THICKNESS=X.X
Figure 8.31 One-View Drawings
Applications for one-view drawings include some simple cylindrical shapes, spheres, thin parts, and map drawings.
Cylindrical parts Cams
Conical parts
H
ø
I.D.O.D.
L
R1
R2
R3
ø1
W
W1
W2
ø1
Figure 8.32 Two-View Drawings
Applications for two-view drawings include cylindrical and conical shapes.
| | | |
alignment, add the width (4′′) of the front view and the
depth (3′′) of the side view. Then add 1.5′′ to give 8.5′′ as
the total amount of space needed for the front and side
views and the space between. If the horizontal space on
the paper is 10′′, subtract 8.5′′ to get 1.5′′; divide the re-
sult by 2 to get 0.75′′, which is the space left on either
side of the two views together. These distances are
marked across the paper, as shown in Figure 8.34A.
In a similar manner, the vertical positioning is deter-
mined by adding the height of the front view (3′′)
to the depth of the top view (3′′) and then adding
1.5′′ for the space between the views. The result is
7.5′′. The 7.5′′ is subtracted from the working area of
9′′; the result is divided by 2 to get 0.75′′, which is the
distance across the top and bottom of the sheet. (Fig-
ure 8.34B)
Step 3. Using techniques described previously in this text,
locate the center lines in each view, and lightly draw the
arc and circles. (Figure 8.34C)
Step 4. Locate other details, and lightly draw horizontal,
vertical, and inclined lines in each view. Normally, the
front view is constructed first because it has the most de-
tails. These details are then projected to the other views
396 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
using construction lines. Details that cannot be projected
directly must be measured and transferred or projected
using a miter line. For example, dividers can be used to
measure and transfer details from the top view to the
right side view. (Figure 8.34D) A miter line can also be
constructed by drawing a 45-degree line from the inter-
section of the top and side view and drawing the projec-
tion lines as shown in Figure 8.34C.
Step 5. Locate and lightly draw hidden lines in each view.
For this example, hidden lines are used to represent the
limiting elements of the holes.
Step 6. Following the alphabet of lines, darken all object
lines by doing all horizontal, then all vertical, and finally
all inclined lines, in that order. Darken all hidden and
center lines. Lighten or erase any construction lines that
can be easily seen when the drawing is held at arm’s
length. The same basic procedures can be used with 2-D
CAD. However, construction lines do not have to be
erased. Instead, they can be placed on a separate layer,
then turned off. CAD Reference 8.8
8.4.7 Multiviews from 3-D CAD Models
The computer screen can be used as a projection plane
displaying the 2-D image of a 3-D CAD model. The user
can control the line of sight and the type of projection
(parallel or perspective). Most 3-D CAD software pro-
grams have automated the task of creating multiview
drawings from 3-D models. With these CAD systems,
the 3-D model of the object is created first. (See Figure
8.33.) Most CAD programs have predefined viewpoints
that correspond to the six principal views. (Figure 8.35)
The views that will best represent the object in multiview
are selected, the viewpoint is changed, a CAD command
converts the projection of the 3-D model into a 2-D
drawing, and the first view is created. (Figure 8.36) This
view is then saved as a block or symbol. The second
view is created by changing the viewpoint again and then
converting the new projection to a 2-D drawing of the
object. (Figure 8.37) These steps are repeated for as
many views as are necessary for the multiview drawing.
After the required number of 2-D views are created,
the views are arranged on a new drawing by retrieving
the blocks or symbols created earlier. Care must be taken
RIGHT
SIDE
TOP
FRO
NT
Figure 8.33 Selecting the Views for a Multiview Drawing
The object should be oriented in its natural position, and views
chosen should best describe the features.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 397
10.00
.75
4.00
1.50
3.00
TOP
VIEW
FRONT
VIEW
RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
.75
3.00
1.50
9.00
3.00
Dividers used to transfer
depth dimensions
between the top and right
side views
(A) (B)
(C) (D)
Miter
Line
Figure 8.34 Steps to Center and Create a Three-View Multiview Drawing on an A-Size Sheet
| | | |
398 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Figure 8.35 Predefined Multiviews on a CAD System
| | | |
399
TITLE:
DRAWING NO.:
DATE:
DRAWN BY:
SHEET OF
REVISIONS
Figure 8.37 Changing the Viewpoint on the 3-D Model to Create a Right Side View
This view is captured, then placed in a title block and border line.
TITLE:
DRAWING NO.:
DATE:
DRAWN BY:
SHEET OF
REVISIONS
Figure 8.36 Changing the Viewpoint on a 3-D CAD Model to Create a Front View
This view is captured, then placed in a title block and border line.
| | | |
to bring the views in at the proper scale and correct align-
ment. The views must then be edited to change solid
lines to hidden lines and to add center lines. Other
changes may be required so that the views are drawn to
accepted standards. (Figure 8.38) CAD Reference 8.9
8.5 VIEW SELECTION
Before a multiview drawing is created, the views must be
selected. Four basic decisions must be made to determine
the best views:
1. Determine the best position of the object. The ob-
ject must be positioned within the imaginary glass
box such that the surfaces of major features are ei-
ther perpendicular or parallel to the glass planes.
400 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
(Figure 8.39) This will create views with a mini-
mum number of hidden lines. Figure 8.40 shows
an example of poor positioning: the surfaces of
the object are not parallel to the glass planes, re-
sulting in many more hidden lines.
2. Define the front view. The front view should
show the object in its natural or assembled state
and be the most descriptive view. (Figure 8.41)
For example, the front view of an automobile
would show the automobile in its natural position,
on its wheels.
3. Determine the minimum number of views needed
to completely describe the object so it can be pro-
duced. For our example, three views are required
to completely describe the object. (Figure 8.42)
4. Once the front view is selected, determine
which other views will have the fewest number
TITLE:
DRAWING NO.:
DATE:
DRAWN BY:
SHEET OF
REVISIONS
Figure 8.38 Creating a Multiview Drawing of the 3-D Model
The previously captured views are brought together with a standard border and title block to create the final drawing.
| | | |
401
FRONTAL PLANE
RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
P
R
O
F
ILE
P
LA
N
E
HORIZONTAL PLANE
TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW
Figure 8.39 Good Orientation
Suspend the object in the glass box such that major surfaces are parallel or perpendicular to the sides of the box (projection planes).
FRONTAL PLANE
RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
PROFILE PLANE
H
O
R
IZ
O
N
T
A
L P
LA
N
E
T
O
P
V
IE
W
FRONT VIEW
No!
Figure 8.40 Poor Orientation
Suspending the object in the glass box such that surfaces are not parallel to the sides produces views with many hidden lines.
| | | |
402 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
of hidden lines. In Figure 8.43, the right side
view is selected over the left side view because
it has fewer hidden lines.
Practice Exercise 8.2
Using any of the objects in Figure 8.94 in the back of this
chapter, generate three multiview sketches. Each sketch
should use a different view of the object as the front view.
What features of the object become hidden or visible as you
change the front view?
8.6 FUNDAMENTAL VIEWS
OF EDGES AND PLANES
In multiview drawings, there are fundamental views for
edges and planes. These fundamental views show the
edges or planes in true size, not foreshortened, so that true
measurements of distances, angles, and areas can be made.
NO!
Figure 8.42 Minimum Number of Views
Select the minimum number of views needed to completely describe an object. Eliminate views that are mirror images of other views.
Natural Position
Unnatural Position
No!
Figure 8.41 Natural Position
Always attempt to draw objects in their natural position.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 403
8.6.1 Edges (Lines)
An edge is the intersection of two planes and is repre-
sented as a line on multiview drawings. A normal line,
or true-length line, is an edge that is parallel to a plane
of projection and thus perpendicular to the line of sight.
In Figure 8.44, edge 1–2 in the top and right side views is
a normal edge.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 3:
True Length and Size
Features are true length or true size when the lines of sight
are perpendicular to the feature.
An edge appears as a point in a plane of projection to
which it is perpendicular. Edge 1–2 is a point in the
front view of Figure 8.44. The edge appears as a point
because it is parallel to the line of sight used to create
the front view.
An inclined line is parallel to a plane of projection
but inclined to the adjacent planes, and it appears fore-
shortened in the adjacent planes. In Figure 8.44, line 3–4
is inclined and foreshortened in the top and right side
view, but is true length in the front view because it is
parallel to the frontal plane of projection.
An oblique line is not parallel to any principal plane
of projection; therefore, it never appears as a point or in
true length in any of the six principal views. Instead, an
oblique edge will be foreshortened in every view and will
always appear as an inclined line. Line 1–2 in Figure
8.45 is an oblique edge.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 4:
Foreshortening
Features are foreshortened when the lines of sight are not
perpendicular to the feature.
8.6.2 Principal Planes
A principal plane is parallel to one of the principal
planes of projection and is therefore perpendicular to
the line of sight. A principal plane or surface will be
No!
Figure 8.43 Most Descriptive Views
Select those views which are the most descriptive and have the fewest hidden lines. In this example, the right side view has fewer
hidden lines than the left side view.
| | | |
true size and shape in the view where it is parallel to the
projection plane and will appear as a horizontal or verti-
cal line in the adjacent views. In Figure 8.46, surface A
is parallel to the frontal projection plane and is there-
fore a principal plane. Because surface A appears true
size and shape in the front view, it is sometimes re-
ferred to as a normal plane. In this figure, surface A
appears as a horizontal edge in the top view and as a
vertical edge in the right side view. This edge represen-
404 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
tation is an important characteristic in multiview draw-
ings. Principal planes are categorized by the view in
which the plane appears true size and shape: frontal,
horizontal, or profile.
A frontal plane is parallel to the front plane of pro-
jection and is true size and shape in the front view. A
frontal plane appears as a horizontal edge in the top view
and a vertical edge in the profile views. In Figure 8.46,
surface A is a frontal plane.
1
2
3
4
TOP VIEW
FRONTAL PLANE
PROFILE PLANE
HORIZONTAL PLANE
RIGHT SIDE VIEW
F
R
O
N
T
V
IE
W
Top View
Line of sight
perpendicular to
line 1–2
Front View
Line of sight
parallel to line
1–2
1
2
3
4
TOP
FRONT
RIGHT SIDE
1
2
3
4
4
1,2
3
Figure 8.44 Fundamental Views of Edges
Determine the fundamental views of edges on a multiview drawing by the position of the object relative to the current line of sight
and the relationship of the object to the planes of the glass box.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 405
A horizontal plane is parallel to the horizontal planes
of projection and is true size and shape in the top (and
bottom) view. A horizontal plane appears as a horizontal
edge in the front and side views. In Figure 8.46, surface
B is a horizontal plane.
