Each Individual Occupant Who is Responsible for Rent Payment
MUST Complete A Separate Application Form
(California Residents 18 years or older Apply)
Current Gross Income
Account NumberBranch or Address
Name of your Bank
PhoneHow long with
this Employer
Name of your
How long with
this Employer
Name of your
Name of Creditor
Phone Number
Monthly Payment Amt.
Please List ALL of your Financial Obligations
(If More Creditors Use Additional Sheet of Paper)
FORM Courtesy of
1 .
Have you ever filed for bankruptcy?
Have you ever been evicted or asked to move?
Please state exact number of motor vehicle that will be at the premises
Applicant represents that all the above statements are true and correct and hereby authorizes landlord/agent to verify the above items including, but not limited
to, the obtaining of a credit report and agrees to furnish additional credit references upon request.
The undersigned makes application to rent housing accommodations designated as:
Address of:
and upon approval of this application agrees to sign a rental or lease
the rental for which is $
agreement and to pay all sums due, including required deposits, before occupancy.
Signature of Applicant
Apt. No.
Landlord/Agent received a payment of $
which will be used to verify Applicant's credit history and other background information.
The amount charged is itemized as follows:
1. Actual cost of credit report, including any eviction search, and/or other verifying reports:
2. Landlord/Agent cost to process and screen applicant's supplied information:
3. TOTAL FEE charged (not to exceed $30.00 per applicant (California Residents Only)):
("Tenant") agree as follows:
Landlord rents to Tenant and Tenant rents from Landlord, the real property and improvements described as:
The Premises are for the sole use as a personal residence by the following named person(s)
The term begins on (date)
("Commencement Date"),
(Check A or B):
and shall terminate on (date)
Tenant shall vacate the Premises upon termination of the Agreement, unless:
Landlord and Tenant have in writing extended this
agreement or signed a new agreement;
mandated by local rent control law; or
Landlord accepts Rent from Tenant (other than past due
Rent), in which case a month-to-month tenancy shall be created which either party may terminate as specified in paragraph 2A. Rent shall be
at a rate agreed to by Landlord and Tenant, or as allowed by law. All other terms and conditions of this Agreement shall remain in full force
and effect.
and continues as a month-to-month tenancy. Tenant may terminate the tenancy by giving written notice at least 30 days
prior to the intended termination date. Landlord may terminate the tenancy by giving written notice as provided by law. Such notices may be
given on any date.
Tenant agrees to pay $ per month for the term of the Agreement.
Rent is payable in advance on the
1st (or
) day
of each calendar month, and is delinquent on the next day.
If Commencement Date falls on any day other than the day Rent is payable under paragraph 3B, and Tenant has paid one full month’s Rent in
advance of Commencement Date, Rent for the second calendar month shall be prorated based on a 30-day period.
"Rent" shall mean all monetary obligations of Tenant to Landlord under the terms of the Agreement, except security deposit.
Tenant agrees to pay $
as a security deposit. Security deposit will be
of the Premises, or held in Owner's Broker's trust account.
All or any portion of the security deposit may be used, as reasonably necessary, to:
cure Tenant’s default in payment of Rent (which includes
Late Charges, NSF fees or other sums due);
repair damage, excluding ordinary wear and tear, caused by Tenant or by a guest or licensee of
clean Premises, if necessary, upon termination of the tenancy; and
replace or return personal property or appurtenances.
If all or any portion of the
security deposit is used during the tenancy, Tenant agrees to reinstate the total security deposit within five days after written notice is delivered to
Tenant. Within 21 days after Tenant vacates the Premises, Landlord shall:
furnish Tenant an itemized statement indicating the amount of any
security deposit received and the basis for its disposition and supporting documentation as required by California Civil Code § 1950.5(g); and
return any remaining portion of the security deposit to Tenant.
No interest will be paid on security deposit unless required by local law.
Tenant's Initials
("Landlord") and
PAYMENT: Rent shall be paid by
transferred to and held by the Owner
If the security deposit is held by Owner, Tenant agrees not to hold Broker responsible for its return. If the security deposit is held in Owner’s
Broker’s trust account,
Broker’s authority is terminated before expiration of this Agreement,
security deposit is released to someone
other than Tenant,
Broker shall notify Tenant, in writing, where and to whom security deposit has been released. Once Tenant has been
provided such notice, Tenant agrees not to hold Broker responsible for the security deposit.
Move-in funds made payable to
Rent from
to (date)
Category Total Due Payment Received Balance Due Date Due
*Security Deposit
*The maximum amount Landlord may receive as security deposit, however designated, cannot exceed two months’ Rent for unfurnished premises, or
three months’ Rent for furnished premises.
Reviewed by
Form Made Fillable by
personal check, money order, cashier's check, other
, to
(name) (phone) at
(or at any other location subsequently specified by Landlord in writing to Tenant) between the hours of
on the following days
. If any payment is returned for non-sufficient funds ("NSF") or
(C.A.R. Form LR, Revised 2017)
The following personal property, maintained pursuant to paragraph 11, is included:
(if checked) the personal property on the attached addendum.
because tenant stops payment, then, after that: (i) Landlord may, in writing, require Tenant to pay Rent in cash for three months and (ii) all future
money order, or cashier's check.
Security deposit will not be returned until all Tenants have vacated the Premises. Any security deposit returned by check shall be made
out to all Tenants named on this Agreement, or as subsequently modified.
shall be paid by
personal check, money order, or
cashier's check.
) ( )
Landlord's Initials ) ( )
Rent shall be paid by
Premises: Date:
(Check all that apply:)
Tenant acknowledges either late payment of Rent or issuance of a returned check may cause Landlord to incur costs and
expenses, the exact amounts of which are extremely difficult and impractical to determine. These costs may include, but are not
limited to, processing, enforcement and accounting expenses, and late charges imposed on Landlord. If any installment of Rent
due from Tenant is not received by Landlord within
5 (or ) calendar days
after the date due, or if a check is returned,
Tenant shall pay to Landlord, respectively, an additional sum of $ or % of the Rent due as
a Late Charge and $25.00 as a NSF fee for the first returned check and $35.00 as a NSF fee for each additional returned check,
either or both of which shall be deemed additional Rent.
Landlord and Tenant agree that these charges represent a fair and reasonable estimate of the costs Landlord may incur by
reason of Tenant’s late or NSF payment. Any Late Charge or NSF fee due shall be paid with the current installment of Rent.
Landlord’s acceptance of any Late Charge or NSF fee shall not constitute a waiver as to any default of Tenant. Landlord’s right
to collect a Late Charge or NSF fee shall not be deemed an extension of the date Rent is due under paragraph 3 or prevent
Landlord from exercising any other rights and remedies under this Agreement and as provided by law.
7. PARKING: (Check A or B)
Parking is permitted as follows:
The right to parking is is not included in the Rent charged pursuant to paragraph 3. If not included in the Rent, the
parking rental fee shall be an additional $ per month. Parking space(s) are to be used for parking
properly licensed and operable motor vehicles, except for trailers, boats, campers, buses or trucks (other than pick-up
trucks). Tenant shall park in assigned space(s) only. Parking space(s) are to be kept clean. Vehicles leaking oil, gas or other
motor vehicle fluids shall not be parked on the Premises. Mechanical work or storage of inoperable vehicles is not permitted
in parking space(s) or elsewhere on the Premises.
Parking is not permitted on the Premises.
8. STORAGE: (Check A or B)
Storage is permitted as follows:
The right to storage space is is not included in the Rent charged pursuant to paragraph 3. If not included in the Rent,
storage space fee shall be an additional $ per month. Tenant shall store only personal property
Tenant owns, and shall not store property claimed by another or in which another has any right, title or interest. Tenant shall
not store any improperly packaged food or perishable goods, flammable materials, explosives, hazardous waste or other
inherently dangerous material, or illegal substances.
Storage is not permitted on the Premises.
Tenant agrees to pay for all utilities and services, and the following charges:
except , which shall be paid for by Landlord. If any utilities are not separately metered,
Tenant shall pay Tenant’s proportional share, as reasonably determined and directed by Landlord. If utilities are separately metered,
Tenant shall place utilities in Tenant’s name as of the Commencement Date. Landlord is only responsible for installing and
maintaining one usable telephone jack and one telephone line to the Premises. Tenant shall pay any cost for conversion from
existing utilities service provider.
Tenant has examined Premises and, if any, all furniture, furnishings, appliances, landscaping and
fixtures, including smoke detector(s).
Tenant acknowledges these items are clean and in operable condition, with the following exceptions:
Tenant’s acknowledgment of the condition of these items is contained in an attached statement of condition (C.A.R. Form
Tenant will provide Landlord a list of items that are damaged or not in operable condition within
3 (or ) days
after Commencement Date, not as a contingency of this Agreement but rather as an acknowledgment of the condition of the
Tenant shall properly use, operate and safeguard Premises, including if applicable, any landscaping, furniture, furnishings and
appliances, and all mechanical, electrical, gas and plumbing fixtures, and keep them and the Premises clean, sanitary and well
ventilated. Tenant shall be responsible for checking and maintaining all smoke detectors and any additional phone lines beyond
the one line and jack that Landlord shall provide and maintain. Tenant shall immediately notify Landlord, in writing, of any
problem, malfunction or damage. Tenant shall be charged for all repairs or replacements caused by Tenant, pets, guests or
licensees of Tenant, excluding ordinary wear and tear. Tenant shall be charged for all damage to Premises as a result of failure
to report a problem in a timely manner. Tenant shall be charged for repair of drain blockages or stoppages, unless caused by
defective plumbing parts or tree roots invading sewer lines.
Landlord Tenant shall water the garden, landscaping, trees and shrubs, except:
Landlord Tenant shall maintain the garden, landscaping, trees and shrubs, except:
Landlord Tenant shall maintain
Tenant’s failure to maintain any item for which Tenant is responsible shall give Landlord the right to hire someone to perform
such maintenance and charge Tenant to cover the cost of such maintenance.
The following items of personal property are included in the Premises without warranty and Landlord will not maintain, repair or
replace them: .
Tenant's Initials ( ) ( )
Landlord's Initials ( ) ( )
Reviewed by
Tenant is advised to satisfy him or herself as to neighborhood or area conditions, including
schools, proximity and adequacy of law enforcement, crime statistics, proximity of registered felons or offenders, fire protection, other
governmental services, availability, adequacy and cost of any speed-wired, wireless internet connections or other
telecommunications or other technology services and installations, proximity to commercial, industrial or agricultural activities,
existing and proposed transportation, construction and development that may affect noise, view, or traffic, airport noise, noise or odor
from any source, wild and domestic animals, other nuisances, hazards, or circumstances, cemeteries, facilities and condition of
common areas, conditions and influences of significance to certain cultures and/or religions, and personal needs, requirements and
preferences of Tenant.
13. PETS:
Unless otherwise provided in California Civil Code § 54.2, no animal or pet shall be kept on or about the Premises
without Landlord’s prior written consent, except: .
Tenant agrees to comply with all Landlord rules and regulations that are at any time posted on the Premises or delivered to
Tenant. Tenant shall not, and shall ensure that guests and licensees of Tenant shall not, disturb, annoy, endanger or interfere
with other tenants of the building or neighbors, or use the Premises for any unlawful purposes, including, but not limited to,
using, manufacturing, selling, storing or transporting illicit drugs or other contraband, or violate any law or ordinance, or commit a
waste or nuisance on or about the Premises.
B. (If applicable, check one)
Landlord shall provide Tenant with a copy of the rules and regulations within days or .
OR 2.
Tenant has been provided with, and acknowledges receipt of, a copy of the rules and regulations.
(If checked)
The Premises is a unit in a condominium, planned unit development, common interest subdivision or other development
governed by a homeowners’ association (“HOA”). The name of the HOA is .
Tenant agrees to comply with all HOA covenants, conditions and restrictions, bylaws, rules and regulations and decisions.