A profile plane is parallel to the profile (right or left
side) planes of projection and is true size and shape in the
profile views. A profile plane appears as a vertical edge
in the front and top views. In Figure 8.46, surface C is a
profile plane.
8.6.3 Inclined Planes
An inclined plane is perpendicular to one plane of pro-
jection and inclined to adjacent planes and cannot be
viewed in true size and shape in any of the principal
views. An inclined plane appears as an edge in the view
where it is perpendicular to the projection plane and as a
foreshortened surface in the adjacent views. In Figure
8.46, plane D is an inclined surface. To view an inclined
plane in its true size and shape, create an auxiliary view,
as described in Chapter 11.
1
2
FRONTAL PLANE
PRO
FILE PLANE
HORIZONTAL PLANE
1
2
1
22
1
Figure 8.45 Oblique Line
Oblique line 1–2 is not parallel to any of the principal planes of projection of the glass box.
| | | |
406 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
FRONTAL PLANE
RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
PROFILE PLANE
H
O
R
IZ
O
N
T
A
L
P
L
A
N
E
T
O
P
V
IE
W
FRONT VIEW
A
E
B
D
C
E
D
C
A
E
BD
E
RIGHT SIDEFRONT
Edge
View
of A
Edge View of B
Edge View of D
TOP
Edge View of B
Edge View of A
Edge View of C
B
D
E
E
D
C
E
A
Figure 8.46 Fundamental Views of Surfaces
Surface A is parallel to the frontal plane of projection. Surface B is parallel to the horizontal plane of projection. Surface C is parallel
to the profile plane of projection. Surface D is an inclined plane and is on edge in one of the principal views (the front view). Surface
E is an oblique plane and is neither parallel nor on edge in any of the principal planes of projection.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 407
8.6.4 Oblique Planes
An oblique plane is not parallel to all the principal
planes of projection. In Figure 8.46, plane E is an oblique
surface. An oblique surface does not appear in its true
size and shape, or as an edge, in any of the principal
views; instead, an oblique plane always appears as a fore-
shortened plane in the principal views. A secondary aux-
iliary view must be constructed, or the object must be ro-
tated, in order to create a normal view of an oblique
plane. (See Chapter 12.)
Practice Exercise 8.3
Using stiff cardboard, cut out the following shapes:
Rectangle.
Circle.
Trapezoid.
Irregular shape with at least six sides, at least two of which
are parallel to each other.
Sketch the following multiviews of each shape:
The line of sight perpendicular to the face.
Rotated 45 degrees about the vertical axis.
Rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis.
Rotated 45 degrees about the horizontal axis.
Rotated 90 degrees about the horizontal axis.
Rotated 45 degrees about both the vertical and horizontal
axes.
Which views represent true-size projections of the surface?
In what views is the surface inclined, oblique, or on edge?
What is the shape of a circle when it is foreshortened? For
the inclined projections, how many primary dimensions of
the surface appear smaller than they are in true-size projec-
tion? What is the relationship between the foreshortened di-
mension and the axis of rotation? Identify the parallel edges
of the surface in the true-size projection. Do these edges
stay parallel in the other views? Are these edges always
seen in true length?
8.7 MULTIVIEW REPRESENTATIONS
Three-dimensional solid objects are represented on 2-D
media as points, lines, and planes. The solid geometric
primitives are transformed into 2-D geometric
primitives. Being able to identify 2-D primitives and the
3-D primitive solids they represent is important in visual-
izing and creating multiview drawings. Figure 8.47
shows multiview drawings of common geometric solids.
8.7.1 Points
A point represents a specific position in space and has no
width, height, or depth. A point can represent
The end view of a line.
The intersection of two lines.
A specific position in space.
Even though a point does not have width, height, or
depth, its position must still be marked. On technical
drawings, a point marker is a small symmetrical cross.
(See Chapter 6.)
8.7.2 Planes
A plane can be viewed from an infinite number of van-
tage points. A plane surface will always project as either
a line or an area. Areas are represented in true size or are
foreshortened and will always be similar in configuration
(same number of vertices and edges) from one view to
another, unless viewed as an edge. For example, surface
B in Figure 8.48 is always an irregular four-sided poly-
gon with two parallel sides (a trapezoid), in all the princi-
pal views. Since surface B is seen as a foreshortened area
in the three views, it is an oblique plane.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 5:
Configuration of Planes
Areas that are the same feature will always be similar in
configuration from one view to the next, unless viewed on
edge.
In contrast, area C in Figure 8.48 is similar in shape in
two of the orthographic views and is on edge in the third.
Surface C is a regular rectangle, with parallel sides la-
beled 3, 4, 5, and 6. Sides 3–6 and 4–5 are parallel in
both the top view and the right side view. Also, lines 3–4
and 5–6 are parallel in both views. Parallel features will
always be parallel, regardless of the viewpoint.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 6:
Parallel Features
Parallel features will always appear parallel in all views.
A plane appears as an edge view or line when it is par-
allel to the line of sight in the current view. In the front
view of Figure 8.48, surfaces A and D are shown as edges.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 7:
Edge Views
Surfaces that are parallel to the lines of sight will appear on
edge and are represented as a line.
| | | |
408 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Rectangular prism Cone Sphere
Pyramid Cylinder
Truncated cone Partial sphere
Prism and cube
Prism and partial cylinder
Prism and cylinder
Prism and negative
cylinder (hole)
Figure 8.47 Multiview Drawings of Solid Primitive Shapes
Understanding and recognizing these shapes will help you understand their application in technical drawings. Notice that the cone,
sphere, and cylinder are adequately represented with fewer than three views.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 409
A foreshortened plane is neither parallel nor perpen-
dicular to the line of sight. There are two types of fore-
shortened planes, oblique and inclined, as described in
Sections 8.6.3 and 8.6.4. Surface B is foreshortened in all
views of Figure 8.48.
Practice Exercise 8.4
Hold an object that has at least one flat surface (plane) at
arm’s length. Close one eye, and rotate the object so that
your line of sight is perpendicular to the flat surface. What
you see is a true-size view of the plane. Slowly rotate the ob-
ject while focusing on the flat plane. Notice that the flat plane
begins to foreshorten. As you continue to rotate the object
slowly, the plane will become more foreshortened until it dis-
appears from your line of sight and appears as a line or
edge. This exercise demonstrates how a flat plane can be
represented on paper in true size, foreshortened, or as a line.
8.7.3 Change of Planes (Corners)
A change of planes, or corner, occurs when two nonpar-
allel surfaces meet, forming a corner, line, or edge. (Fig-
ure 8.48 Line 3–4) Whenever there is a change in plane,
a line must be drawn to represent that change. The lines
are drawn as solid or continuous if visible in the current
view or dashed if they are hidden.
RIG
HT SID
E
VIEW
Front View
Line of sight
PARALLEL to
surface D
1
2
3
4
TOP
VIEW
FRONT
VIEW
Top View
Line of sight
INCLINED to
surface C
Front View
Line of sight
PARALLEL to
surface C
H
B
A
F
D
E
G
C
Top View
Line of sight
PERPENDICULAR to
surface D
6
5
1
2
3
4
5,4
1,2
6,3
6,1
2
3
4
6
5
5
A
D
B
C
H
F
G
B
C
H
D
E
F
G
A
B
G
C
E
F
H
A
D
E
TOP
FRONT
RIGHT SIDE
Figure 8.48 Rule of Configuration of Planes
Surface B is an example of the Rule of Configuration of Planes. The edges of surface C, 3–4 and 5–6, are examples of the Rule of
Parallel Features.
| | | |
8.7.4 Angles
An angle is represented in true size when it is in a nor-
mal plane. If an angle is not in a normal plane, then
the angle will appear either larger or smaller than true
410 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
size. For example, in Figure 8.49A, the 135-degree
angle is measured as 135 degrees in the front view,
which is parallel to the plane containing the angle. In
Figure 8.49B, the angle is measured as less than true
size in the front view because the plane containing the
angle is not parallel to the frontal plane and is fore-
shortened. Right angles can be measured as 90° in a
foreshortened plane if one line is true length. (Figure
8.49C)
8.7.5 Curved Surfaces
Curved surfaces are used to round the ends of parts and
to show drilled holes and cylindrical features. Cones,
cylinders, and spheres are examples of geometric primi-
tives that are represented as curved surfaces on techni-
cal drawings.
Only the far outside boundary, or limiting ele-
ment, of a curved surface is represented in multiview
drawings. For example, the curved surfaces of the cone
and cylinder in Figure 8.50 are represented as lines in the
front and side views. Note that the bases of the cone and
cylinder are represented as circles when they are posi-
tioned perpendicular to the line of sight.
FORESHORTENED
SURFACE
TRUE
SIZE SURFACE
135°
(A) (B) (C)
NOT
TRUE
ANGLE
90°
Figure 8.49 Angles
Angles other than 90 degrees can only be measured in views
where the surface that contains the angle is perpendicular to the
line of sight. A 90-degree angle can be measured in a
foreshortened surface if one edge is true length.
Cone Cylinder
Area
Limiting
elements
Axis
(Center line)
Area
Area
Limiting
elements
Axis
(Center line)
Area
Figure 8.50 Limiting Elements
In technical drawings, a cone is represented as a circle in one view and a triangle in the other. The sides of the triangle represent
limiting elements of the cone. A cylinder is represented as a circle in one view and a rectangle in the other.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 411
Practice Exercise 8.5
Hold a 12-ounce can of soda at arm’s length so that your
line of sight is perpendicular to the axis of the can. Close
one eye; the outline of the view should be a rectangle. The
two short sides are edge views of the circles representing
the top and bottom of the can. The two long sides represent
the limiting elements of the curved surface. Hold the can at
arm’s length such that your line of sight is perpendicular to
the top or bottom. Close one eye; the outline should look
like a circle.
Partial cylinders result in other types of multiview
representations. For example, the rounded end of the ob-
ject in Figure 8.51 is represented as an arc in the front
view. In the adjacent views, it is a rectangle because the
curve is tangent to the sides of the object. If the curve
were not tangent to the sides, then a line representing a
change of planes would be needed in the profile and top
views. (Figure 8.52)
An ellipse is used to represent a hole or circular fea-
ture that is viewed at an angle other than perpendicular
or parallel. Such features include handles, wheels,
clock faces, and ends of cans and bottles. Figure 8.53
shows the end of a cylinder, viewed first with a perpen-
dicular line of sight and then with a line of sight at 45
degrees. For the perpendicular view, the center lines
are true length, and the figure is represented as a circle.
(Figure 8.54) However, when the view is tilted, one of
the center lines is foreshortened and becomes the minor
axis of an ellipse. The center line that remains true
length becomes the major axis of the ellipse. As the
viewing angle relative to the circle increases, the length
of the minor axis is further foreshortened. (Figure 8.54)
Ellipses are also produced by planes intersecting right
circular cones and circular cylinders, as described in
Section 6.6.
FRONT
Line indicates no
tangency
Figure 8.52 Nontangent Partial Cylinder
When the transition of a rounded end to another feature is not
tangent, a line is used at the point of intersection.
True length
center lines
Ellipse
Minor axis
(foreshortened)
Major axis
(true length)
Cylinder viewed at
90° to its top
surface
Cylinder viewed at
45° to its top
surface
Figure 8.53 Elliptical Representation of a Circle
An elliptical view of a circle is created when the circle is
viewed at an oblique angle.
FRONT
No line
indicates
tangency
Figure 8.51 Tangent Partial Cylinder
A rounded-end, or partial, cylinder is represented as an arc when
the line of sight is parallel to the axis of the partial cylinder. No
line is drawn at the place where the partial cylinder becomes
tangent to another feature, such as the vertical face of the side.
| | | |
8.7.6 Holes
Figure 8.55 shows how to represent most types of ma-
chined holes. A through hole, that is, a hole that goes all
the way through an object, is represented in one view as
two parallel hidden lines for the limiting elements and is
shown as a circle in the adjacent view. (Figure 8.55A) A
blind hole, that is, one that is not drilled all the way
through the material, is represented as shown in Figure
8.55B. The bottom of a drilled hole is pointed because all
drills used to make such holes are pointed. The depth of
the blind hole is measured to the flat, as shown, then 30-
degree lines are added to represent the drill tip.
A drilled and counterbored hole is shown in Figure
8.55C. Counterbored holes are used to allow the
heads of bolts to be flush with or below the surface of
the part. A drilled and countersunk hole is shown in
Figure 8.55D. Countersunk holes are commonly used
for flathead fasteners. Normally, the countersink is rep-
resented by drawing 45-degree lines. A spotfaced hole
is shown in Figure 8.55E. A spotfaced hole provides a
place for the heads of fasteners to rest, to create a
smooth surface on cast parts. For countersunk, counter-
bored, and spotfaced holes, a line must be drawn to
represent the change of planes that occurs between the
412 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
large diameter and the small diameter of the hole. Fig-
ure 8.55F shows a threaded hole, with two hidden lines
in the front view and a solid and a hidden line in the
top view.
8.7.7 Fillets, Rounds, Finished Surfaces, and Chamfers
A fillet is a rounded interior corner, normally found on
cast, forged, or plastic parts. A round is a rounded exte-
rior corner, normally found on cast, forged, or plastic
parts. A fillet or round can indicate that both intersecting
surfaces are not machine finished. (Figure 8.56) A fillet
or round is shown as a small arc.
With CAD, corners are initially drawn square, then
fillets and rounds are added using a FILLET command.
Fillets and rounds eliminate sharp corners on objects;
therefore, there is no true change of planes at these places
on the object. However, on technical drawings, only cor-
ners, edge views of planes, and limiting elements are rep-
resented. Therefore, at times it is necessary to add lines
to represent rounded corners for a clearer representation
of an object. (Figure 8.57) In adjacent views, lines are
added to the filleted and rounded corners by projecting
(D) What you see: ELLIPSE
Line of sight 30°
30°
Minor Diameter
Major Diameter
Fore-
shortened
(C) What you see: ELLIPSE
Line of sight 45°
45°
Minor Diameter
Major Diameter
Fore-
shortened
(B) What you see: ELLIPSE
Line of sight 80°
80°
Minor Diameter
Major Diameter
Foreshortened
(A) What you see: TRUE SIZE
Edge of circle
Line of sight 90°
Figure 8.54 Viewing Angles for Ellipses
The size or exposure of an ellipse is determined by the angle of the line of sight relative to the circle.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 413
22.17
22.23
(G) No! (H) No!
(A) Through hole (B) Blind hole
(C) Drilled and counterbored hole
(E) Drilled and spotfaced hole
(D) Drilled and countersunk hole
14
(Drill diameter)
(Counterbore diameter)
(Counterbore depth)
ø 19 (Diameter)
29 (Depth)
ø
Dia.
S face dia.
Depth of
spotface
usually not
given
ø 16 (Drill diameter)
Drill diameter
Csk dia.
C
s
k
a
n
g
l
e
Dia
30°
Depth
Drill
diameter
C bore depth
C bore dia
ø .25 - 20 UNC 2B
ø 14
Vø 29
×
82°
(Drill diameter)
(Countersink
diameter an
angle drawn
at 90°)
ø 32 (Spotface diameter)
ø 29
ø 29
(Diameter)
Missing
Lines
Figure 8.55 Representation of Various Types of Machined Holes
| | | |
414 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Removed rough
surface
Finished
Finished
Sharp
corner
Rough
Rough
Round
Rough
Removed rough
surface
Finished
Sharp
corner
Fillet
Round
Rough
Fillet
Rough
Figure 8.56 Representation of Fillets and Rounds
Fillets and rounds indicate that surfaces of metal objects have not been machine finished; therefore, there are rounded corners.
Projected to
locate line
Figure 8.57 Representing Fillet and Rounded Corners
Lines tangent to a fillet or round are constructed and then extended, to create a sharp corner. The location of the sharp corner is
projected to the adjacent view to determine where to place representative lines indicating a change of planes.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 415
from the place where the two surfaces would intersect if
the fillets or rounds were not used. (Figure 8.58) This is a
conventional practice used to give more realistic repre-
sentation of the object in a multiview drawing.
When a surface is to be machined to a finish, a finish
mark in the form of a small v is drawn on the edge view
of the surface to be machined, that is, the finished sur-
face. Figure 8.59 shows different methods of represent-
ing finish marks and the dimensions used to draw them.
A chamfer is a beveled corner used on the openings
of holes and the ends of cylindrical parts, to eliminate
sharp corners. (Figure 8.60) Chamfers are represented as
lines or circles to show the change of plane. Chamfers
can be internal or external and are specified by a linear
and an angular dimension. With CAD, chamfers are
added automatically to square corners using a CHAM-
8.7.8 Runouts
A runout is a special method of representing filleted sur-
faces that are tangent to cylinders. (Figure 8.61) A runout
is drawn starting at the point of tangency, using a radius
equal to that of the filleted surface with a curvature of ap-
proximately one-eighth the circumference of a circle. Ex-
amples of runout uses in technical drawings are shown in
No!
Yes!
Figure 8.58 Examples of Representations of Fillet and Rounded Corners
Lines are added to parts with fillets and rounds, for clarity. Lines are used in the top views of these parts to represent changes of
planes that have fillets or rounds at the corners.
Edge view of
finished surface
Finish marks
60°
3
60°
1
16
3
16
8
3
8
Figure 8.59 Finish Mark Symbols
Finish marks are placed on engineering drawings to indicate machine-finished surfaces.
No!
Yes!
| | | |
416 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Figure 8.62. If a very small round intersects a cylindrical
surface, the runouts curve away from each other. (Figure
8.62A) If a large round intersects a cylindrical surface,
the runouts curve toward each other. (Figure 8.62C)
8.7.9 Elliptical Surfaces
If a right circular cylinder is cut at an acute angle to the
axis, an ellipse is created in one of the multiviews. (Fig-
ure 8.63) The major and minor diameters can be pro-
jected into the view that shows the top of the cylinder as
an ellipse. The ellipse can then be constructed using the
methods described in Section 6.6.3. (Figure 8.64)
Internal Chamfer
External Chamfer
Figure 8.60 Examples of Internal and External Chamfers
Chamfers are used to break sharp corners on ends of cylinders and holes.
Point of
tangency
A
Detail A
Fillets
No fillets
Runout
Fillets
No fillets
Line
No line
No line
Fillets
No fillets
Fillets
No fillets
Runout
Figure 8.61 Runouts
Runouts are used to represent corners with fillets that intersect cylinders. Notice the difference in the point of tangency with and
without the fillets.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 417
(E) (F) (G)
Flat
Rounded
Flat
(H) (I) (J) (K) (L)
(A) (B) (C) (D)
Flat
Flat Rounded Rounded
Figure 8.62 Examples of Runouts in Multiview Drawings
| | | |
8.7.10 Irregular or Space Curves
Irregular or space curves are drawn by plotting points
along the curve in one view and then transferring or
projecting those points to the adjacent views. (Figure
8.65) The intersections of projected points locate the
path of the space curve, which is drawn using an irregu-
lar curve. With CAD, a SPLINE command is used to
draw the curve.
8.7.11 Intersecting Cylinders
When two dissimilar shapes meet, a line of intersec-
tion usually results. The conventional practices for
representing intersecting surfaces on multiview draw-
ings are demonstrated in Figure 8.66, which shows
two cylinders intersecting. When one of the intersect-
ing cylinders is small, true projection is disregarded.
(Figure 8.66A) When one cylinder is slightly smaller
than the other, some construction is required. (Figure
8.66B) When both cylinders are of the same diameter,
the intersecting surface is drawn as straight lines. (Fig-
ure 8.66C)
418 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
MAJOR
DIAMETER
MINOR
DIAMETER
Figure 8.63 Right Circular Cylinder Cut to Create an
Ellipse
An ellipse is created when a cylinder is cut at an acute angle to
the axis.
1
1
2
2
1
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
Figure 8.64 Creating an Ellipse by Plotting Points
One method of drawing an ellipse is to plot points on the curve
and transfer those points to the adjacent views.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Figure 8.65 Plotting Points to Create a Space Curve
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 419
8.7.12 Cylinders Intersecting Prisms and Holes
Figure 8.67 shows cylinders intersecting with prisms.
Large prisms are represented using true projection (Fig-
ure 8.67B and C); small prisms are not (Figure 8.67A).
Figure 8.68 shows cylinders intersected with piercing
holes. Large holes and slots are represented using true
projection (Figure 8.68B and D); small holes and slots
are not (Figure 8.68A and C).
8.8 MULTIVIEW DRAWING VISUALIZATION
With sufficient practice, it is possible to learn to read
2-D engineering drawings, such as the multiview draw-
ings in Figure 8.69, and to develop mental 3-D images
of the objects. Reading a drawing means being able to
look at a two- or three-view multiview drawing and
form a clear mental image of the three-dimensional ob-
ject. A corollary skill is the ability to create a multiview
Tangent no
line
(A) (B) (C)
Figure 8.67 Representing the Intersection between a Cylinder and a Prism
Representation of the intersection between a cylinder and a prism depends on the size of the prism relative to the cylinder.