Landlord shall provide Tenant copies of rules and regulations, if any. Tenant shall reimburse Landlord for any fines or charges
imposed by HOA or other authorities, due to any violation by Tenant, or the guests or licensees of Tenant.
B. (Check one)
Landlord shall provide Tenant with a copy of the HOA rules and regulations within
days or .
Tenant has been provided with, and acknowledges receipt of, a copy of the HOA rules and regulations.
Unless otherwise specified by law or paragraph 27C, without Landlord’s prior written consent,
shall not make any repairs, alterations or improvements in or about the Premises including: painting, wallpapering, adding or
changing locks, installing antenna or satellite dish(es), placing signs, displays or exhibits, or using screws, fastening devices, large
nails or adhesive materials;
Landlord shall not be responsible for the costs of alterations or repairs made by Tenant;
shall not deduct from Rent the costs of any repairs, alterations or improvements; and
any deduction made by Tenant shall be
considered unpaid Rent.
Tenant acknowledges receipt of (or Tenant will receive
prior to the Commencement Date, or ):
key(s) to Premises, remote control device(s) for garage door/gate opener(s),
key(s) to mailbox,
key(s) to common area(s),
Tenant acknowledges that locks to the Premises have have not, been re-keyed.
If Tenant re-keys existing locks or opening devices, Tenant shall immediately deliver copies of all keys to Landlord. Tenant shall
pay all costs and charges related to loss of any keys or opening devices. Tenant may not remove locks, even if installed by
18. ENTRY:
Tenant shall make Premises available to Landlord or Landlord’s representative for the purpose of entering to make necessary or
agreed repairs, decorations, alterations, or improvements, or to supply necessary or agreed services, or to show Premises to
prospective or actual purchasers, tenants, mortgagees, lenders, appraisers, or contractors.
Landlord and Tenant agree that 24-hour written notice shall be reasonable and sufficient notice, except as follows: 48-hour
written notice is required to conduct an inspection of the Premises prior to the Tenant moving out, unless the Tenant waives the
right to such notice. Notice may be given orally to show the Premises to actual or prospective purchasers provided Tenant has
been notified in writing within 120 days preceding the oral notice that the Premises are for sale and that oral notice may be given
to show the Premises. No notice is required:
to enter in case of an emergency;
if the Tenant is present and consents at
the time of entry or
if the Tenant has abandoned or surrendered the Premises. No written notice is required if Landlord and
Tenant orally agree to an entry for agreed services or repairs if the date and time of entry are within one week of the oral
19. SIGNS:
Tenant authorizes Landlord to place FOR SALE/LEASE signs on the Premises.
Tenant shall not sublet all or any part of Premises, or assign or transfer this Agreement or any
interest in it, without Landlord’s prior written consent. Unless such consent is obtained, any assignment, transfer or subletting of
Premises or this Agreement or tenancy, by voluntary act of Tenant, operation of law or otherwise, shall, at the option of Landlord,
terminate this Agreement. Any proposed assignee, transferee or sublessee shall submit to Landlord an application and credit
information for Landlord’s approval and, if approved, sign a separate written agreement with Landlord and Tenant. Landlord’s
consent to any one assignment, transfer or sublease, shall not be construed as consent to any subsequent assignment, transfer or
sublease and does not release Tenant of Tenant’s obligations under this Agreement.
If there is more than one Tenant, each one shall be individually and completely
responsible for the performance of all obligations of Tenant under this Agreement, jointly with every other Tenant, and individually,
whether or not in possession.
Tenant's Initials ( ) ( )
Landlord's Initials ( ) ( )
Reviewed by
(If checked) Tenant authorizes the use of a keysafe/lockbox to allow entry into the Premises and agrees to sign a
keysafe/lockbox addendum (C.A.R. Form KLA).
22. LEAD-BASED PAINT (If checked):
Premises was constructed prior to 1978. In accordance with federal law, Landlord gives and
Tenant acknowledges receipt of the disclosures on the attached form (C.A.R. Form FLD) and a federally approved lead pamphlet.
(If applicable and known to Landlord) Premises is located within one mile of an area once
used for military training, and may contain potentially explosive munitions.
Landlord has entered into a contract for periodic pest control treatment of the Premises and shall
give Tenant a copy of the notice originally given to Landlord by the pest control company.
NOTICE: The California Department of Justice, sheriffs departments, police departments serving
jurisdictions of 200,000 or more, and many other local law enforcement authorities maintain for public access a database of the
locations of persons required to register pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 290.4 of the Penal Code. The data
base is updated on a quarterly basis and a source of information about the presence of these individuals in any neighborhood. The
Department of Justice also maintains a Sex Offender Identification Line through which inquiries about individuals may be made. This
is a “900” telephone service. Callers must have specific information about individuals they are checking. Information regarding
neighborhoods is not available through the “900” telephone service.
Tenant is not in possession of the premises. If Landlord is unable to deliver possession of Premises on Commencement Date,
such Date shall be extended to the date on which possession is made available to Tenant. If Landlord is unable to deliver
) calendar days
after agreed Commencement Date, Tenant may terminate this Agreement
Tenant is already in possession of the Premises.
Upon termination of the Agreement, Tenant shall:
give Landlord all copies of all keys or opening devices to Premises,
including any common areas;
vacate and surrender Premises to Landlord, empty of all persons;
vacate any/all parking
and/or storage space;
clean and deliver Premises, as specified in paragraph C below, to Landlord in the same condition as
referenced in paragraph 10;
remove all debris;
give written notice to Landlord of Tenants forwarding address; and
All alterations/improvements made by or caused to be made by Tenant, with or without Landlords consent, become the property
of Landlord upon termination. Landlord may charge Tenant for restoration of the Premises to the condition it was in prior to any
C. Right to Pre-Move-Out Inspection and Repairs as follows: (i)
After giving or receiving notice of termination of a tenancy
(C.A.R. Form NTT), or before the end of a lease, Tenant has the right to request that an inspection of the Premises take place
prior to termination of the lease or rental (C.A.R. Form NRI). If Tenant requests such an inspection, Tenant shall be given an
opportunity to remedy identified deficiencies prior to termination, consistent with the terms of this Agreement.
Any repairs or
alterations made to the Premises as a result of this inspection (collectively, “Repairs”) shall be made at Tenant’s expense.
Repairs may be performed by Tenant or through others, who have adequate insurance and licenses and are approved by
Landlord. The work shall comply with applicable law, including governmental permit, inspection and approval requirements.
Repairs shall be performed in a good, skillful manner with materials of quality and appearance comparable to existing materials.
It is understood that exact restoration of appearance or cosmetic items following all Repairs may not be possible.
obtain receipts for Repairs performed by others;
prepare a written statement indicating the Repairs performed by
Tenant and the date of such Repairs; and
provide copies of receipts and statements to Landlord prior to termination.
Paragraph 27C does not apply when the tenancy is
California Code
1161(2), (3) or (4)
In addition to any obligations established by paragraph 27, in the event of
termination by Tenant prior to completion of the original term of the Agreement, Tenant shall also be responsible for lost Rent, rental
commissions, advertising expenses and painting costs necessary to ready Premises for re-rental. Landlord may withhold any such
amounts from Tenant’s security deposit.
Subject to local law, Tenant agrees, upon demand of Landlord, to temporarily vacate Premises for a
reasonable period, to allow for fumigation (or other methods) to control wood destroying pests or organisms, or other repairs to
Premises. Tenant agrees to comply with all instructions and requirements necessary to prepare Premises to accommodate pest
control, fumigation or other work, including bagging or storage of food and medicine, and removal of perishables and valuables.
Tenant shall only be entitled to a credit of Rent equal to the per diem Rent for the period of time Tenant is required to vacate
If, by no fault of Tenant, Premises are totally or partially damaged or destroyed by fire, earthquake,
accident or other casualty that render Premises totally or partially uninhabitable, either Landlord or Tenant may terminate this
Agreement by giving the other written notice. Rent shall be abated as of the date Premises become totally or partially uninhabitable.
The abated amount shall be the current monthly Rent prorated on a 30-day period. If the Agreement is not terminated, Landlord shall
promptly repair the damage, and Rent shall be reduced based on the extent to which the damage interferes with Tenant’s reasonable
use of Premises. If damage occurs as a result of an act of Tenant or Tenants guests, only Landlord shall have the right of
termination, and no reduction in Rent shall be made.
Tenant’s or guest’s personal property and vehicles are not insured by Landlord, manager or, if applicable, HOA,
against loss or damage due to fire, theft, vandalism, rain, water, criminal or negligent acts of others, or any other cause.
Tenant is
advised to carry Tenant’s own insurance (renter’s insurance) to protect Tenant from any such loss or damage.
Tenant shall
comply with any requirement imposed on Tenant by Landlord’s insurer to avoid:
an increase in Landlords insurance premium (or
Tenant shall pay for the increase in premium); or
loss of insurance.
Tenant shall not use or have waterbeds on the Premises unless:
Tenant obtains a valid waterbed insurance policy;
Tenant increases the security deposit in an amount equal to one-half of one month’s Rent; and
the bed conforms to the floor
load capacity of Premises.
Tenant's Initials ( ) ( )
Landlord's Initials ( ) ( )
Reviewed by
possession within
5 (or
by giving written notice to Landlord, and shall be refunded all Rent and security deposit paid. Possession is deemed terminated
when Tenant has returned all keys to the Premises to Landlord.
The waiver of any breach shall not be construed as a continuing waiver of the same or any subsequent breach.
Notices may be served at the following address, or at any other location subsequently designated:
Tenant's Initials ( ) ( )
Landlord's Initials ( ) ( )
Reviewed by
Landlord: Tenant:
Tenant shall execute and return a tenant estoppel certificate delivered to Tenant by Landlord or
Landlord’s agent within 3 days after its receipt. Failure to comply with this requirement shall be deemed Tenant’s acknowledgment
that the tenant estoppel certificate is true and correct, and may be relied upon by a lender or purchaser.
Tenant warrants that all statements in Tenant’s rental application are accurate. Tenant
authorizes Landlord and Broker(s) to obtain Tenant’s credit report periodically during the tenancy in connection with the modification
or enforcement of this Agreement. Landlord may cancel this Agreement:
before occupancy begins;
upon disapproval of the
credit report(s); or
at any time, upon discovering that information in Tenant’s application is false. A negative credit report reflecting
on Tenant’s record may be submitted to a credit reporting agency if Tenant fails to fulfill the terms of payment and other obligations
under this Agreement.
Consistent with paragraphs B and C below, Landlord and Tenant agree to mediate any dispute or claim arising between them out
of this Agreement, or any resulting transaction, before resorting to court action. Mediation fees, if any, shall be divided equally
among the parties involved. If, for any dispute or claim to which this paragraph applies, any party commences an action without
first attempting to resolve the matter through mediation, or refuses to mediate after a request has been made, then that party
shall not be entitled to recover attorney fees, even if they would otherwise be available to that party in any such action.
The following matters are excluded from mediation:
an unlawful detainer action;
the filing or enforcement of a mechanic's
lien; and
any matter within the jurisdiction of a probate, small claims or bankruptcy court. The filing of a court action to enable
the recording of a notice of pending action, for order of attachment, receivership, injunction, or other provisional remedies, shall
not constitute a waiver of the mediation provision.
Landlord and Tenant agree to mediate disputes or claims involving Listing Agent, Leasing Agent or property manager (Broker),
provided Broker shall have agreed to such mediation prior to, or within a reasonable time after, the dispute or claim is presented
to such Broker. Any election by Broker to participate in mediation shall not result in Broker being deemed a party to this
In any action or proceeding arising out of this Agreement, the prevailing party between Landlord and Tenant shall
be entitled to reasonable attorney fees and costs, except as provided in paragraph 37A.
C.A.R. Form means the specific form referenced or another comparable form agreed to by the parties.
The following ATTACHED supplements are incorporated in this Agreement:
Keysafe/Lockbox Addendum (C.A.R.Form KLA);
Interpreter/Translator Agreement (C.A.R. Form ITA); Lead-Based Paint and Lead-Based Paint Hazards Disclosure (C.A.R. Form FLD)
Time is of the essence. All understandings between the parties are
incorporated in this Agreement. Its terms are intended by the parties as a final, complete and exclusive expression of their Agreement
with respect to its subject matter, and may not be contradicted by evidence of any prior agreement or contemporaneous oral
agreement. If any provision of this Agreement is held to be ineffective or invalid, the remaining provisions will nevertheless be given
full force and effect. Neither this Agreement nor any provision in it may be extended, amended, modified, altered or changed except in
writing. This Agreement is subject to California landlord-tenant law and shall incorporate all changes required by amendment or
successors to such law. This Agreement and any supplement, addendum or modification, including any copy, may be signed in two or
more counterparts, all of which shall constitute one and the same writing.
The following agency relationship(s) are hereby confirmed for this transaction:
Listing Agent: (Print firm name)
is the agent of (check one): the Landlord exclusively; or both the Landlord and Tenant.
Leasing Agent: (Print firm name)
(if not same as Listing Agent) is the agent of (check one):
both the Tenant and Landlord.
the Tenant exclusively; or the Landlord exclusively; or
(If checked): The term of this lease exceeds one year. A disclosure regarding real estate agency relationships
(C.A.R. Form AD) has been provided to Landlord and Tenant, who each acknowledge its receipt.
Upon execution of this Agreement, Tenant agrees to pay compensation to Broker as
specified in a separate written agreement between Tenant and Broker.
The terms of this Agreement have been interpreted for Tenant into the following language:
. Landlord and Tenant acknowledge receipt of
the attached interpretor/translator agreement (C.A.R. Form ITA).
If this Agreement has been negotiated by Landlord and Tenant primarily in Spanish,
Chinese, Korean or Vietnamese. Pursuant to the California Civil Code Tenant shall be provided a translation of this Agreement in the
language used for the negotiation.
Landlord and Tenant acknowledge and agree Brokers:
do not guarantee the condition of the Premises;
cannot verify
representations made by others;
cannot provide legal or tax advice;
will not provide other advice or information that exceeds
the knowledge, education or experience required to obtain a real estate license. Furthermore, if Brokers are not also acting as
Landlord in this Agreement, Brokers:
do not decide what rental rate a Tenant should pay or Landlord should accept; and
not decide upon the length or other terms of tenancy. Landlord and Tenant agree that they will seek legal, tax, insurance and other
desired assistance from appropriate professionals.
Tenant Date
Landlord Date
(Owner or Agent with authority to enter into this Agreement)
Landlord Date
(Owner or Agent with authority to enter into this Agreement)
This form is available for use by the entire real estate industry. It is not intended to identify the user as a REALTO. REALTOR® is a registered collective membership mark
which may be used only by members of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS® who subscribe to its Code of Ethics.
Landlord Address City
Reviewed by
Address City State Zip
Telephone Fax E-mail
Tenant Date
Address City State Zip
Telephone Fax E-mail
In consideration of the execution of the Agreement by and between Landlord and Tenant and for valuable
consideration, receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, the undersigned (“Guarantor”) does hereby:
unconditionally to Landlord and Landlord’s agents, successors and assigns, the prompt payment of Rent or other sums that
become due pursuant to this Agreement, including any and all court costs and attorney fees included in enforcing the Agreement;
consent to any changes, modifications or alterations of any term in this Agreement agreed to by Landlord and Tenant; and
waive any right to require Landlord and/or Landlord’s agents to proceed against Tenant for any default occurring under this
Agreement before seeking to enforce this Guarantee.
Guarantor Date
Address City State Zip
Fax E-mail
Guarantor (Print Name)
Upon execution of this Agreement, Owner agrees to pay compensation to Broker as
specified in a separate written agreement between Owner and Broker (C.A.R. Form LCA).
If specified in paragraph 5, Landlord or Broker, acknowledges receipt of move-in funds.
Telephone Fax E-mail
State Zip
Real estate brokers who are not also Landlord under the Agreement are not parties to the Agreement between Landlord and
Agency relationships are confirmed in paragraph 42.
Listing Broker agrees to pay Cooperating Broker (Leasing Firm) and Cooperating
Broker agrees to accept:
the amount specified in the MLS, provided Cooperating Broker is a Participant of the MLS in which the
Property is offered for sale or a reciprocal MLS; or
(if checked) the amount specified in a separate written agreement
between Listing Broker and Cooperating Broker.
Real Estate Broker (Leasing Firm)
By (Agent) Date
Address City State Zip
Fax E-mail
Real Estate Broker (Listing Firm)
By (Agent) Date
Address City State Zip
Fax E-mail
AOA Form No. 148 (Rev. 01/10) - Copyright 2006 - Apartment Owners Association of California, Inc.
San Fernando Valley (818)988-9200 ▪ Los Angeles (323)937-8811 Long Beach (562)597-2422 ▪ Garden Grove (714)539-6000 San Diego (619)280-7007 Northern California (510)769-7521
Bedbug Addendum
This agreement is an addendum and part of the rental agreement dated _______________________ between
_____________________________________________________________, hereby known as Owner/Agent and
____________________________________________________________________ hereby known as Resident(s)
for the premises located at ____________________________________________________________________,
unit number _______ in the city of _____________________________________, CA.
Residents acknowledge that the Owner/Agent has inspected the unit and is aware of no bedbug infestation.
Residents claim that all furnishings and personal properties that will be moved into the premises are free of bedbugs.
__________(Resident Initials) __________(Resident Initials) __________(Resident Initials)
Resident(s) hereby agree to prevent and control possible infestation by adhering to the below list of responsibilities:
1. Check for hitch-hiking bedbugs. If you stay in a hotel or another home, inspect your clothing, luggage, shoes
and personal belongings for signs of bedbugs before re-entering your apartment. Check backpacks, shoes and
clothing after using public transportation or visiting theaters. After guests visit, inspect beds, bedding and
upholstered furniture for signs of bedbug infestation.
2. Resident shall report any problems immediately to Owner/Agent. Even a few bedbugs can rapidly multiply to create
a major infestation that can spread to other units.
3. Resident shall cooperate with pest control efforts. If your unit or a neighbor’s unit is infested, a pest
management professional may be called in to eradicate the problem. Your unit must be properly prepared for
treatment. Resident must comply with recommendations and requests from the pest control specialist prior to
professional treatment including but not limited to:
Placing all bedding, drapes, curtains and small rugs in bags for transport to laundry or dry cleaners.
Heavily infested mattresses are not salvageable and must be sealed in plastic and disposed of properly.
Empty dressers, night stands and closets. Remove all items from floors; bag all clothing, shoes, boxes,
toys, etc. Bag and tightly seal washable and non-washable items separately. Used bags must be disposed
of properly.
Vacuum all floors, including inside closets. Vacuum all furniture including inside drawers and nightstands.
Vacuum mattresses and box springs. Carefully remove vacuum bags sealing them tightly in plastic and
discarding of properly.
Wash all machine-washable bedding, drapes, and clothing etc on the hottest water temperature and dry
on the highest heat setting. Take other items to the dry cleaner making sure to inform the dry cleaner
that the items are infested with bedbugs. Discard any items that cannot be decontaminated.
Move furniture toward the center of the room so that technicians can easily treat carpet edges where
bed bugs congregate, as well as walls and furniture surfaces. Be sure to leave easy access to closets.
4. Resident agrees to indemnify and hold the Owner/Agent harmless from any actions, claims, losses, damages
and expenses including but not limited to attorneys’ fees that Owner/Agent may incur as a result of the
negligence of the Resident(s) or any guest occupying or using the premises.
5. It is acknowledged that the Owner/Agent shall not be liable for any loss of personal property to the Resident,
as a result of an infestation of bedbugs. Resident agrees to have personal property insurance to cover such
By signing below, the undersigned Resident(s) agree and acknowledge having read and understood this addendum.
________________________________________ ________________________________
Resident Date
________________________________________ ________________________________
Resident Date
________________________________________ ________________________________
Owner/Agent Date
Flood Disclosure Addendum
AOA Form No. 158 - Copyright 2018 - Apartment Owners Association of California, Inc. ▪
San Fernando Valley: (818) 988-9200 - Los Angeles: (323) 937-8811 - Long Beach: (562) 597-2422 - Garden Grove: (714) 539-6000 - San Diego: (619) 280-7007 Northern California: (510) 769-7521
This agreement is an addendum and part of the rental agreement dated
between , hereby known as Owner/Agent, and
, hereby known as Resident(s),
for the premises located at ,
unit number in the city of , CA.
Per Government Code 8589.45, the landlord is required to disclose if rental property is at risk of
Lessor’s Disclosure (initial one):
_____ The owner has NO knowledge that this property is located in a special flood hazard area or area
of potential flooding.
_____ This property is located in a special flood hazard area or area of potential flooding, and the
owner has actual knowledge of that fact. The owner is considered to have actual knowledge if:
the owner has received notice from a public agency that the property is located in a special
flood hazard zone or an area of potential flooding;
the owner's mortgage holder requires the owner to carry flood insurance; or
the owner currently carries flood insurance.
Tenants can obtain information about hazards that may affect the property from the Office of
Emergency Services web site at
Owner's insurance does not cover the loss of tenant's personal possessions or for any relocation
expenses. Any losses would be the sole responsibility of the tenant. The tenant should consider
purchasing their own insurance to cover these items. Owner does not need to provide any additional
information concerning flood hazards to the property.
The following parties have reviewed the information about and certify, to the best of their knowledge,
that the information provided by the signatory is true and accurate.
_________________________________ ______________________________
Resident Date
_________________________________ ______________________________
Resident Date
_________________________________ ______________________________
Owner/Agent Date
A Guide For Homeowners, Homebuyers,
Landlords and Tenants
This guide was originally developed by M. B. Gilbert Associates, under contract with the
California Department of Real Estate in cooperation with the California Department of
Health Services. The 2005 edition was prepared by the California Department of Toxic
Substances Control, in cooperation with the California Air Resources Board and the
California Department of Health Services, and meets all State and Federal guidelines
and lead disclosure requirements pursuant to the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard
Reduction Act of 1992. The 2005 edition incorporates the Federal “Protect Your Family
from Lead” pamphlet. The 2011 update was developed California Department of Toxic
Substances Control. This booklet is offered for information purposes only, not as a
reflection of the position of the administration of the State of California.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 1 of 48
January 2011
Table of Contents
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 2 of 48
January 2011
The California Departments of Real Estate and Health Services originally prepared this
booklet in response to the California legislative mandate (Chapter 969, Statutes of
1989, AB 983, Bane) to inform the homeowner and prospective homeowner about
environmental hazards located on and affecting residential property.
The 2005 edition was prepared by the California Department of Toxic Substances
Control, in cooperation with the California Air Resources Board and the California
Department of Health Services’ Childhood Lead Poisoning
Prevention Program, Radon Program, and Division of Drinking Water and
Environmental Management, in response to a 1994 legislative mandate (Chapter 264,
Statutes of 1994, AB 2753, Sher). The 1994 legislation also requires this booklet to
consolidate the California disclosure requirements (Ch. 969, Statutes of 1989) and the
federal disclosure requirements (The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction
Act of 1992).
The information contained in this booklet is an overview of some environmental hazards
which may be found on or in residential property and which may affect residential real
estate. Since this booklet is not meant to be all inclusive, it should be used only for
general guidance. Although law requires the disclosure of known hazards, an
environmental survey may be conducted to obtain further information. Homeowners,
tenants, and prospective homeowners may wish to obtain other literature for additional
information on hazards of concern.
In California, sellers are required to disclose the presence of any known environmental
hazard. A statement that the homeowner is unaware of environmental hazards is not a
guarantee that the property is free of such hazards. It is in the homeowner’s and
prospective homeowner’s interest to know what hazards are common, where they are
found, and how they might be mitigated. This booklet will provide homeowners and
prospective homeowners with the information and additional resources needed to make
an informed decision about environmental hazards that may be present on a property.