No curve
R
r
r = R
(A) (B) (C)
Figure 8.66 Representing the Intersection of Two Cylinders
Representation of the intersection of two cylinders varies according to the relative sizes of the cylinders.
| | | |
drawing from a pictorial view of an object. Going from
pictorial to multiview and multiview to pictorial is an
important process performed every day by technologists.
The following sections describe various techniques for
improving your ability to visualize multiview drawings.
Additional information on visualizing 3-D objects is
found in Chapter 5.
8.8.1 Projection Studies
One technique that will improve multiview drawing visu-
alization skills is the study of completed multiviews of
various objects, such as those in Figure 8.69. Study each
object for orientation, view selection, projection of visi-
ble and hidden features, tangent features, holes and
rounded surfaces, inclined and oblique surfaces, and
dashed line usage.
8.8.2 Physical Model Construction
The creation of physical models can be useful in learning
to visualize objects in multiview drawings. Typically,
these models are created from modeling clay, wax, or
420 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Styrofoam. The two basic techniques for creating these
models are cutting the 3-D form out of a rectangular
shape (Figure 8.70) and using analysis of solids (Figure
8.71) to divide the object into its basic geometric primi-
tives and then combining these shapes. (See Section 8.8.8
Practice Exercise 8.6
Figure 8.70 shows the steps for creating a physical model
from a rectangular block of modeling clay, based on a multi-
view drawing.
Step 1. Create a rectangular piece of clay that is propor-
tional to the width, height, and depth dimensions shown
on the multiview drawing.
Step 2. Score the surface of the clay with the point of the
knife to indicate the positions of the features.
Step 3. Remove the amount of clay necessary to leave the
required L-shape shown in the side view.
Step 4. Cut along the angled line to remove the last piece
of clay.
Step 5. Sketch a multiview drawing of the piece of clay.
Repeat these steps to create other 3-D geometric
forms.
(B) Large Hole(A) Small Hole
(D) Large Slot(C) Small Slot
Figure 8.68 Representing the Intersection between a Cylinder and a Hole
Representation of the intersection between a cylinder and a hole or slot depends on the size of the hole or slot relative to the cylinder.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 421
(A) (C) (D)
(E)
(I)
(M)
(Q)
(U)
(F)
(J)
(N)
(R)
(V)
(G)
(K)
(O)
(S)
(W)
(H)
(L)
(P)
(T)
(X)
(B)
Figure 8.69 Examples of the Standard Representations of Various Geometric Forms
| | | |
422 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Given the top view of an object, as shown in Figure 8.72,
sketch isometric views of several possible 3-D forms.
Figure 8.73 shows just four of the solutions possible and
demonstrates the importance of understanding adjacent
are surfaces that reside next to each other. The boundary
between the surfaces is represented as a line indicating a
change in planes. No two adjacent areas can lie in the
1. Surfaces at different levels.
2. Inclined or oblique surfaces.
3. Cylindrical surfaces.
4. A combination of the above.
Orthographic (A) (B)
(C) (D)
(E)
Figure 8.70 Creating a Real Model
Using Styrofoam or modeling clay and a knife, model simple 3-D objects to aid the visualization process.
Figure 8.71 Analysis of Solids
A complex object can be visualized by decomposing it into
simpler geometric forms.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 423
Going back to Figure 8.72, the lines separating sur-
faces A, B, and C represent three different surfaces at dif-
ferent heights. Surface A may be higher or lower than
surfaces B and C; surface A may also be inclined or
cylindrical. This ambiguity emphasizes the importance of
using more than one orthographic view to represent an
object clearly.
8.8.4 Similar Shapes
One visualization technique involves identifying those
views in which a surface has a similar configuration and
number of sides. (See Section 8.7.2, Rule 5, configura-
tion of planes, and Rule 6, parallel features.) Similar
shape or configuration is useful in visualizing or creating
multiview drawings of objects with inclined or oblique
surfaces. For example, if an inclined surface has four
edges with opposite edges parallel, then that surface will
appear with four sides with opposite edges parallel in any
orthographic view, unless viewing the surface on edge.
By remembering this rule you can visually check the ac-
curacy of an orthographic drawing by comparing the
configuration and number of sides of surfaces from view
to view. Figure 8.74 shows objects with shaded surfaces
that can be described by their shapes. In Figure 8.74A,
the shaded surface is L-shaped and appears similar in the
top and front views, but is an edge in the right side view.
In Figure 8.74B, the shaded surface is U-shaped and is
Top
Front Right side
Isometric
?
?
?
A
B
C
Given the top view, make isometric sketches of possible 3-D
objects.
Figure 8.73 Possible Solutions to Figure 8.72
(A) (B) (C) (D)
Figure 8.74 Similar-Shaped Surfaces
Similar-shaped surfaces will retain their basic configuration in all views, unless viewed on edge. Notice that the number of edges of
a face remains constant in all the views and that edges parallel in one view will remain parallel in other views.
| | | |
424 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
configured similarly in the front and top views. In Figure
8.74C, the shaded surface is T-shaped in the top and
front views. In Figure 8.74D, the shaded surface has
eight sides in both the front and top views.
8.8.5 Surface Labeling
When multiview drawings are created from a given pic-
torial view, surfaces are labeled to check the accuracy of
the solution. The surfaces are labeled in the pictorial
view and then in each multiview, using the pictorial view
as a guide. Figure 8.75 is the pictorial view of an object,
with the visible surfaces labeled with a number; for ex-
ample, the inclined surface is number 5, the oblique sur-
face is number 8, and the hole is number 4. The multi-
view drawing is then created, the visible surfaces in each
view are labeled, and the results are checked against the
pictorial.
8.8.6 Missing Lines
Another way of becoming more proficient at reading and
drawing multiviews is by solving missing-line problems.
Figure 8.76 is a multiview drawing with at least one line
missing. Study each view, then add any missing lines to
the incomplete views. Lines may be missing in more than
one of the views. It may be helpful to create a rough iso-
metric sketch of the object when trying to determine the
location of missing lines.
3
5
9
8
4
2
6
8
7
5
1
8
1
7
3
2
9
6
8
5
4
1
3
4
5
7
9
2
7
6
1
Figure 8.75 Surface Labeling
To check the accuracy of multiview drawings, surfaces can be
labeled and compared with those in the pictorial view.
A
Completed multiview
A
Missing feature
Figure 8.76 Missing-Line Problems
One way to improve your proficiency is to solve missing-line problems. A combination of holistic visualization skills and
systematic analysis is used to identify missing features.
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 425
Locating Missing Lines in an
Incomplete Multiview Drawing
Step 1. Study the three given views in Figure 8.76.
Step 2. Use analysis by solids or analysis by surfaces, as
described earlier in this text, to create a mental image of
the 3-D form.
Step 3. If necessary, create a rough isometric sketch of the
object to determine the missing lines.
Step 4. From every corner of the object, sketch construc-
tion lines between the views. Because each projected
corner should align with a feature in the adjacent view,
this technique may reveal missing details. For the fig-
ure, corner A in the right side view does not align with
any feature in the front view, thus revealing the location
of the missing line.
8.8.7 Vertex Labeling
It is often helpful to label the vertices of the isometric
view as a check for the multiview drawing. In the isomet-
ric view in Figure 8.77, the vertices, including hidden
ones, are labeled with numbers, then the corresponding
vertices in the multiviews are numbered. In the multi-
views, hidden vertices are lettered to the right of the
numbered visible vertices. For example, the vertices of
surface A are numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the front view,
surface A appears on edge, and vertices 1 and 4 are in
front of vertices 3 and 2. Therefore, in the front view, the
vertices of surface A are labeled 4, 3 and 1, 2.
8.8.8 Analysis by Solids
A common technique for analyzing multiview drawings
is analysis by solids, in which objects are decomposed
into solid geometric primitives such as cylinders, nega-
tive cylinders (holes), square and rectangular prisms,
cones, spheres, etc. These primitives are shown in Figure
8.47 earlier in this chapter. Their importance in the un-
derstanding and visualization of multiview drawings can-
not be overemphasized.
Figure 8.78 is a multiview drawing of a 3-D object.
Important features are labeled in each view. Planes are
labeled with a
P subscript, holes (negative cylinders) with
an H subscript, and cylinders (positive) with a
C subscript.
Analysis by Solids
Step 1. Examine all three views as a whole and then each
view in detail. In the top view is a rectangular shape la-
beled A
P
and three circles labeled G
H
, H
C
, and I
H
. On the
left end of the rectangular area are dashed lines repre-
senting hidden features. These hidden features are la-
beled D
P
, E
C
, and F
H
.
Step 2. In the front view is an L-shaped feature labeled B
P
.
At opposite ends of the L-shaped area are dashed lines
representing hidden features and labeled G
H
and F
H
. On
top of the L-shaped area is a rectangular feature with
dashed lines representing more hidden features. The
rectangular feature is labeled H
c
and the hidden feature
is labeled I
H
.
Step 3. In the right side view are two rectangular areas,
and a U-shaped area with a circular feature. The rectan-
gular feature adjacent to and above the U-shaped area is
labeled C
P
and has hidden lines labeled G
H
. The rectan-
gular feature above C
P
is labeled H
C
and contains dashed
lines labeled I
H
. The U-shaped area is labeled D
P
, and the
arc is labeled E
C
. The circular feature in the U-shaped
area is labeled F
H
.
Figure 8.77 Numbering the Isometric Pictorial and the
Multiviews to Help Visualize an Object
8
9
12
13
1
2
3
6
14
4
5
11
10
9,8 10,7
12 11
13,14 1,2 1,13 2,14
4,3
5,6
11,12
10,9 7,8
8,14 7,6 3,2
12,13 11,5 4,1
910
4,5 3,6
A
Top view
A
A
A
Front view
Right side
7
| | | |
This general examination of the views reveals some
important information about the 3-D form of the object.
Adjacent views are compared with each other, and paral-
lel projectors are drawn between adjacent views to help
further analysis of the object.
Step 4. In the top view, rectangular area A
P
extends the full
width of the drawing, can only be aligned with area B
P
in
the front view, and appears as an edge in the front and
right side views. Area B
P
in the front view is aligned with
area C
P
in the right side view. B
P
appears as a vertical
edge in the right side view and a horizontal edge in the
top view. The conclusion is that areas A
P
, B
P
, and C
P
are
top, front, and right side views, respectively, of a rectan-
gular prism, which is the main body of the part.
Step 5. Circular area G
H
in the top view is aligned with the
hidden lines labeled G
H
in the front view. Because these
hidden lines go from top to bottom in the front view, it is
concluded that the circle represents a hole. This can be
verified by the dashed lines G
H
in the right side view.