Because of the contribution of household hazardous wastes to the problem of
hazardous waste disposal, a section on proper storage and disposal of household
hazardous products is included. In discussing health impacts of hazardous substances,
lifetime exposure to low levels is emphasized because the resident is more likely to
encounter this type of exposure than exposure to high levels of hazards for a short time.
Sources of additional information and a list of government agencies are provided for
further information.
Pursuant to AB 983, if this environmental hazards booklet is made available to
homeowners or prospective homeowners, real estate licensees and home sellers are
not required to provide additional information on such hazards. However, delivery of this
publication to homeowners or prospective homeowners does not relieve home sellers
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 3 of 48
January 2011
and real estate licensees of the responsibility to disclose the existence of environmental
hazards when such hazards are known to them.
The material is presented with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in
offering legal or other professional advice. If legal or other expert assistance is required,
the services of a skilled professional should be obtained.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 4 of 48
January 2011
What is Asbestos?
Asbestos is the name given to a number of naturally occurring fibrous silicate minerals
that have been mined for their useful properties such as thermal insulation, chemical
and thermal stability, and high tensile strength. The three common types of asbestos
are chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. Chrysotile, also known as white asbestos and a
member of the serpentine mineral group, is the most common. Asbestos can only be
identified under a microscope.
Where is asbestos found in the home?
Asbestos has been used in many products found in the home that provide insulation,
strength, and fire protection. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.
EPA) announced a phased ban of asbestos products to be completed by 1996.
However, in 1991, the U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals overturned and remanded the
asbestos ban and phase-out rule to EPA. Today, most asbestos products can still be
legally manufactured, although production of asbestos containing materials has
decreased dramatically since the late 1970s. The most common items in the home that
may contain asbestos are:
Vinyl flooring
Duct wrapping on heating and air conditioning systems
Insulation on hot water pipes and boilers
Some roofing shingles, and siding
Vermiculite attic insulation
Ceiling and wall insulation
Sheet rock taping compounds and some ceiling materials
Asbestos that has been sprayed on ceilings often has a spongy, “cottage cheese”
appearance with irregular soft surfaces. Asbestos troweled on walls has a textured, firm
appearance. Vermiculite attic insulation, found both in the attic between trusses and in-
between walls, also has the potential to contain asbestos. Vermiculite attic insulation is
a pebble-like, pour-in product and is usually light-brown or gold in color.
Manufacturers can provide information on the asbestos content of home products. A
certified asbestos consultant can be hired to test building material and determine
whether or not asbestos is present and to give advice about how to take care of it
safely. Current asbestos bulk testing methods may be insufficient to determine the
presence of asbestos in vermiculite attic insulation. For more information on vermiculite,
see U.S. EPA’s Protect Your Family from Asbestos-Contaminated Vermiculite at
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 5 of 48
January 2011
How is asbestos harmful?
Intact or sealed (painted or taped over) asbestos is not harmful unless it becomes
damaged and friable. Friable means the material can be easily crushed or pulverized to
a powder by hand pressure. Friable materials have a higher potential to release fibers.
Asbestos fibers that are released into the air and inhaled can accumulate in the lungs
and pose a health risk. This risk can be divided into two general categories: risk of
asbestosis (lung scarring); and increased risk of cancer.
The U.S. EPA classifies asbestos as a known human carcinogen. If asbestos fibers are
inhaled, the chance of contracting lung cancer or mesothelioma (cancer of the lining of
the chest or abdomen) increases. The more asbestos is inhaled, the greater risk of
developing cancer. Smokers who are exposed to high levels of asbestos have a much
greater risk of developing lung cancer than nonsmokers exposed to the same level.
Symptoms of cancer may not develop until 10-40 years after the first exposure to
Is there a safe level of asbestos?
There is no safe level of asbestos exposure. The more asbestos fibers you inhale, the
greater your risk of developing lung cancer and asbestos-related disease. Exposure to
asbestos should always be avoided.
How can asbestos content in materials be determined?
When you suspect asbestos is present in building materials, it is important to have the
materials tested by a qualified laboratory. Visual inspection alone is not enough to
identify the presence of asbestos. It is recommended that you contact a certified
asbestos consultant to take samples of potential asbestos containing materials and
have them tested by a qualified laboratory. A list of asbestos consultants who have
been certified by the California Department of Industrial Relations, Division of
Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) for evaluating building materials and
recommending a course of action may be obtained on the Internet at or by calling 510-286-7362 .
How should the homeowner repair or remove asbestos?
Repair or removal of asbestos by the homeowner may be unwise if the damage is
severe, since it may result in unnecessary exposure to airborne fibers. In cases where
planned remodeling projects are expected to damage asbestos-containing materials, it
is wise to hire a qualified contractor to remove the material. The homeowner should use
the following guidelines in choosing a qualified contractor:
Check to see if the contractor is licensed by the California Contractors State
License Board and registered with the California Department of Industrial
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 6 of 48
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Relations, Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) for doing
asbestos work.
Be aware that some contractors may remove material incorrectly and still charge
a substantial fee.
Require references from the contractor and check them to see if the contractor's
work is satisfactory.
Require the contractor to specify his safety procedures in writing.
The homeowner can expect to pay three times as much for a small removal job than a
large one as it is expensive for a contractor to set up all the necessary safety
equipment. You should consider hiring a certified asbestos consultant to review safety
procedures and oversee the performance of the contractor.
Does the law require asbestos mitigation?
Asbestos mitigation is at the discretion of the homeowner. Even if material contains
asbestos, the homeowner may choose to leave it alone or, if necessary, repair it. If the
home owner chooses to do his or her own repairs, the home owner must comply with
the law. The free Department of Toxic Substances Control fact sheet “Managing
Asbestos Waste” is available on the DTSC Web site at
What about naturally occurring asbestos that is found near the home?
Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) includes six regulated naturally occurring minerals
(actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysotile, crocidolite, and tremolite) and is commonly
found in California within serpentine and other ultramafic rocks and soils of the Coastal
Ranges, Klamath Mountains, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The California
Geological Survey has produced a map that identifies areas more likely to contain NOA
in California. The map may be found online at
Asbestos fibers may be released into the air as a result of activities which disturb NOA-
containing rock or soils. Development construction activities in areas that contain NOA
may release asbestos. Also, driving on roads or driveways surfaced with asbestos
containing gravel, such as serpentine, may release asbestos. The California Air
Resources Board (ARB) has established Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measures
(ATCMs) to regulate the surfacing of roads with asbestos-containing gravels and
construction and grading activities in areas potentially containing asbestos. For more
information about naturally occurring asbestos, go to
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For information on the identification and abatement of asbestos hazards in the home,
and other information about asbestos visit the U.S. EPA Asbestos Web site at .
For technical assistance and information about:
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA);
Regulations and programs administered under TSCA, including
asbestos, lead-based paint, and PCB’s; and
EPA’s 33/60 voluntary pollution prevention program;
Contact the Toxic Substances Control Act Assistance Information Service (T.A.I.S.),
Washington, D.C. at:
Telephone: (202) 554-1404
Fax: (202) 554-560
Indoor Air Quality Infosheet - Asbestos
This free publication is available from:
American Lung Association
Environmental Health Department
909 12th Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
Telephone: (800) LUNG-USA [(800) 586-4872]
The Inside Story - A Guide to Indoor Air Quality
Asbestos in Your Home
These free publications are available from:
U.S. EPA Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 37133
Washington, D.C. 20013-7133
Telephone: (800) 438-4318
FAX: (202) 484-1510
Asbestos in the Home and Workplace
This list is available on the Internet from:
California Department of Health Services
Indoor Air Quality Program
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 8 of 48
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List of Certified Asbestos Consultants
This list is available on the Internet or by mail for $8.00 from:
California Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA)
Asbestos Consultant Certification Unit
2211 Park Towne Circle, Suite 1
Sacramento, CA 95825
Telephone: (916) 574-2993
List of Asbestos Abatement Contractors
This list is available for $25.00 from:
California Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA)
Asbestos Contractor Registration Unit
455 Golden Gate Avenue, 10th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94102
Telephone: (415) 703-5190
What You Should Know Before You Hire a Contractor
This free publication is available from:
California Contractors State License Board
9835 Goethe Road
P.O. Box 26000
Sacramento, CA 95827
Telephone: (800) 321-2752 (To receive the publication, leave your name and address
on message phone.)
Note: Telephone numbers and prices were correct at the date of publication of this
booklet, but are subject to change.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 9 of 48
January 2011
What is carbon monoxide?
Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas. It is highly toxic to
humans and animals in higher quantities.
Because it is impossible to see, taste or smell, breathing CO can incapacitate or kill you
before you are aware it is present in your home. At lower concentrations, CO may
produce flu-like symptoms, including headache, dizziness, disorientation, nausea and
What are the sources of carbon monoxide in the home?
CO is the result of incomplete combustion of carbon fuels and is produced from both
man-made and natural sources. Typical sources of CO in the home are:
Unvented kerosene and gas space heaters
Gas water heaters
Improperly adjusted or maintained furnaces or boilers
Wood stoves and fireplaces
Gas stoves and ovens
Gasoline powered equipment, such as generators
Automobile exhaust
Tobacco smoke
How is carbon monoxide harmful?
Following inhalation, CO combines with hemoglobin in the blood producing
carboxyhemoglobin, which is ineffective in delivering oxygen to the body tissues.
Carbon monoxide binds to other molecules such as myoglobin and mitochondrial
cytochrome oxidase and may cause significant damage to the heart and central nervous
At low concentrations, CO exposure may result in fatigue in healthy individuals and
chest pain in people with heart disease. At higher concentrations, CO may result in
headache, nausea, dizziness, confusion, impaired vision, angina and reduced brain
function, depending upon the concentration in air and length of exposure. Exposure to
very high concentrations of CO can be fatal.
Breathing high levels of CO during pregnancy may result in miscarriage. Breathing
moderate levels of CO during pregnancy can result in slower than normal mental
development of your child. In animal studies, exposure to CO during pregnancy had
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 10 of 48
January 2011
effects on birth weight, the heart, the central nervous system and development. Children
with asthma may be more susceptible to respiratory effects following exposure to CO.
What levels of carbon monoxide are found in the home?
Typical levels in homes with no gas appliances range from 0.5 to 5 parts per million
(ppm). Levels measured near properly adjusted gas appliances were between 5 and 15
ppm, while levels near poorly adjusted appliances can be 30 ppm or higher.
Is there a safe level of carbon monoxide?
No standards for CO have been adopted for indoor air. The National Ambient Air Quality
Standards for outdoor air are 9 ppm for eight hours and 35 ppm for one hour. The State
of California Air Resources Board (ARB) air quality standards for CO are 9 ppm for eight
hours and 20 ppm for one hour. The State of California, Office of Environmental Health
Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) established an acute, one hour exposure level of 23,000
micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m
) or 20 ppm for CO. This exposure level was
based on heart toxicity.
Can carbon monoxide be detected and measured?
California Senate Bill 183 (SB 183) will require owners of single family homes that have
a fossil-fuel burning appliance, fireplace or attached garage to install a CO alarm(s) by
July 1, 2011. CO detectors trigger an alarm based on accumulation of CO over time or
continuous detection of CO.
What can be done to reduce exposure to carbon monoxide?
Always make sure that gas appliances are maintained and properly installed. Here are
some common tips to reduce potential CO levels in your home:
Make sure appliances that burn natural gas, kerosene or other fuels are properly
installed and vented.
Have all appliances maintained on a regular basis.
Always follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions for
installation of these devices.
Do not use portable gas heaters in enclosed indoor settings.
Do not let your car idle for long periods of time inside the garage.
Install and use an exhaust fan vented to the outside over gas stoves.
Make sure the flue is open when using your fireplace.
Use properly sized wood stoves certified to meet emission standards.
Most importantly, install carbon monoxide detectors throughout the home.
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Links to Additional Information on Carbon Monoxide:
U.S. EPA, An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), Basic Information on
Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution, Carbon Monoxide,
OEHHA, Impacts of Criteria Air Pollutants on the Respiratory Health of Children
USFA, DHS, Exposing an Invisible Killer: The Dangers of Carbon Monoxide
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Fact Sheet
Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry, CDC,ToxFAQs for Carbon
American Lung Association, Carbon Monoxide Indoors
US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), Carbon Monoxide Questions
and Answers
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 12 of 48
January 2011
What is formaldehyde?
Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent gas that is soluble in water and most organic
solvents. It is used as a raw material in the manufacture of building materials, many
consumer products, and some fabrics. Formaldehyde is found in the outdoor air at an
average concentration of approximately 3 parts per billion (ppb) or 3.7 micrograms per
cubic meter of air (µg/m
How is formaldehyde harmful?
The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has concluded that
exposures to formaldehyde can cause cancer in humans. In 2004, the International
Agency for Cancer Research upgraded formaldehyde to a Group I (known human)
carcinogen, based on human epidemiology studies of nasopharyngeal cancer.
Exposure to airborne formaldehyde may also cause other illnesses, such as irritation to
the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract; coughing; sore or burning throat; nausea; and
headaches. Formaldehyde may also worsen asthma or allergy symptoms in those with
such pre-existing sensitivities. Reducing exposures to formaldehyde will reduce these
health risks.
What levels of formaldehyde are found in the home?
The average formaldehyde concentration inside California homes is about 14 ppb (17
) in conventional homes and 37 ppb (45 µg/m
)in manufactured homes.
Formaldehyde concentrations have been measured at levels greater than 200 ppb (246
) in both manufactured and new conventional homes. However, concentrations
inside manufactured homes are generally higher than those in conventional homes due
to the increased use of composite wood products.
What are the sources of formaldehyde in the home?
Indoor sources are the major cause of exposures to formaldehyde because people
spend most of their time indoors, and there are many indoor sources of formaldehyde
that typically produce concentrations several times higher than outdoor levels.
Composite wood products are probably the greatest source of formaldehyde in the
home. Other sources include other building materials such as some paints, coatings,
and wallpaper; some consumer products such as fingernail products; permanent
pressed fabric such as clothing and draperies; and combustion sources such as
cigarettes and gas appliances.
What are composite wood products?
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January 2011
Plywood, particleboard, and oriented strandboard are composite wood products that are
bound together with formaldehyde-containing resins. The two most commonly used
resins are urea-formaldehyde and phenol-formaldehyde. Composite wood products
used within the home include:
Particleboard - used for cabinetry, subflooring, shelving, and furniture Hardwood
plywood - used in paneling, furniture, and as a wall covering
Medium density fiberboard - used in cabinets, doors, table tops, furniture, and
Oriented strandboard and softwood plywood - used for exterior use and subflooring,
which are manufactured using low-emitting phenol-formaldehyde resins
Why is formaldehyde emitted from these products?
In the production of the resins, not all formaldehyde is bound tightly. Unbound or free
formaldehyde can be released later as a gas from composite wood products.
Formaldehyde emissions are highest from products made with urea-formaldehyde
resins and new products. Emissions ordinarily decrease to low levels over time, as the
product ages and off-gasses. If properly manufactured, composite wood products that
incorporate phenol-formaldehyde resins do not release significant amounts of
Is urea-formaldehyde foam a significant source of formaldehyde in homes?
Urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) was installed in the wall cavities of some
homes during the 1970s and has been used in the manufacture of mobile homes. The
Consumer Product Safety Commission banned the use of UFFI in homes and schools
in 1982. Although a Federal Court subsequently removed this ban for procedural
reasons, UFFI is not currently being installed in homes in California because it does not
meet the insulation standards of the California Energy Commission. In homes where
UFFI was installed prior to 1982, formaldehyde concentrations have declined with time
to levels that are generally comparable to those in homes without UFFI.
How can formaldehyde be detected and measured?
Levels of formaldehyde can be measured by chemical analysis of air samples collected
indoors. In general, ambient air monitoring of formaldehyde is done on a 24-hour or
several day basis using standard analytical techniques and methods established by
federal and state agencies. A useful indicator of the presence of indoor formaldehyde is
knowledge of the formaldehyde content or emissions of products. This information can
usually be obtained from the manufacturer. In general, you do not need to measure
formaldehyde levels if there are few or no materials in the building known to emit high
levels of formaldehyde, because levels would then be expected to approach the lower
outdoor levels. However, if known or suspected sources are extensively present and
cannot be readily removed, it is wise to measure the levels of formaldehyde, to assure
that levels are no greater than 7 ppb (9 µg/m
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 14 of 48
January 2011
Is there a safe level of formaldehyde?
Most people experience eye and throat irritation when exposed to formaldehyde at
levels above 100 ppb (123 µg/m
). Because people differ in their sensitivity to toxic
effects, it is difficult to precisely define a concentration of formaldehyde that would be
harmless to all people under all circumstances.
Levels in the outdoor air may be considered as the lowest levels that can practicably be
achieved in the home. OEHHA has established acute (55 ug/m3, or 44 ppb, one-hour
average) and chronic (9 ug/m
, or 7 ppb, long-term average) exposure levels to identify
the levels at which sensitive individuals might experience adverse non-cancer health
effects. For indoor environments, OEHHA has also identified 7 ppb as the eight hour
average level that is protective against non-cancer effects for sensitive individuals.
Because formaldehyde may cause cancer, and there is no known level that is
absolutely risk free, the California Air Resources Board (ARB) recommends that indoor
formaldehyde levels be reduced as much as possible.
What can be done to reduce indoor formaldehyde levels?
Immediate measures include opening windows to increase ventilation and reducing the
number of new composite wood products in a home. Where possible, replace
composite wood products such as bookcases with products made from solid wood or
non-wood materials. Formaldehyde emissions increase with increasing humidity and
temperature. Therefore, reducing the temperature and humidity in the home will reduce
formaldehyde levels.
Where the source of formaldehyde is wood paneling or extensive cabinetry, these
measures may not be adequate. In those cases, removal of the paneling or coating, or
replacement of cabinets may be necessary. Local trade organizations and builders’
associations may be helpful in finding a contractor to do this work. You can find
additional suggestions for reducing indoor formaldehyde levels in the publications listed
Formaldehyde in the Home-Indoor Air Quality Guideline #1, updated August 2004,
OEHHA, Appendix D. Individual Acute, 8-Hour, and Chronic Reference Exposure
Level Summaries, December 2008,
Determination of Formaldehyde and Toluene Diisocyanate Emissions from Indoor
Residential Sources, , click on Toxic Air
Contaminants, scroll down.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 15 of 48
January 2011
Final Report on the Identification of Formaldehyde as a Toxic Air Contaminant -
These free publications are available from:
California Air Resources Board, Research Division, Indoor Exposure Assessment
P.O. Box 2815
Sacramento, CA 95812
Telephone: (916) 322-8282 (For first two publications listed)
Telephone: (916) 322-7072 (For third publication listed)
The Inside Story - A Guide to Indoor Air Quality
An Update on Formaldehyde
These free publications are available from:
Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 37133
Washington, D.C. 20013-7133
Telephone: (800) 438-4318
FAX: (202) 484-1510
A Consumers Guide to Manufactured Housing
Manufactured Housing for Families
These free publications are available from:
California Department of Housing and Community Development
Division of Administration
P.O. Box 31
Sacramento, CA 95812-0031
Telephone: (916) 445-3338
Note: Telephone numbers and prices were correct at the date of publication of this
booklet, but are subject to change.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 16 of 48
January 2011
What is hazardous waste?
Hazardous waste is anything left over from a manufacturing process, chemical
laboratory, or a commercial product that is dangerous and could hurt people, animals,
or the environment. Many industries, such as oil and gas, petrochemical, electronics,
dry cleaners, and print shops, generate hazardous waste.
When hazardous waste is properly managed it is shipped to special facilities for
treatment, storage, disposal, or recycling. Hazardous waste that is not properly
managed may escape into the environment and contaminate the soil, surface and
ground water, or pollute the air. Some causes of hazardous waste releases are leaking
underground storage tanks, poorly contained landfills or ponds, hazardous waste spills,
or illegal dumping directly on land or water.
What is California doing to locate and clean up hazardous waste sites?
The U.S. EPA has targeted about 1,200 sites nationwide for federal cleanup under the
federal Superfund Program. Almost 100 of those sites are in California. California is
overseeing the cleanup of hundreds of other sites under a state Superfund administered
by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC). DTSC works jointly
with U.S. EPA and other state agencies, such as the California Regional Water Quality
Control Boards and local health departments, to manage hazardous waste problems.
The primary purpose of site cleanup and mitigation activities at hazardous waste sites is
to reduce or eliminate the risks the sites pose to public health or the environment.
How can the prospective homeowner determine if a home is affected by a
hazardous waste site?
State law requires certain written disclosures to be made to prospective homeowners.
The seller is required to disclose whether he or she is aware that the property has any
environmental hazards such as asbestos, formaldehyde, radon, lead-based paint, fuel
or chemical storage tanks, or contaminated soil or water. You can find additional
information on real estate disclosure “Disclosures in Real Property Transactions”
available from the California Department of Real Estate. See Appendix A in this
document for information on how to contact them.
A prospective homeowner may also get information about hazardous waste sites near a
home by consulting the “Hazardous Waste and Substances Sites List” which is
maintained by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The list is a
comprehensive inventory of hazardous waste sites in California, including contaminated
wells, leaking underground storage tanks, and sanitary landfills from which there is a
known migration of hazardous waste. It also lists active federal and state hazardous
waste sites scheduled for cleanup as well as potential hazardous waste sites.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 17 of 48
January 2011
Information on how you can get a copy of this list is at the end of this chapter. The
addresses of federal and state agencies that manage hazardous waste programs are
listed in Appendix A.
A homeowner or prospective homeowner may choose to hire a registered
environmental assessor to investigate a known or suspected environmental hazard at a
property. To obtain a list of registered environmental assessors, contact the Registered
Environmental Assessor Program at:
P.O. Box 806
Sacramento, CA 95812-0806
Telephone: (916) 324-6881
FAX (916) 324-1379
Internet Resources:
You can learn more about the role of the Department of Toxic Substances Control in
protecting Californians from hazardous waste by visiting its Web site at .
Department of Toxic Substances Control Envirostor Database can be accessed at
The Federal database of potentially contaminated sites is available at
The Hazardous Waste and Substances Sites List (Cortese List) on the locations of
hazardous materials release sites is at .
The List of Leaking Underground Storage Tanks is available on the Web at
For information on the federal Superfund program and the National Priorities List (NPL),
contact the U.S. EPA RCRA, Superfund, EPCRA hotline at:
Telephone: (800) 424-9346
Disclosures in Real Property Transactions
This publication is available for $2.00 plus tax from:
California Department of Real Estate Book Orders
P.O. Box 187006
Sacramento, CA 95818-7006 (Mail orders only; a self-addressed envelope is required.)
List of Registered Environmental Assessors
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 18 of 48
January 2011
This list is free if you are hiring a registered environmental assessor. If you wish to use it
as a mailing list, it is available on CD for $6.25 and as a hard-copy printout for $35.00.
It’s also available free on our Web site at:
Department of Toxic Substances Control
Registered Environmental Assessor Program
P.O. Box 806
Sacramento, CA 95812-0806
Telephone: (916) 324-6881
The Toxics Directory: References and Resources on the Health Effects of Toxic
This publication is available for $9.90 from:
California Department of General Services
Documents and Publications
P.O. Box l015
North Highlands, CA 95660
(Send written request with your name and street address. Make your check out to
Procurement Publications.)
Ensuring Safe Drinking Water (600M91012)
This free publication is available from:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Public Information Center
1200 Pennsylvania Ave, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
Telephone: (800) 490-9198
Consumer’s Guide to California Drinking Water
This publication is available for $4.00 (plus 5% shipping charge and tax) from:
Local Government Commission
1414 K Street, Suite #600
Sacramento, CA 95814
Telephone: (916) 448-1198 x307
Is Your Drinking Water Safe? (PB94-203387)
This publication is available for $19.50 plus $4.00 shipping from:
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
Telephone: (800) 553-6847
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 19 of 48
January 2011
Note: Telephone numbers and prices were correct at the date of publication of this
booklet, but are subject to change.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 20 of 48
January 2011
What is household hazardous waste?