Step 6. In the front view, rectangular area H
C
projects
above the main body of the part; therefore, it should be
visible in the top view. This rectangular area is in align-
ment with circular area H
C
in the top view and with rectan-
gular area H
C
in the right side view. The conclusion is that
426 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
area H
C
is a cylinder because it appears as a circle in
one view and as a rectangle in the other two views.
Step 7. The circle I
H
in the top view is aligned with dashed
lines I
H
in the front view and is inside cylinder H
C
. This in-
dicates that circle I
H
in the top view is a negative cylinder
(hole) centered within cylinder H
C
. The dashed line la-
beled Z in the front and right side views shows the depth
of the negative cylinder I
H
.
Step 8. In the top view, the dashed lines at the left end of
rectangular area A
P
represent one or more feature(s)
below the main body of the part. Hidden line D
P
in the top
view is aligned with visible line D
P
in the front view, and
dashed lines F
H
in the top view are directly above dashed
lines F
H
in the front view. Area E
C
in the top view is
aligned with area E
C
in the front view. So the features hid-
den in the top view must be D
P
and E
C
in the front view.
D
P
and E
C
in the front view are aligned with D
P
and E
C
in
the right side view. The right side view appears to be the
most descriptive view of these features. In this view, area
E
C
is a partial cylinder represented by arc E
C
. The side
view also reveals that dashed lines F
H
in the top and front
views represent the diameter of hole F
H
. Therefore, area
D
P
and partial cylinder E
C
are a U-shaped feature with a
hole whose width is revealed in the front and top views.
I
H
H
C
A
P
C
P
G
H
B
P
D
P
E
C
F
H
D
P
B
P
G
H
C
P
I
H
H
C
F
H
A
P
Z
E
C
Z
I
H
H
C
C
P
A
P
D
P
F
H
E
C
B
P
G
H
Figure 8.78 Visualizing a Multiview Drawing Using Analysis by Solids
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 427
Analysis by solids should result in a clear mental image
of the 3-D form represented in a 2-D multiview drawing.
Figure 8.79 is a pictorial view of the object in the multi-
view drawing, and it should be similar to the mental image
created after following the preceding eight steps.
8.8.9 Analysis by Surfaces
Figure 8.79 lends itself to analysis by solids because
there are no inclined or oblique surfaces. With inclined
and oblique surfaces, such as those shown in Figure 8.80,
analysis by surfaces may be more useful.
Analysis by Surfaces
Step 1. Examine all three views in Figure 8.80. There are
no circular or elliptical features; therefore, all the areas
must be bounded by planar surfaces. In the top view,
areas A and B are separated by lines; therefore, they are
not in the same plane. The same is true for areas C and
D in the front view and areas E and F in the right side
view. The reason for this is that no two contiguous (adja-
cent) areas can lie in the same plane. If they were in the
same plane, a line would not be drawn to separate them.
This is an example of Rule 8.
Step 2. The lines of projection between the top and front
views indicate that area B corresponds to area D. Areas
B and D are also similar in shape in that they both have
six sides, thus reinforcing the possibility that areas B and
D are the same feature. Similarly, areas A and C are
aligned and are similar in shape, so they could be the
same feature. However, before accepting these two pos-
sibilities, the side view must be considered.
Step 3. Area D aligns with area F, but they are not similar
in shape; area F is three-sided and area D is six-sided.
Therefore, areas D and F are not the same feature. In the
right side view, area D must be represented as an edge
view separating areas E and F; therefore, area D is the in-
clined plane in the right side view. Area C aligns with
FRONT
VIEW
RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
TOP
VIEW
C
P
D
P
B
P
A
P
H
C
I
H
G
H
F
H
E
C
Figure 8.79 A Pictorial View of the Multiview Drawing in Figure 8.78, Revealing Its Three-Dimensional Form
A
B
C
D
E
F
Figure 8.80 Visualizing a Multiview Drawing Using
Analysis by Surfaces
| | | |
area E, but they are not similar in shape; area C is four-
sided, and area E is three-sided. In the right side view,
area C must be represented as an edge view and is the
vertical line on the left side of the view.
Step 4. Areas E and F are not represented in the top or
front views; therefore, areas E and F are edge views in
the front and top views. (Figure 8.81) Because areas E
and F are visible in the right side view, they are at the
right end of the front and top views. Therefore, they must
be located at the right end of the object.
Step 5. Based on alignment and similarity of shape, sur-
faces B and D must be the same surface.
Step 6. Area A in the top view is an edge view represented
as a horizontal line in the front and side views. Area C in
the front view is a horizontal edge view in the top view
and a vertical edge view in the right side view. Areas A
and C are therefore not the same.
Figure 8.82 is a pictorial view of the object. Areas B
and D are the same inclined plane, area A is a horizontal
plane, and areas C, E, and F are vertical planes.
Principles of Orthographic Projection Rule 8:
Contiguous Areas
No two contiguous areas can lie in the same plane.
8.9 ANSI STANDARDS FOR
MULTIVIEW DRAWINGS
Standards form the common language used by engineers
and technologists for communicating information. The
standard view representations developed by ANSI for mul-
tiview drawings are described in the following paragraphs.
428 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
8.9.1 Partial Views
A partial view shows only what is necessary to com-
pletely describe the object. Partial views are used for sym-
metrical objects, for some types of auxiliary views, and
for saving time when creating some types of multiview
drawings. A break line (shown as a jagged line) or center
line for symmetrical objects may be used to limit the par-
tial view. (Figure 8.83) If a break line is used, it is placed
where it will not coincide with a visible or hidden line.
Partial views are used to eliminate excessive hidden
lines that would make reading and visualizing a drawing
difficult. At times it may be necessary to supplement a
partial view with another view. For example, in Figure
8.84, two partial profile views are used to describe the
object better. What has been left off in the profile views
are details located behind the views.
Figure 8.81 Conclusions Drawn about Figure 8.80
A
E
C
F
B = D
Figure 8.82 A Pictorial View of Figure 8.80, Revealing Its
Three-Dimensional Form
Center line Break line
Figure 8.83 A Partial View Used on a Symmetrical Object
The partial view is created along a center line or a break line.
A
B = D
C
D = B
E
F
C
E
A
C
A
D
E
F
F
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 429
8.9.2 Revolution Conventions
At times, a normal multiview drawing will result in
views that are difficult to visualize and read. This is espe-
cially true of objects with ribs, arms, or holes that are not
aligned with horizontal and vertical center lines. Figure
8.85 shows an object with ribs and holes that are equally
spaced, with the two bottom holes not aligned with the
center line of the object. True projection produces an
awkward profile view that is difficult to draw because all
but one rib are foreshortened. (Figure 8.85A) ANSI stan-
dard revolution conventions allow the profile view to be
drawn as shown in Figure 8.85B. You must visualize the
object as if the ribs are revolved into alignment with the
vertical center line in the front view. This will produce a
profile view that is easier to visualize and draw.
Revolution conventions can also be used on parts
that have bolt circles. Figure 8.86 shows the true pro-
jection of a plate with a bolt circle. Notice that the pro-
file view becomes difficult to read because of so many
hidden lines. As shown in Figure 8.86, revolution con-
ventions dictate that only two of the bolt circle holes
must be represented in the profile view. These two bolt
circle holes are aligned with the vertical center line in
the front view and are then represented in that position
in the profile view.
Figure 8.87 shows another example of revolution
conventions. The inclined arms in the figure result in a
foreshortened profile view, which is difficult and time
consuming to draw. Revolution conventions allow the
arms to be shown in alignment with the vertical center
line of the front view to create the profile view shown in
the figure.
Objects similar to those described in the preceding
paragraphs are frequently represented as section views.
When revolution techniques are used with section
views, the drawings are called aligned sections. (See
Chapter 14.)
Revolution conventions were developed before CAD.
views automatically, it is possible to create a true-projec-
tion view, such as that shown in Figure 8.87, quickly and
easily. You are cautioned that, even though a view can be
automatically produced by a CAD system, this does not
necessarily mean that the view will be easy to visualize
by the user.
Figure 8.84 Use of Two Partial Profile Views to Describe
an Object and Eliminate Hidden Lines
(A) True projection (B) Preferred
Figure 8.85 Revolution Convention Used to Simplify the Representation of Ribs and Webs
| | | |
Practice Exercise 8.7
In Figures 8.85 through 8.87, a new revolved view was cre-
ated to replace a true projection in the profile view. This was
done in order to represent the features of the object more
clearly. Sketch new front views as if the new profile views
represented true projections.
8.9.3 Removed Views
At times, it is important to highlight or enlarge part of
a multiview. A new view is drawn that is not in align-
ment with one of the principal views, but is removed
and placed at a convenient location on the drawing
sheet. A removed view is a complete or partial ortho-
graphic view that shows some details more clearly. A
new viewing plane is used to define the line of sight
used to create the removed view, and both the viewing
plane and the removed view are labeled, as shown in
Figure 8.88.
8.10 SUMMARY
Multiview drawings are an important part of technical
graphics. Creating multiview drawings takes a high de-
gree of visualization skill and considerable practice. Mul-
tiview drawings are created by closely following ortho-
graphic projection techniques and ANSI standards. The
rules of orthographic projection are listed here for your
reference.
430 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
Rule 1: Every point or feature in one view must be
aligned on a parallel projector in any adjacent
view.
Rule 2: Distances between any two points of a fea-
ture in related views must be equal.
Rule 3: Features are true length or true size when the
lines of sight are perpendicular to the feature.
Rule 4: Features are foreshortened when the lines of
sight are not perpendicular to the feature.
Rule 5: Areas that are the same feature will always
be similar in configuration from one view to the
next, unless viewed as an edge.
Rule 6: Parallel features will always appear parallel
in all views.
Rule 7: Surfaces that are parallel to the lines of sight
will appear as lines or edge views.
Rule 8: No two contiguous areas can lie in the same
plane.
PreferredTrue projection
Figure 8.86 Revolution Convention Used on Objects with
Bolt Circles to Eliminate Hidden Lines and Improve
Visualization
True projection
Preferred
Figure 8.87 Revolution Convention Used to Simplify the
Representation of Arms
Scale - 4/1
View A
A
Figure 8.88 A Scaled Removed View (View A)
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 431
Questions for Review
1. Define orthographic projection.
2. How is orthographic projection different from
perspective projection? Use a sketch to highlight
the differences.
3. Define multiview drawings. Make a simple multi-
view sketch of an object.
4. Define frontal, horizontal, and profile planes.
5. List the six principal views.
6. Define fold lines.
7. List the space dimensions found on a front view,
top view, and profile view.