Although hazardous waste is usually associated with industrial or manufacturing
processes, each year Californians discard tons of hazardous wastes in trash cans or
down the drain. To determine whether a product is hazardous, ask yourself these
Is it poisonous when swallowed, touched, or inhaled?
Does it catch fire easily?
Is it corrosive? Can it eat through certain containers?
Is it reactive? Could it explode if it is improperly stored, spilled, or mixed with
other products?
If you answer yes to any these questions, then the product is hazardous. Information
about whether a product is hazardous usually can be found on the container label. The
words “caustic,” “flammable,” “toxic,” and “ignitable” mean that the product is hazardous.
Some products are hazardous on their own, but can become even more dangerous
when they are mixed with other household products. For example, most people know
that bleach is poisonous, but when it is mixed with ammonia-based cleaners it releases
chlorine and hydrazine gases, both of which are extremely poisonous.
Some other hazardous household products are:
Cleaning products containing ammonia
Chlorine bleach and cleaning products containing it
Drain cleaners
Carpet cleaning products
Oven cleaners
Metal polishes
Garden supplies such as weed and insect killers, rat poison, and fertilizer
Charcoal lighter fluid, and kerosene
Automotive supplies such as antifreeze, motor oil, gasoline, batteries and brake
Paint, varnish, paint removers, glues, and waxes
Electronic products such as cathode ray tubes, televisions, computers, cell
Universal wastes such as fluorescent lights, small batteries, and products
containing mercury
How should hazardous household products be stored?
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 21 of 48
January 2011
Hazardous products should be stored in a cool, dry, secure location. They should be
stored in locked cupboards, locked drawers, or on a high shelf out of the reach of
children and pets. To prevent hazardous products from spilling during an earthquake,
shelves should be firmly secured to the wall and have a restraining bar along the side.
The following guidelines will help you properly store household hazardous products:
Store poisonous products apart from other products.
Sort products into hazardous waste categories of poisonous, flammable,
corrosive, and reactive and store them separately. For example, flammable
products such as charcoal lighter and waste oil should be stored apart from
corrosive products such as drain cleaner and acid batteries. It is important to
store reactive products in a separate location.
Store bleach and ammonia-based cleaners in separate cupboards, so that if
there is a spill the products won’t get mixed and release poisonous gas.
Store products in their original containers.
Make sure labels can be read and won’t come off the container.
Tightly seal containers and check them often to make sure they are not breaking
down. If you notice a container is rusting or leaking, put it inside a larger
container and label it clearly.
What is the best way to dispose of household hazardous waste?
The best way to dispose of household hazardous waste is to take it to a community
household hazardous waste collection center in your area.
You should never pour unused hazardous household products down the drain. That is
illegal in California. It is also illegal to pour used oil and paints on land, down drains,
including the storm drains, or to burn them. Waste motor oil, oil filters, antifreeze, and
used batteries can be recycled. You should take them to a recycling center or a
household hazardous waste collection center. For information about recycling specific
products or about household hazardous waste collection programs in your community,
call 1-800-CLEANUP or visit the
Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) Web site at You can get additional information on household
hazardous waste at .
For information on household hazardous waste and used oil collection and recycling
centers, information on buying recycled products, the 3 R’s - Reduce, Reuse and
Recycle, and other environmental tips and events, contact the California Environmental
Hotline at:
Telephone: 1-800-CLEANUP (1-800-253-2687)
Web Site:
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 22 of 48
January 2011
For information on recycling and collection centers and referrals for county and city
agencies, call the California Integrated Waste Management Board at:
Telephone: (800) 553-2962
To report hazardous waste violations, call the California Department of Toxic
Substances Control Waste Alert hotline at:
Telephone: (800)-69TOXIC [(800) 698-6942]
For general information on hazardous wastes, call the California Department of Toxic
Substances Control at:
Telephone: (800) 61TOXIC [(800) 618-6942]
Household Products Management Wheel
This product is available for $4.95 from:
Environmental Hazards Management
Institute 10 New Market Road
P.O. Box 932
Durham, NH 03824
Telephone: (603) 868-1496
FAX: (603) 868-1547
Note: Telephone numbers and prices were correct at the date of publication of this
booklet, but are subject to change.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 23 of 48
January 2011
How is lead harmful?
Lead is a common environmental toxin that has been used extensively in consumer
products such as paint and gasoline. Much of that lead remains in the California
environment where people may be exposed to it. Children under the age of six years
are particularly at risk. They typically are exposed to lead through the normal hand-to
mouth behavior that occurs as they explore their environment. Crawling or playing on
the floor, and putting their fingers, toys, and other items in their mouths can expose a
child to lead. Lead poisoning, which is often unrecognized, can result in health effects
that are often irreversible, including brain damage, mental retardation, convulsions, and
even death. If lead poisoning goes undetected, it may result in behavior problems,
reduced intelligence, anemia, and serious liver or kidney damage.
Lead is also harmful to adults. Lead poisoning can cause reproductive problems in both
men and women, high blood pressure, kidney disease, digestive problems, nerve
disorders, memory and concentration problems, and muscle and joint pain. Adult lead
poisoning is most often the result of occupational exposure, or exposure following
unsafe home renovation. If a pregnant woman is lead poisoned, the lead can pass into
her baby’s blood and poison the baby.
How can I find out if my family has lead poisoning?
The most important step you can take to protect your children is to prevent them from
being exposed to lead. Most lead poisoning does not cause acute symptoms, so the
only way to know if a person is lead poisoned is by testing the level of lead in his or her
There are many ways a child can be exposed to lead. The law assumes that, at
minimum, children are at risk if they are on publicly funded programs for low-income
children or if they live in, or spend a lot of time in, a place built before 1978 that has
peeling or chipped paint, or that has been recently renovated. These children must be
tested for lead at age one and two years. Children below the age of six years, who were
not tested at ages one or two, should receive make-up testing as soon as possible. If
you have a job or a hobby where you may be exposed to lead, you should be tested
regularly. If you are pregnant, ask your doctor about a lead test.
A physician can order this simple test. Some doctors and healthcare centers can
perform the test in their offices. Under California law, it must be covered by health
insurance plans. Children from families with modest incomes can be tested at no cost
through the Child Health and Disability Prevention Program (CHDP). The test is a
required part of well-child checkups. For more information on CHDP and to locate an
office in your area visit their Web site at
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 24 of 48
January 2011
Because lead poisoning is the result of contact with lead, the primary treatment is to
identify the source of lead, and remove or isolate it. Further medical management may
be necessary, depending on factors such as the severity and duration of exposure.
Adults and children who become lead poisoned will need regular testing to monitor
levels of lead in the body.
Where is lead found in the home?
Many houses and apartments built before 1978 have paint that contains lead. In 1978,
the Consumer Product Safety Commission banned paint containing high levels of lead
for residential use. If your home or apartment was built before 1978, you should assume
it has lead paint.
Lead-based paint that is peeling, chipping, chalking, or cracking is a hazard and needs
immediate attention. Lead-based paint may also pose a hazard on surfaces children
can chew or in areas with heavy wear. These areas include windows, windowsills, doors
and doorframes, stairs, railings, banisters, porches, and fences. When painted surfaces
bump or rub together, they generate lead dust. Likewise, dry-scraping, sanding, or
heating lead paint during repainting or remodeling also creates large amounts of lead
dust. This dust can poison your family.
Soil may be contaminated with lead from leaded gasoline emissions and from
deteriorating exterior paint. Lead in soil can be a hazard to children who play in the bare
soil. It can also contaminate the home and floor dust when people track soil into the
house on their shoes.
Other Sources: Lead can be found in jobs such as battery repair or recycling, radiator
repair, painting or remodeling, and lead smelting. Lead from the workplace poses a
hazard for workers’ families. Workers can bring lead into their homes on their work
clothes, shoes, and bodies without knowing it. Some hobbies also use lead. These
include ceramics, stained glass, fishing weights, and bullet casting or firing. Lead can
leach into food cooked, stored, or served in some imported dishes or handmade pottery.
Some traditional remedies
such as Azarcon, Greta, Pay-loo-ah, Surma, Kohl, and Kandu contain large amounts of
lead and present a serious danger. Imported candy, especially chili or tamarind candy
or its packaging, is frequently lead contaminated. Lead has been found in painted toys
and inexpensive costume jewelry, particularly imported items. Older water systems may
have pipes containing lead or pipes with lead solder.
How can I check my home for lead hazards?
To inspect your home for lead hazards, hire an individual who has been certified by the
California Department of Public Health (CDPH). CDPH certification is now required for
all those doing lead hazard evaluations, lead abatement plan preparation, lead
abatement work and lead clearance inspections for residential and public buildings in
California (Title 17, CCR § 35001-35050 and § 36000-36100)
. A CDPH-certified
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 25 of 48
January 2011
inspector/assessor can determine the lead content of painted surfaces in your home
and identify sources of lead exposure such as peeling paint, lead contaminated soil, or
lead-contaminated dust. The assessment should outline the actions to take to address
these hazards.
A CDPH-certified inspector/assessor may use a variety of methods to assess lead
hazards in your home. These include visual inspection of paint condition; laboratory
tests of paint, dust and soil samples; and a portable
x-ray fluorescence lead testing (XRF) machine.
You may have seen home lead test kits in your local hardware store. Recent studies
suggest, however, that they are not accurate for testing paint, soil, or dust. They may be
used, however, to test pottery and ceramics for the presence of lead.
How can I reduce lead hazards safely?
If your house has lead hazards, you can take action to reduce your family’s risk. Most
importantly, if you have young children, be sure they receive a blood lead test. This is
particularly critical if you live in a unit that has been recently renovated or have
remodeled your home.
Second, keep your home as clean and free of dust and deteriorated paint chips as
possible. Clean floors, window frames, windowsills, and other horizontal surfaces
weekly. Use a mop, sponge, or disposable cloths with a solution of water and an all-
purpose cleaner. Rinse out mops and sponges thoroughly after use. Use doormats or
remove shoes before entering your home to avoid tracking in lead from bare soil. Have
children play in grassy or landscaped areas instead of bare soil.
Wash children’s hands often, especially before meals and bedtime. Keep play areas
clean. Wash bottles, pacifiers, toys, and stuffed animals regularly. Feed your children
nutritious meals that include foods high in iron and calcium. Give children regular meals
and snacks. Children with full stomachs and nutritious diets tend to absorb less lead.
How can I significantly reduce lead hazards?
In addition to regular cleaning and good nutrition, you can temporarily reduce lead
hazards by repairing damaged painted surfaces and planting grass or using
landscaping materials to cover soil with high lead levels. These actions are not
permanent solutions and need ongoing attention.
To permanently remove lead hazards, you should hire a lead abatement contractor.
Abatement methods include removing, sealing, or enclosing lead-based paint with
special materials. Simply painting over lead-based paint with regular paint is not a
permanent solution. Hire an individual who has been certified by the CDPH as a
Supervisor. CDPH-certified Supervisors and Workers have the proper training to do this
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 26 of 48
January 2011
work safely. They have the proper equipment to clean up thoroughly. They will also
follow strict safety rules set by the state and federal governments.
What precautions should I take when remodeling my home?
Before you begin any remodeling or renovations that will disturb painted surfaces, (such
as scraping or sanding paint, or tearing out walls) test the area for lead-based paint. To
fully protect your family from unsafe renovation hazards, hire a CDPH-certified
Never use a dry scraper, belt-sander, propane torch, or heat gun to remove lead-based
paint. These actions create large amounts of poisonous lead dust and fumes. This lead
dust can remain in your home long after the work is done, and can make your family
very sick. It is important to move your family (especially children and pregnant women)
out of the home until the work is completed and the area has been properly cleaned.