8. Define a normal plane.
9. Define an inclined plane.
10. Define an oblique plane.
11. List the eight rules of orthographic projection.
Problems
Integrated Design Communications Problem
Gear reducer assignment 6
Each member of the team will take his or her assigned part(s)
and the design sketches created earlier and will begin to cre-
ate multiview drawings of those parts, using hand tools or
ware is capable, extract the multiviews from the models, as
described in this chapter. When creating the multiviews, re-
member to choose the most descriptive views and to leave
enough space between the views to add dimensions later.
8.1 (Figure 8.89) Draw or sketch the front, top, and
right side views of the object shown in the pictor-
ial. Number each visible surface in each of the
multiviews to correspond to the numbers given in
the pictorial view.
8.2 (Figure 8.90) Draw or sketch the front, top, and
right side views of the object shown in the pictorial.
Number each visible surface in each of the multi-
views to correspond to the numbers given in the
pictorial view.
8.3 (Figure 8.91) Given the front view shown in the fig-
ure, design at least six different solutions. Sketch your
solutions in pictorial and in front and side views.
8.4 (Figure 8.92) Given the two views of a multiview
drawing of an object, sketch or draw the given
views, freehand or using instruments or CAD, and
cise, create a pictorial sketch of the object.
8.5 (Figure 8.93) Given three incomplete views of a
multiview drawing of an object, sketch or draw the
given views, freehand or using instruments or
additional exercise, create a pictorial sketch of the
object.
9
8
5
10
14
15
17
12
3
1
7
6
4
2
16
11
13
Figure 8.89 Solid Object for Problems 8.1, 8.11, and 8.12
3
1
5
6
4
14
13
16
26
19
17
24
20
2
3
21
10
9
8
7
11
2
22
15
18
25
12
Figure 8.90 Solid Object for Problem 8.2
| | | |
8.6 (Figure 8.94) Sketch, or draw with instruments or
CAD, multiviews of the objects shown in the
pictorials.
8.7 (Figures 8.95 through 8.184) Sketch, draw with
for the parts shown.
8.8 On square grid paper, sketch a series of multi-
views of a cube, at least eight squares on a side.
Visualize the following modifications to the cube
and draw the resulting multiviews:
a. Looking at the front view, drill a hole 3
squares in diameter and parallel to the line of
sight.
b. Take the result of (a) and drill another hole 2
squares in diameter to the right of the first
hole.
c. Take the result of (a) and drill another hole 3
squares in diameter above the first hole.
d. Take the result of (a) and drill a hole 5 squares
in diameter in the same location as the first
hole, but only half-way through the cube.
e. Instead of drilling a 3-square diameter hole
through the object, create a cylinder projecting
2 squares out of the cube and parallel to the
line of sight of the front view. Compare this
with the views in (a).
432 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
f. Same as (e), except raise the cylinder along the
line of sight of the top view.
g. Same as (a), except remove a square feature
rather than a round hole. Compare this with
the views in (a).
h. Same as (a), except place the center 2 squares
to the right. Enlarge the drill to a diameter of 5
squares; 7 squares; 9 squares.
i. Find the midpoints of the top and right side
edges of the front view. Draw a line connect-
ing these points and project it along the line
of sight for the front view to create a cutting
plane. Remove this corner of the cube.
j. Same as (i), except rotate the cutting plane to
be 15°, 30° , 60°, and 75° to the horizontal.
Compare the dimensions of the inclined sur-
face projections at each of these angles (in-
cluding the original 45° angle).
k. Same as (i), except move the cutting plane to-
ward the lower left corner of the front view, in
2-square increments. When is the inclined sur-
face the largest?
l. Same as (i), except the cutting plane is defined
by the midpoints of the top and right side
edges of the front view and the midpoint of the
top edge of the right side view.
m. Same as (l), except move the cutting plane in
2-square increments toward the opposite cor-
ner of the cube.
8.9 Same as 8.8 (a through k), except use a cylinder 8
squares in diameter, 8 squares deep, and seen in
its circular form in the front view.
8.10 Using any of the objects shown in the exercises in
the back of this chapter, decompose the objects
into primitive geometric shapes. Color code these
shapes to show whether they represent positive
material added to the object or negative material
removed from it. This can be done by:
Drawing isometric pictorial sketches of the
objects.
Overdrawing on top of photocopies of the
drawings.
Tracing over the drawings.
EXAMPLE
Figure 8.91 Front View for Problem 8.3
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 433
(3)(2)
(4) (5) (6)
(7) (8) (9)
(10) (11)
(1)
(12)
Figure 8.92 Two-View Drawings of Several Objects for Problem 8.4
| | | |
434 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
(13) (14) (15)
(16) (17) (18)
(19)
(20) (21)
(22) (23) (24)
Figure 8.92 Continued
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 435
(28) (29)
(30)
(26) (27)
(31)
(32)
(34)
(35)
(33)
(25)
(36)
Figure 8.92 Continued
| | | |
436 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
(2) (3)
(4) (5) (6)
(7) (8) (9)
(10) (11)
(1)
(12)
Figure 8.93 Three Incomplete Views of a Multiview Drawing of an Object for Problem 8.5
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 437
(13) (14) (15)
(16) (17) (18)
(19) (20) (21)
(22)
(23) (24)
Figure 8.93 Continued
| | | |
438 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
(12)
(1)
(2) (3)
(4) (5) (6)
(7) (8) (9)
(10) (11)
Figure 8.94 Pictorials of Several Objects for Problems 8.6 and 8.13
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 439
(24)(23)
(13)
(14) (15)
(16) (17) (18)
(19) (20) (21)
(22)
Figure 8.94 Continued
| | | |
440 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
(33)
(25) (26) (27)
(28) (29) (30)
(31) (32)
(34) (35) (36)
Figure 8.94 Continued
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 441
8.11 Using either a photocopy or a tracing of the object
in Figure 8.89, color, number, or letter each face
(surface) of the object. Pick a surface that will be
seen in its true size and shape in the front view
and sketch its representation in the three primary
multiviews. Use projection lines to align the
surface in all three views. Label it the same as
you did in the pictorial. Then, pick another sur-
face that shares an edge with the one you just
sketched, and sketch the new surface in the three
views. Repeat the process until you have sketched
all the faces contiguous with the original one.
2X
ø
.75
7
.00
4.50
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
5.00
1.00
1.50
1
.5
0
4.50
.50
.7
5
Figure 8.95 Tool Block
ø
2.00
1.00
.50
4.00
2.00
3.50
3.00
6.00
.50
Figure 8.96 Wedge Support
.25
ø
.25
60
°
ø
1.00
.0918
Figure 8.97 Ratchet
.570
.125
40°
.160
R .340
R .560
.125
R .1875
Figure 8.98 Ratchet Stop
| | | |
442 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
How many of these faces are contiguous with
each other? How many are also seen in their true
size and shape in the front view? In other views?
8.12 Using the object in Figure 8.89, identify the nor-
mal, inclined, and oblique planar surfaces. Either
letter, number, or color code the surfaces on a
tracing paper copy or a photocopy of the pictorial.
a. Create a multiview of the object and identify
the same surfaces in all three views. In which
views are individual surfaces seen in their true
size and shape? In which views are individual
surfaces foreshortened? (Which dimension is
foreshortened?) In which views are individual
features seen as edges?
b. For the inclined surfaces, identify which edges
show up as normal or non-normal (angled)
edges on normal surfaces. How does the in-
clined surface appear in the view where a non-
normal edge is present?
c. For the oblique surfaces, are there any normal
edges? Is there any view in which any of these
surfaces are seen as edges?
d. Visualize a view which would allow an in-
clined or oblique surface to be seen in its true
size and shape, and try to sketch that view.
What happens to the surfaces which were nor-
mal in the principal views?
8.13 Using any of the objects from Figure 8.94, sketch
them on tracing paper or make a photocopy. Sketch
cutting planes which would divide all or part of
each object into symmetrical halves. Sketch multi-
views of each half of each object.
4.50
ø .313
.75
.062
.375
R .844
45
°
R .906
5°
1.000
.50
R 1.118
1.00
R .063
.375 THICK
Figure 8.99 Lever
ø
.458
.750
ø
.144
.255
.02 X 45°
.780
.630
.06
.06
R .315
.25
R .59
.375
Figure 8.100 Coupling
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 443
4.00
ø
2.00
ø
1.50
5X .03 X 45
°
ø
2.375
4.625
2.125
R .50
.70
Figure 8.101 Retainer
3.50
6.50
9.50
ø
7.00
ø
4.00
ø
3.50
Figure 8.102 Half Pin
.9
3
8
ø
.750
ø
1.000
ø
.563
ø
.250
.438
.6
8
8
R
1
.1
9
0
Figure 8.103 Timing Knob
R .125
NECK ø .447-MINIMUM
.406
.188
.625
.031 CHAMFER
ø
.531
.063 X 45
°
ø
.3125-18 TAP
ø
.531
.018 Thick
Figure 8.104 Latch Nut
3.00
R .250
1.50
3.4375
3.00
ø
.500
.75
108°
1.50
Figure 8.106 Snubber
6.00
R .750
2X
ø
.6250
2.250
2.00
.125
76°
1.500
.500
4.50
1.6425
.4034
5.00
B
EN
D
R
A
D
IU
S
.125
8.00
Figure 8.105 Top Bracket
| | | |
444 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
ø
.5000
ø
.4370
ø
.3748
.5
0
0
0
1.6250
.3750
1.0000
.125 x 45
°
.1457
.1875
ø
.250
Figure 8.107 Dial Extension
ø
2.250
ø
.3
1
4
0
.7
3
4
4
0
.3
5
9
4
ø
.375
.0625 X 45
°
ø
1.3123 X 0.0156
RAISED FACE
ø
1.2498
Figure 8.108 Spacer
2X
ø
2
0
.6
0
1
0
0
.0
0
6
8
.0
0
7
0
.0
0
3
2
.0
0
1
9
.0
0
1
0
6
.0
0
2
0
.0
0
3
0
.0
0
70.00
R 6.40
15.80
180.00
26
4
.2
0
R
5
.0
0
METRIC
Figure 8.109 Motor Plate
R
.3
1
3
1
.2
2
4
.0
0
ø
.3
1
3
ø
.0
6
3
ø
.5
5
0
.3
1
3
.3
1
3
.4
3
8
0
ø
.3
7
5
S
ø
.5
5
0
ø
.3
75
-2
4
X
.3
7
5
ø
.0
6
3
.469
Figure 8.110 Handle
1.00
60°
.6250
R .2500
.3660
.500
R 1.00
R .8148
1.1250
ø
1.8125
S
ø
2.0000
S
ø
2.3783
60°
Figure 8.111 Release
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 445
#1
#4
#5
#8
#7
#2
#6
#3
CENTRAL AXIS
CENTRAL AXIS TUBE
Central axis tube height = 11.000"
Central axis tube I.D. = 7.250"
Central axis tube O.D. = 8.000"
Central axis tube flange dia = 10.000"
Central axis tube flange width = .500"
All flange diameters = tube diameter + 1.5"
All flange widths = .500"
All tube I.D.'s = Tube diameter - .500"
Tube #
Elevation from base
(on the central axis)
4.000"
7.000"
7.000"
4.000"
2.750"
9.125"
4.625"
4.500"
Azimuth angle from tube
#1 (around central axis)
0°
180°
110°
70°
310°
310°
205°
230°
Offset distance from
central axis
0.000"
0.000"
0.000"
2.000"
0.500"
0.750"
0.125"
0.250"
Angle of elevation
from the base of
the part
0°
0°
-45°
-10°
30°
0°
-30°
Length of tube from end of
flange to apparent intersection
with central axis
Outer diameter of
tube
3.000"
2.500"
3.500"
1.750"
1.750"
1.750"
1.750"
1.750"
0°
14.000"
11.000"
9.250"
9.500"
5.000"
5.500"
6.000"
7.500"
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
5
Figure 8.112 Evaporator
3X
ø
2.0625 OFFSET 60
°
AROUND CENTRAL AXIS
R .3125
1
.0
0
0
.7
1
8
7
.4
3
7
5
.2
1
8
8
.1
5
6
2
2
2
T
E
E
T
H
-P
IT
C
H
A
N
G
L
E
9
0
°
IN
N
E
R
A
N
D
R
O
O
T
D
IA
M
E
T
E
R
S
A
S
S
H
O
W
N
.0
6
2
5
X
4
5
° C
H
A
M
F
E
R
A
T
B
O
T
T
O
M
.1
3
0
3
X
3
0
° C
H
A
M
F
E
R
A
T
T
O
P
S
ø
2
.0
0
0
ø
1
.0
0
0
ø
.8
7
5
ø
1
.1
3
5
6
.2813
Figure 8.113 Swivel
R .3750
5°
35°
.6188
.4544
.8688
.4801
.0168
.8438
.5244
.0312
.1092
1.5787
1.7399
.9732
.0781
.4062
.2171
.0312
SECTION A-A
1.9611
1.6917
.2191
9.5000
2.3594
8.7813
.3438
.4377
ø
.5000
ø
.4
00
0
.75
.8567
.7409
.0592
.1250
R 1.7500
8.2482
1.2317
.808
1.9688
1.7134
R .2500
R .2500
A
A
.8794
ø .300
.1362
.1639
Figure 8.114 L-Slide
| | | |
446 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
2.2
13.6
3
.3
4
.5
R
2
.1
3
.4
.8
9
.0
1
8
.2
.8
6
.7
2
.2
3
.0
1
0
.4
9
.
4
4
.7
ø
1
.6
ø
3
.6
1
.0
3.0
2.4
33.2
30.0
21.8
3.8
5°
1.6
4.8
2.2
2X
ø
.8
.8 X 45°
5.0
.6
3.6
3.2
2.4
4.8
ø 1.2
C
L
1.00
Figure 8.115 Manifold
.25
R .37
4.63
2.63
1.88
.63
1.50
2.25
.50
1.13
2X
ø
.88
1.25
115
°
3.25
.25
1.13
2.88
1.75
.75
2.00
6.88
7.38
C
L
Figure 8.116 Seat
R
26
12
136
15°
120°
ø
52
5
ø
84
ø
16
ø
68
94
90
6
0
120
86
58
8X
ø
5
8 X
4
5°
ø
42 B.C.
24
28
ø
32
METRIC
Figure 8.117 Propeller
16
3X R 22
2X R 30
8
82
28
42
82
3X
ø
20
54
70
3X
ø
24
84
R 16
150
42
59
70
METRIC
Figure 8.118 Cutoff
.50
1.13
.06
R .25
ø .19
.75
.25
1.25
.13
.62
.13
.13
.13
.19
.63
.75
1.25
1.38
1.63
2.06
2.81
3.00
3.38
.25
45°
.44
.13
Figure 8.119 Folder
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 447
.6250
ø
.6249
.6250
.2500
.8750
.3750
.1758
.1250
1.3750
3.4375
1.5625
1.2500
.7578
.5000
R .1250
.2500
.1250
.2500
.4688
.6250
.0625
.3867
.2344
.0613
.4453
.3835
ø
.6249
.7578
.5189
ø
.3461
ø
.4609
.5103
3.2500
.6494
.3477
.5000
.3750
.875
.035
NOTE: ALL CHAMFERED
EDGES .125 X 45° U.O.S.
FILLETS & ROUNDS R .0625
ø
.4505
Figure 8.121 Sensor
ø
1
.2
0
.05 X 45
°
1.20
.20
.20
ø
2
.0
0
1
5
°
ø
1
.4
0
.2
0
.3
0
ø
2
.0
0
.2
0
ø
.4
0
ø
.6
0
.3
0
1.70
2.30
.8
0
ø
4
.0
0
ø
3
.7
5
Figure 8.122 Index
84
ø
192
104
36
12
ø
33
ø
88
176
R 78
R 104
R 12
ø
552
ø
128
ø
290
R 20
60
104
R 16
R 80
R
100
116
R 8
ø
288
84
12
SP
R .56
ø
228
METRIC
Figure 8.123 Slinger
1
.1
3
R 3.63
.7
5
.3
7
.7
5
2
.7
5
15.56
ø
4.63
22X
ø
.19
1.38
ø
2.00
ø
3.00
1.75
ø
3.50
R 2.87
R 2.25
ø
2.69
1.75
R 1.12
.38
R .38
R .96
Figure 8.124 Spray Arm
METRIC
10
120
°
ø
52
48
68
R 36
ø
88
16
55°
R 58
12
36
48
20°
35°
ø
12
82
R 12
R 14
32
3X R 49
Figure 8.120 Spline Pilot
| | | |
448 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
METRIC
1.3
10.8
ø 14.8
R 9.2
R 1.8
18.4
5.2
11.0
3.6
3.6
R 2.6
ø 8.0
12.8
5.2
14.1
15.7
17.9
45.3
68.9
11.5
Figure 8.125 Arm Support
TAB ON BOTH SIDES
2.25
R .25
2X
ø
.38
R .31
.94
1.88
4.44
.25
.50
.88
4.31
2.63
.50
1.13
.44
.88
.25
12.38
.44
2.36
.94
ø
.50
.25
2.38
.44
Figure 8.126 Control Back
METRIC
ø
28
90°
4X
ø
6
ø
12
ø
52
ø
44
R 5
19
3
16
22
R 112
8
66
80
88
R 4
8
34
ø
80
63
Figure 8.127 Inlet
METRIC
5
X
R
3
0
8
ø
5
6
1
2
ø
12
ø
24
3
5
X
7
2
°
R
5
8
8
Figure 8.128 Gear Index
1
.8
8
1.63
ø
2.26
4X
ø
.50
2.38
4.63
7.50
2.38
R 1.13
1.13
Figure 8.129 Speed Spacer
.6
3
ø
1.50
4.13
3.38
2.00
ø
.63
1
.3
8
1.25
.63
R .25
Figure 8.130 Shaft Support
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 449
METRIC
19
68
R 16
18
20°
37
2
1
R 15
17
R 9
42
R 2
ø
16
15°
ø
12
R 21
13
13
17
Figure 8.133 CNC Clamp
1.00
1.25
ø
1.00
1.75
.63
1.38
2.50
1.50
R .25
R 2.25
ø
.
50
ø
.87 X
82
°
.30
3.75
2X
ø
.63
ø
1.00
.50
1.13
1.00
2.00
2.25
1.6
3
1.63
ø
2.00
1.13
ø
.75
2.24
Figure 8.134 Pen Block
3.10
.50
.60
1.30
.80
.30
1.00
1.90
6.30
8.90
R .50
ø .60
2.10
2.50
5.00
ø .80
ø 1.80
.50
2.50
R 3.30
.40
R 1.50
1.60
.90
.90
.40
1.10
2X ø .40
.75
Figure 8.135 Index Support
FILLETS & ROUNDS R .13
2.00
.88
2X
ø
.63
1.00
3.29
1.00
2.00
2X
ø
.75
ø
1.00
.50
1.00
2.00
ø
.94
ø
1.75
2.00
1.13
1.75
1.75
3.25
.63
C
L
.88
Figure 8.136 Cover Guide
.50
.8
8
.5
0
1
.7
5
1
.0
0
ø
.6
3
R
.2
5
1
.7
6
1.00
Figure 8.131 Stop Base
.50
ø
.6
2
.7
5
1
.0
0
1
.7
5
.3
8
.8
8
1
.2
5
.6
3
1.50
1.37
1.62
3.50
1.38
.50
Figure 8.132 Tool Holder
| | | |
450 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
2
.2
5
0
30°
1.375
1
.1
2
5
2.250
.625
4X R .25
3.000
.500
2X
ø
.50
.750
.938
.563
.875
.500
.750
.625
1.375
.313
.50
0
Figure 8.137 Dial Bracket
2X
ø
.188
.437
.188
R
.250
R
.375
R .375
1.50
ø
.500
Figure 8.138 Bearing Block
.437
1.250
.375
R .937
.563
3X
ø
.250
3X R .250
.563
.625
.250
.2505
1.000
1.063
.313
1.813
R 1.438
ø
1.000
ø
.625
.563
Figure 8.139 Pulley Support
.56
1.07
1.05
4.26
1.26
.66
.49
.90
ø
.30
.50
3.18
1.44
.41
ø
.40
.10
1.26
.30
ø
.90
.50
.53
.41
.12
2.21
.32
60
°
.43
.40
Figure 8.140 Centering Clip
METRIC
522
336
438
393
R 84
R 45
SR 48
111
195
189
R 30
174
R 237
R 153
120
R 21
Figure 8.141 Impeller
ø
1.00
.50
.50
R .50
2.50
1.00
1.00
4.00
.275
ø
.25
2.00
.275
.25
1.125
R .375
ø
.75
1.18
2
.2
5
R .18
C
L
1.00
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 451
.30
R 1.06
3.00
2.40
.95
.73
.30
.63
.48
ø
.95 CENTERED
.63
1.75
4X
ø
.30
4X R .14
.325
.40
3.20
4.00
.50
1.40
2.40
R .50
1.45
1.20
R .50
TYP
.15
.60
2.30
.77
R .75
.48
.70
Figure 8.146 Dryer Clip
.70
2.80
.625
.54
.60
1.40
R .40
.71
.50
1.20
R .75
.53
2.00
R 1.5
2.00
4X R .125
5.00
.55
1.00
ø
.20
ø
.30 X 82°
R .56
R .60
1.48
3.80
.57
.20
20°
.50
.57
.51
R .25
ø
.375
1.42
1.37
2.08
2.39
2.33
2.38
2.12
1.23
.87
.12
95
°
1.21
83°
.50
.45
2.11
1.08
1.42
1.25
2.37
2.71
2X
ø
.75
1.00
4X
ø
.31
.75
1.11
2X
ø
.50
11°
R
.50
.50
2X R .50
R .50
Figure 8.145 Bar Hinge
.125
.690
.250
1.000
.094
.625
.750
.500
1.500
1.750
R .250
.375
1.750
1.625
1.060
.760
2.625
3.375
.375
.625
.750
2.000
1.625
.500
Figure 8.144 Pump Base
1.77
4.08
.50
R .75
2X
ø
.375
2X R .50
2.00
.67
2.40
.50
1.00
1.50
.45
2.74
3.74
2.00
2.45
.67
FILLETS & ROUNDS R .13
Figure 8.143 Auger Support
| | | |
452 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
.500
8X
ø
.250
8X 45
°
4.000
ø
4.3578
R 1.000
R .550
5°
1.000
120°
4X
ø
.445
ø
2.500
2.3107
4X R 1.750
4X R .250
1.50
.1250
.3750
ø
4.8578
R 1.803
3.00
4.000
Figure 8.148 Dryer Tube
ø
4.000
3
X
ø
.500
3X
120
°
R .875
ø
.750
R 2.3029
R 1.1788
R 1.1117
.1218
ø
1.4744
1.375
.250
43°
.250
.250
2.2723
3.7022
40°
ø
3.00
ø
.750
.4913
.085
(.52)
(2.23)
.18
.37
(R 1.11)
(R .70)
.76
R .09
VIEW A-A
3
9
°
R 1.29
.39
R .26
BOTH SIDES
58°
.67
NOTE: ALL FILLETS & ROUNDS
.09 U.O.S.