You can find out about other safety measures by calling (800) 424-LEAD [(800) 424-
5323]. Ask for the brochure “Reducing Lead Hazards when Remodeling Your Home.”
This brochure explains what to do before, during, and after renovations.
What is the source of lead in water?
The source of lead in water is most likely to be lead in water pipes, lead solder used on
copper pipes, and some brass plumbing fixtures. Lead pipes are generally found only in
homes built before 1930. The use of lead-based solder in plumbing applications in
homes and buildings was banned in 1988. However, many homes built prior to 1988
may contain plumbing systems that use lead solder. The levels of lead in water from
these homes are likely to be highest during the first five years after construction. After
five years there can be sufficient mineral deposit, except where the water is soft, to form
a coating inside the pipe; this coating prevents the lead from dissolving. However,
recently, new chemical agents being used in some water systems have been
associated with increased corrosion and have resulted in increased levels of lead in
How can lead levels in water be determined?
If you suspect lead contamination in drinking water, you may submit water samples to a
laboratory certified by the CDPH. For a list of certified laboratories, see Publications at
the end of this chapter. Consult with the laboratory on the proper procedures for sample
taking. Information on the possibility of lead contamination in your municipal water
supply may be obtained from the water utility serving your area.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 27 of 48
January 2011
How can levels of lead in water be reduced?
Lead levels in water can be reduced by removing lead piping or lead solder, by installing
a home treatment system certified by the CDPH, or regularly flushing each tap before
consuming the water. Another alternative for homeowners is to purchase bottled water.
A detailed discussion of home treatment systems is presented in, “Consumers Guide to
California Drinking Water” (see Publications).
Where there are elevated lead levels in water, homeowners who choose not to install a
treatment system, or use bottled drinking water, should flush each tap before the water
is consumed. Water which has been standing in the water pipes for more than six hours
should be flushed from the tap until the temperature changes, and then, for about 15
seconds more. Because lead is more soluble in hot water, the homeowner should not
drink or prepare food using hot water from the tap. The flushed water should be saved
and used for other purposes, such as washing clothes or watering plants.
What are my responsibilities if I am selling, renting, or remodeling a home
built before 1978?
If you are planning to buy, rent, or renovate a home built before 1978, federal law
requires sellers, landlords, and remodelers to disclose certain information prior to
finalizing contracts.
Landlords must:
Disclose known information on lead-based paint hazards.
Give you a lead hazard pamphlet before leases take effect. Leases must also
include a federal form about lead-based paint.
Sellers must:
Disclose known information on lead-based paint hazards.
Give you a lead hazard pamphlet before selling a house. Sales contracts must
also include a federal form about lead-based paint. Buyers have up to 10 days to
check for lead hazards.
Renovators must:
Give you a lead hazard pamphlet before starting to work.
If you want more information on these requirements, call the National Lead Information
Clearinghouse at (800)
424-LEAD [(800) 424-5323].
For more information on lead in drinking water and information on federal regulations
about lead in drinking water, contact the U.S. EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline in
Washington, D.C. at:
Telephone: (800) 426-4791
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 28 of 48
January 2011
For information on how to protect children from lead poisoning, contact The National
Lead Information Center at:
Telephone: (800) Lead-FYI [(800) 532-3394]
For other information on lead hazards, call The National Lead Information Center
Clearinghouse at:
Telephone: (800) 424-LEAD [(800) 424-5323]
To request information on lead in consumer products, or to report an unsafe consumer
product or a product-related injury, contact the Consumer Product Safety Commission
Telephone: (800) 638-2772
To request local lists of CDPH-certified inspectors or abatement workers, contact the
Lead-related Construction Hotline at:
Telephone: (800) 597-LEAD [(800) 597-5323] or visit the CDPH Web site at
To obtain additional information on lead poisoning, or a list of local county lead
programs, contact the CDPH Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch at:
Telephone: (510) 620-5600 or visit the CDPH Web site at
List of Certified Laboratories to Perform Hazardous Waste Analysis
This free list is available from:
California Department of Health Services
Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program
850 Marina Bay Parkway, Ste. G365/EHL
Richmond, CA 94804
Telephone: (510) 620-2800
Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in
This publication is available for $45.00 from:
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Information Services, HUD User
P.O. Box 6091
Rockville, MD 20849
Telephone: (800) 245-2691
Lead in your Drinking Water
This publication is available from:
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 29 of 48
January 2011
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Public Information Center
1200 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
Telephone: (202) 272-0167
The Inside Story - A Guide to Indoor Air Quality
This free publication is available from:
Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 37133
Washington, D.C. 20013-7133
Telephone: (800) 438-4318
Consumers Guide to California Drinking Water
This publication is available for $4.00 (plus 5 percent shipping charge, and tax) from:
Local Government Commission
1414 K Street, Suite #250
Sacramento, CA 95814
Telephone: (916) 448-1198 x 307
Lead Poisoning Prevention Wheel
This publication is available for $3.95 from:
Environmental Hazards Management Institute
10 New Market Road
P.O. Box 932
Durham, NH 03824
Telephone: (603) 868-1496
Note: Telephone numbers and prices were correct at the date of publication of this
booklet, but are subject to change.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 30 of 48
January 2011
What are molds?
Molds are simple, microscopic organisms present virtually everywhere, indoors and
outdoors. Molds, along with mushrooms and yeasts, are fungi and are needed to break
down dead material and recycle nutrients in the environment.
For molds to grow and reproduce, they need only a food source – any organic material,
such as leaves, wood, paper, or dirt – and moisture. Because molds grow by digesting
organic material, they gradually destroy whatever they grow on. Sometimes, new molds
grow on old mold colonies. Mold growth on surfaces can often be seen in the form of
discoloration, frequently green, gray, brown, or black but also white and other colors.
Molds release countless tiny, lightweight spores, which travel easily through the air.
How am I exposed to indoor molds?
Everyone is exposed to some mold on a daily basis without evident harm. There are
usually mold spores in the air inside homes. Most indoor mold spores come from
outdoors by blowing through open windows or being tracked into homes as dust on
shoes. Mold spores primarily cause health problems when they are present in large
numbers and people inhale high concentrations of spores in air This can occur when
there is active mold growth in a home, office, or school where people live or work.
People can also be exposed to mold by touching moldy materials and by eating
contaminated foods. Molds will grow and multiply whenever conditions are right, that is
when sufficient moisture is available and organic material is present. The most
important factor allowing mold to grow is dampness or moisture accumulation in the
home. The following are common sources of indoor moisture that may lead to mold
Leaky roofs
Sprinkler spray hitting the house
Plumbing leaks
Overflow from sinks, showers, bathtubs, or sewers
Damp basement or crawl space
Steam from bathing, doing laundry, or cooking
Humidifier use
Wet clothes drying indoors or clothes dryers exhausting hot, humid air indoors
Warping floors and discoloration of walls and ceilings can be indications of moisture
problems. Condensation on windows or walls is also an important indication, but it can
sometimes be caused by an indoor combustion problem. Have fuel-burning appliances
routinely inspected by your local utility or a professional heating contractor.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 31 of 48
January 2011
Should I be concerned about mold in my home?
Yes, if indoor mold growth is extensive, it can cause very high and persistent airborne
spore exposures. Persons exposed to high spore levels can become sensitized and
develop allergies to the mold or other health problems. Mold growth can also damage
your furnishings, such as carpets, sofas, and cabinets. Clothes and shoes in damp
closets can become soiled. In time, unchecked mold growth can cause serious damage
to the structure of your home.
What symptoms are commonly seen with mold exposure?
Exposure to large amounts of mold can cause health effects through inflammation,
allergic response, or, rarely, infection. Allergic reactions, often referred to as hay fever,
are the most common health problems reported following mold exposure. Typical
symptoms that mold-exposed persons report, alone or in combination, include:
Breathing problems, such as wheezing, difficulty breathing, and shortness of
Nose or sinus congestion (stuffy feeling, sinus headache)
Eye irritation (burning, watery, or reddened eyes)
Dry, hacking cough
Nose or throat irritation (runny nose, sneezing, sore throat)
Skin rashes or red, itchy skin
Headaches, memory problems, mood swings, nosebleeds, body aches and pains, and
fevers are occasionally reported in mold cases, but their cause is not understood.
How much mold can make me sick?
For some people, encountering even a relatively small number of mold spores can
trigger an asthma attack or lead to other health problems. For other persons, symptoms
may occur only when exposure levels are much higher. Nonetheless, indoor mold
growth is unsanitary and undesirable. Basically, if you can see or smell mold inside your
home, take steps to identify and eliminate the excess moisture and to cleanup and
remove the mold.
Are some molds more hazardous than others?
Allergic persons have different levels of sensitivity to molds, both as to the amount and
the types that cause them to feel ill. In addition to being able to cause allergies, certain
types of molds, such as Stachybotrys chartarum, may produce compounds that have
toxic properties, which are called mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are not always produced, and
whether a mold produces mycotoxins while growing in a building depends on what the
mold is growing on as well as environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity,
and other unknown factors. When mycotoxins are present, they occur in both living and
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 32 of 48
January 2011
dead mold spores and may be present in materials into which mold has grown. While
Stachybotrys chartarum and some other types of molds are growing, a wet slime layer
covers the spores, preventing them from becoming airborne. However, when the mold
dies and dries up, air currents or physical handling can cause spores to become
At present there is no readily available, inexpensive test to determine if a mold growing
in a building is producing toxins. A limited number of specialized laboratories can test
for mycotoxins in dust or building materials such as gypsum wallboard. These tests are
very expensive and the results are not helpful in determining if there is an additional
health risk from mycotoxins. There are also no blood or urine tests that a physician can
use to determine if an individual has been exposed to the spores of a toxin-producing
fungus or its mycotoxins.
How can I tell if I have mold in my house?
You may suspect that you have mold if you see discolored patches or cottony or
speckled growth on walls or furniture or if you smell an earthy or musty odor. You also
may suspect mold contamination if mold-allergic individuals experience some of the
symptoms listed earlier when in the house. Evidence of past or ongoing water damage
should also trigger a more thorough inspection. You may find mold growth underneath
water-damaged surfaces or behind walls, floors, or ceilings.
Should I test my home for mold?
The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) does not recommend testing as a
first step to determine if you have a mold problem. Reliable air testing for mold can be
expensive and requires experience and equipment that is not available to most people.
Owners of individual private homes and apartments generally will need to pay a
contractor to do such testing, because insurance companies and public health agencies
seldom provide this service. Mold inspection and cleanup is usually considered a
housekeeping task that is the responsibility of the homeowner or landlord, as are roof
and plumbing repairs, house cleaning, and yard maintenance.
Another reason the CDPH does not recommend testing for mold is that there are few
available standards for judging what is an acceptable amount of mold. In all locations,
there is some level of airborne mold outdoors. If air testing is carried out in a home, an
outdoor air sample also must be collected at the same time, to allow comparison of
indoor and outdoor spore types and numbers. Because some people are much more
sensitive to mold spores than are other people, mold testing is at best a general guide.
The simplest way to deal with a suspicion of mold contamination is, if you can see or
smell mold, you likely have a problem and should take the steps outlined below. Mold
growth is likely to recur unless the source of moisture that is allowing mold to grow is
removed and the contaminated area is cleaned.
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January 2011
Assessing the Size of a Mold Contamination Problem
There will be a significant difference in the cleaning recommendations for a small mold
problem – total area of visible mold growth is less than 10 square feet – and a large
mold problem – more than 100 square feet. In the case of a relatively small area, the
homeowner using personal protective equipment, such as a dust mask, safety goggles,
and household gloves, can handle the cleanup. However, for larger areas, choose an
experienced, professional contractor.