R .38
.46
ø
2.23
RAISED .03
ø
1.78
.04 X 45
°
2.23
.10
.75
.95
1.60
1.70
4X
R
.36
2.18
2.78
2X
ø
.38
2X
ø
.10
2.40
1.91
.90
2.63
R 1.12
BOTH SIDES
3.01
R .56
BOTH SIDES
.19
.75
1.24
R .58
.95
1.57
ø
.80
.20
.55
25°
25°
.14
3.49
35
°
3.89
R 1.16
3.43
R 1.56
2.89
4.05
.52
R 1.11
R .70
R .13
5.74
.61
C
L
A
A
VIEW
Figure 8.150 Connecting Rod
.95
1.16
2.00
ø
1.08
ø
1.54
.44
ø
4.36
4X
ø
.44
4X 90
°
ø 3.41 B.C.
.54
1.00
8°
Figure 8.151 Retaining Cap
.62
ø
1.00
1.37
2X
ø
.50
2.00
1.00
.125
3.25
.50
ø
2.00
1.50
.64
.75
3.00
ø
.50
1.37
Figure 8.152 Locating Block
1.10
.71
R
1.03
1.35
1.60
.125
.50
.125
1.08
.31
.07
ø 2.25
.08
8
F
IN
S
E
Q
U
A
L
L
Y
S
P
A
C
E
D
R .03
.66
Figure 8.153 Spin Drive
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 453
METRIC
92
422
378
PROFILE A
R 36
18
R 18
238
R 394
R 9
PROFILE A
16
206
Figure 8.157 Air Foil
1.56
3.06
1.53
.38
1.94
.72
8X
ø
.25
ø
.44 X 82
°
2.50
2.00
ø
1.13
ø
.62
1.13
2X R .25
2X
ø
.25
1.25
125
°
51°
4.50
.38
.91
.88
2.69
.37
1.19
.25
FILLETS & ROUNDS R .06
1.25
Figure 8.158 Locating Base
Fillets and Rounds R .09
1.30
.26
1.43
ø
.94
1.59
.80
.54
1.78
2.86
.56
ø
1.31
C
EN
TE
R
ED
3.47
4.59
R .38
4X
ø
.29
ø
.56
.19
2.72
99°
.47
.47
.38
Figure 8.159 Anchor Base
ø
.65
1.43
1.63
R .53
.29
.98
.20
.57
.11
.33
2X
ø
.24
1.80
.90
.33
1.7
R .40
.49
ø
.49
.815
.57
.30
.54
8X
ø
.2
5
ø
1.60
ø
7.57
ø
1.00
.125
1.50
1.12
8X R .25
8X 27
°
.1
1
.3
4
1.00
.50
Figure 8.154 Solar Mill
ø
2.50
2X
ø
5.00
OFFSET 90
°
AROUND
CENTRAL AXIS
ø
1.50
.0625 X 19
°
ø
2.19
ø
3.00
Figure 8.155 Spherical Spacer
| | | |
454 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
1.60
2.00
ø
1.50
5
4°
.25
.19
ø
.40
ø
5.88
ø
1.38
ø
1.63
5°
4X
ø
.50
ø
5.46
2.24
1.50
.66
1.74
4.44
3.48
2.11
ø
1.60
1.99
.09
.88
.75
.37
.48
Figure 8.161 Dryer Gear
.74
.73
2X R 2.83
.25
ø
.28
ø
1.10
ø
5.03
.25
32°
6X
ø
.59
6X 60
°
ø
2.52 B.C.
R 2.00
.13
.62
4X ø .28
4X 90
°
ø 4.60 B.C.
Figure 8.160 Evaporator Cover
12X
ø
.15
12X 30
°
ø 2.55 B.C.
.17
.68
74
°
ø
.34
.84
4X
ø
.37 X .42 LG
4X 90
°
ø
2.55 B.C.
15°
.17
ø
3.37
ø
2.90
ø
.86
ø
1.71
Figure 8.163 Relay Clip
45°
10°
4.10
1.43
3.45
.66
.87
.17
ø
1.07
ø
1.34
.44
3.48
6X
ø
.29
.59
.80
.72
108
°
R .31
2.61
4.75
5°
2.50
1.25
1.07
.32
Figure 8.162 Heater Clip
R 1.34
R
.39
R .16
R
.59
.73
R .39
.59
1.37
1.18
.10
1
6
8
°
1.35
.49
.79
2.56
1
.1
1
1
.1
8
R
.5
9
.4
2
1.36
1.00
R .25
Figure 8.165 Caster Mount
ø
.375
1.500
ø
.500
ø
.375
1.50
.3125
.625
.0625
1.20
3X
ø
.125
3X
120°
ø
1.57
ø
2.50
ø
2.00
ø
.500
ø
1.00
Figure 8.164 Clip Release
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 455
.156
.250
.063
.375
2.500
.203
.250
.313
.125
.094
.375
.188
.313
.031
.125
.094
.094
14°
.031
.062
.125
.188
.125
VIEW A
.020
A
.250
Figure 8.168 Lens Clip
21.00
50.50
1.50
13.00
5.00
12.00
25.00
18.50
ø
3.5
5.00
10.00
1.50
12.00
4.00
R 7.50
ø
3.50
4.00
METRIC
Figure 8.169 Strike Arm
127.00
147.00
4X R 10.00
9.90
10.00
9.15
8.30
25.00
4X
ø
4.00
8.30
96.00
63.50
METRIC
THICKNESS 4
Figure 8.170 Offset Plate
17.0
17.0
8.13°
43.0
89.0
102.0
41.0
8°
4X R 2.0
ø
12.0
ø
16.0
42.0
102.0
12.0
METRIC
21.0
Figure 8.171 Clamp Down
.625
.969
.313
1.250
R .625
ø
.5
0
0
2.250
.563
1.876
.750
.750
.4
1
3
.563
Figure 8.166 Slide Base
ø
.688
.500
1.125
.500
3.500
4.000
.500
1.000
.938
2.380
ø
1.375
2.000
.500
1.19
Figure 8.167 Retainer Clip
| | | |
456 PART 2 Fundamentals of Technical Graphics
1.5625
ø
.1875
R .1878
.2969
ø
.687
.125
.750
.5625
.0254
Figure 8.172 Shelf Stud
.500
.0486
.125
1.00
1.9722
3.8602
58°
1.9423
.9262
1.1304
.3741
.9565
4.2505
.500
.500
.5557
.4374
R .300
ø
1.250
ø
.125
.100 THICK
.25
.4241
.7563
Figure 8.173 Manifold Plate
2.500
R
.1093
.1184
.250
.8604
.3525
R .1872
.4302
R .230
Figure 8.174 Switch Clip
.500
1.875
6.000
4.000
.250
R .500
R .250
R .250
6X
ø
.250
1.000
1.125
Figure 8.175 Protector
R .500
.500
.750
2.000
1.000
ø
.25
3.000
1.000
5.500
2.500
R 1.000
.750
2X
ø
.500
.500
.500
Figure 8.176 Bearing Plate
.75
1.50
.0625
8.00
2.125
R .625
ø
.625
.125
7.00
.500
70°
.500
3.020
Figure 8.177 Angled Support
| | | |
CHAPTER 8 Multiview Drawings 457
.250
1.00
.625
.500
6X
ø
.500
ø
.0625 X 45°
BOTH SIDES
.750
5.00
Figure 8.182 Grate
ø
.2812
.3749
1.7818
.2812
.1266
.1535
ø
.3750
ø
.6633
ø
.5482
ø
.2
5
0
0
.2812
Figure 8.183 Float Extension
.500
R 1.413
74
°
4.000
1.000
8.000
9.000
10.143
ø 1.250
1.661
.500 X .500 NECK
.625
2.206
ø 4.000
ø 4.500
Figure 8.180 Pump Base
.6966
8X
ø
.375
ø
.0625 X 45
°
BOTH SIDES
R .0625
.1875
6.000
.5625
.4375
.750
1.125
.375
.500
Figure 8.181 Burner Cap
2.250
R .125
ø
.500
ø
1.250
2X
ø
.750
.250
1.375
1.625
2X R .625
.750
Figure 8.184 Drive Base
.3
1
3
.4
0
0
.1
2
5
ø
.460
.060 GROO
VE
.025
ø
.250
6-32UNC-2B
.276
0.10 X 45
°
S
ø
.500
Figure 8.178 Diffuser Knob
.156
.1715
.188
.094
ø
.563
ø
.188
.031
.1095
ø
.100
.144
.078
Figure 8.179 Drive Collar
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