General Cleanup Procedures
Find and remove sources of moisture
Find and determine the extent and area of visible mold growth
Clean and dry moldy areas – do not allow dust from the moldy areas to get into
the rest of the home
Bag and dispose of all material that may have moldy residues, such as rags,
paper, leaves, and debris
Clean up should begin after the moisture source is fixed and excess water has been
removed. Wear gloves when handling moldy materials. Spores are more easily
released when moldy materials dry out, so it is advisable to remove moldy items
as soon as possible. Detailed cleanup procedures are available in the California
Department of Health Services Indoor Air Quality Section fact sheet entitled, “Mold in
My Home: What Do I Do?” It is available on the Internet at or by
calling (510) 620-2874.
How can I prevent indoor mold problems in my home?
Inspect your home regularly for signs and sources of indoor moisture and mold. Take
steps to eliminate sources of water as quickly as possible. If a leak or flooding occurs, it
is essential to act quickly so that wet materials can dry within 48 hours:
Stop the source of the leak or flooding.
Remove excess water with mops or wet vacuum.
Move wet items to a dry, well-ventilated area. Move rugs and pull up wet carpet
as soon as possible.
Open closet and cabinet doors and move furniture away from walls to increase
Run portable fans to increase air circulation. Do NOT use the home’s central
blower if flooding has occurred in it or in any of the ducts. Do NOT use fans if
mold may have already started to grow, or if it has been more than 48 hours
since the flooding.
Run dehumidifiers and window air conditioners to lower humidity.
Do NOT turn up the heat or use heaters in confined areas, as higher
temperatures may increase the rate of mold growth.
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January 2011
If water has soaked inside the walls, it may be necessary to open wall cavities by
removing the baseboards and drilling a hole through the bottom of the wet wall,
or by prying away wall paneling.
Mold in My Home: What Do I Do?
This free document is available from:
California Department of Public Health
Indoor Air Quality Section
850 Marina Bay Parkway, G365 EHLB
Richmond, CA 94804
Telephone: (510) 620-2874
Numerous mold-related articles
and documents are available from:
California Department of Public Health
Environmental Health Investigation Branch
850 Marina Bay Parkway
Building P, 3rd floor
Richmond, CA 94804-6403
Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings
A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home
These free documents are available from:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
IAQ Information Clearinghouse
Telephone: (800) 438-4318
Repairing Your Flooded Home
This free publication is available from:
American Red Cross
8928 Volunteer Lane, Sacramento, CA 95826
Telephone: (916) 368-3131
For local assistance, contact your county or city Department of Health, Housing, or
Environmental Health. Phone numbers for these agencies are located in the blue
government pages at the front of your local telephone directory.
Note: Telephone numbers and prices were correct at the date of publication of this
booklet, but are subject to change.
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January 2011
What is radon?
Radon is a naturally occurring colorless, tasteless, and odorless radioactive gas that
comes from the decay of uranium found in nearly all soils. It enters buildings from the
ground through cracks and openings in concrete slabs, crawl spaces, floor drains,
sumps, and the many tiny pores in hollow-wall concrete blocks. When the pressure
within a home is lowered, more radon can be drawn from the soil and enter the home.
Indoor air pressure may be lower during colder months when heated air rises from the
floor level to the ceiling or second story level in the house. Indoor pressure may also be
lowered in tightly sealed houses through use of exhaust fans such as those in many
kitchens and bathrooms.
Once inside a building, radon can become trapped. Unless the building is properly
ventilated to remove it, the gas can become a health hazard.
Where is radon found?
Radon is typically present in rocks containing uranium such as certain granites and
shales. The amount of radon that can enter soils and groundwater depends on the
concentrations of uranium in the underlying rock. Radon can also be found in the air at
very low concentrations.
If radon is present in tap water, it can be released when water is used indoors for
showering, washing dishes, or washing clothes. Radon is of most concern when water
is obtained directly from a well that draws water from a source exposed to uranium and
radium. Most of the radon in water obtained from a surface source, such as a reservoir
or well water stored in an open tank, has been released before it reaches the home.
Building materials are not a significant source of radon except where they incorporate
rocks rich in radium or uranium such as granite and shales.
Why is radon harmful?
Long-term exposure to elevated levels of radon can increase your risk of getting lung
cancer. Tobacco smokers are at an even greater risk. Radon levels vary throughout the
country. The amount of radon entering homes varies from home to home. Because
radon is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, testing is the only way to find out if you and
your family are at risk from it.
Exposure to radon does not result in any immediate symptoms. For example, it does not
result in acute respiratory effects such as colds or allergies. Any cancer resulting from
inhaling radon is not likely to arise for at least 20-30 years after exposure begins, and
both the level of exposure and duration of exposure are factors which determine the risk
of developing lung cancer.
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January 2011
Where are the highest levels of radon in the home?
Generally, the living area closest to the soil surface has the highest level of radon.
Upper stories have lower levels of radon. Consequently, radon is rarely a concern in
high rise apartment buildings, other than at ground level.
Do adjacent houses have similar levels of radon?
Because the amount of uranium and radium in the soil varies, and because houses are
constructed and used in different ways, houses in the same neighborhood will have
different radon levels.
Is there a safe level of radon?
We know that the greater the exposure to radon, the greater the risk of developing lung
cancer. But we do not know if there is a radon level that is harmless. Both the duration
of exposure and the level of radon in the air are
important in determining the risk of developing lung cancer. Smoking may be a large
contributing factor to lung disease associated with radon exposure. Currently, the
California Department of Public Health (CDPH) recommends that you take action to
reduce radon levels in your house if the annual average indoor air concentration
exceeds 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L).
How can radon levels be measured?
Several types of passive radon detectors or active devices can measure the level of
radon in a house. Passive detectors are devices left in place for a period of time that
require no ongoing activity or power. To obtain accurate results, the homeowner should
carefully follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Although short-term measurements of
radon levels are more convenient, health risk can be more accurately determined from
measurements made over a year. Active devices require a source of power and are
used by professional radon testers to monitor radon levels. These devices are usually
used during real estate transactions.
Where can I get a radon detector?
The CDPH Radon Program is now offering short term test kits for $7.00 for California
residents. CDPH has contracted with Alpha Energy Laboratories (DrHomeAir) to
provide this service. The test kit can be ordered on-line at . The
CDPH Radon Program maintains lists of currently certified testers, mitigators and
laboratories at This list
of certified radon providers can also be obtained by calling the CDPH Radon Program
Hotline at (800) 745-7236.
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January 2011
What must be done to reduce indoor radon levels?
The U.S. EPA and CDPH recommend that homeowners attempt to reduce radon levels
in any home that has an annual average level of radon at or above 4 pCi/L. The
mitigation method chosen will depend on the construction of the house, extent of radon
reduction required, and cost. After installing a mitigation system, we recommend that
radon levels be monitored at regular intervals to make sure the mitigation is working.
A qualified contractor should install the radon mitigation system unless the homeowner
fully understands the principles of the mitigation system.
When should water be tested for radon?
When a test shows that indoor levels of radon are at or above 4 picocures per liter,
homeowners should also consider a water test. If the water comes from a water system,
information about the source of the water and any radon tests done on it can be
obtained from the company supplying the water. For information or assistance with
interpreting test results, contact the CDPH Division of Drinking Water and
Environmental Management (see Appendix A) at . .
The radon concentration of water from a private well can be measured by having a
sample analyzed at a laboratory certified to test for radon in water. Homeowners should
consult the CDPH radon program at (916) 449-5674 for guidance on the type of water
analysis appropriate to the area and well type. The method of sample collection is
critical. To get a list of certified laboratories, call the CDPH at (800) 745-7236 or visit
their website at .
How can levels of radon in water be reduced?
Radon levels in water can be reduced by 99 percent by the installation of a granular
activated carbon unit (GAC) on the water line entering the house. GAC units should be
certified by the CDPH. As radon accumulates and decays in the GAC unit, the unit itself
becomes radioactive. Therefore, these units must be shielded or located away from the
house to protect occupants from radiation. The GAC filters also require special handling
during replacement and disposal. Aeration may also remove radon from water. This
technique may be more costly but avoids the problem of radiation build up. Selection of
the proper water treatment technology depends primarily upon its removal efficiency
(other contaminants in the water may adversely affect this), safety, initial costs, and
operating and maintenance costs. Therefore, professional guidance is strongly advised.
Does the law require mitigation?
Mitigation of radon is not required by law and is at the discretion of the homeowner.
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 38 of 48
January 2011
For information on how to purchase a radon detector, how to find someone to test your
home, or for informational publications on radon, call the CDPH Radon Program Hotline
at: (800) 745-7236 or visit their website at
For specific assistance, call the CDPH Radon Program at: (916) 449-5674
List of Certified Providers of Radon Services
This publication is available by calling CDPH Radon Program Hotline at (800) 745-745-
7236 or at
California Department of Public Health
Indoor Radon Program
1616 Capitol Avenue, 2nd Floor
P.O. Box 997413
Sacramento, CA 95899-7413
Telephone: (800) 745-7236
Radon in California
A Citizen’s Guide to Radon
Homebuyers and Sellers Guide to Radon
The Inside Story - A Guide to Indoor Air Quality
How to Reduce Radon Levels in your Home
Model Standards for Radon in New Residential Buildings
These free publications are available from:
U.S. EPA Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 37133
Washington, D.C. 20013-7133
Telephone: (800) 438-4318
Fax: (202) 484-1510
Note: Telephone numbers and prices were correct at the date of publication of this
booklet, but are subject to change.
Federal Agencies
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 39 of 48
January 2011
Office of Lead Hazard Control
451 7th Street S.W., Room B133
Washington, D.C. 20410
Telephone: (202) 755-1785
HUD helps people build and maintain communities of
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)
Public Information Center
1200 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
Telephone: (202) 272-0167
The U.S. EPA is a regulatory agency responsible for
implementing federal laws designed to protect our air,
water, and land from past and future environmental
State Agencies
California Air Resources Board
Research Division
Indoor Exposure Assessment Section
1001 I Street
P.O. Box 2815
Sacramento, CA 95814
Telephone: (916) 322-8282
California Contractor's State License Board
9821 Business Park Drive
P.O. Box 26000
Sacramento, CA 95827
Telephone: (800) 321-2752
This board is responsible for licensing contractors, including
asbestos abatement.
California Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/
Asbestos Consultant Certification Unit
2211 Park Towne Circle, #1
Sacramento, CA 95825
Telephone: (916) 574-2993
Cal/OSHA is the state equivalent to the Federal Occupational
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January 2011
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and
regulates protection of workers.
California Department of Public Health
Call your local county health department listed in the
front of the white pages or, on the Internet, visit
California Department of Public Health
Environmental Management Branch, Radon Program
1616 Capital Avenue, 2nd Floor, MS 7405
P.O. Box 997413
Sacramento, CA 95899-7413
Telephone: (800) 745-7236
This branch provides publications and information about
radon hazards.
California Department of Public Health
Environmental Lab Accreditation Program
850 Marina Bay Parkway
Building P, Third Floor
Richmond, CA 94804-6403
Telephone: (510) 620-5600
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January 2011
APPENDIX A List of Federal and State Agencies
Contact information provided was correct as of the date of publication, but is subject to
This office may provide information about test procedures
for analyzing environmental pollutants.
California Department of Public Health
Division of Drinking Water and Environmental
Drinking Water Technical Program Branch
Sacramento Headquarters
1616 Capital Avenue, MS 7400
P.O. Box 997413
Sacramento, CA 95899-7413
Telephone: (916) 449-5600
This division collects and evaluates water quality information
on drinking water in California and supervises the
activities of all public water systems. It also provides
assistance to local health departments, water purveyors, and
the general public on issues related to water quality, water
supply, and water treatment:
Northern California Section
Sacramento District
8455 Jackson Road, Room 120
Sacramento, CA 95826
Telephone: (916) 229-3126
Lassen, Valley, Klamath & Shasta Districts
415 Knollcrest Drive, Suite 110
Redding, CA 96002
Telephone: (916) 224-4800
North Coastal Section
San Francisco & Santa Clara Districts
2151 Berkeley Way, Room 458
Berkeley, CA 94704
Telephone: (510) 540-2158
Mendocino & Sonoma Districts
50 D Street, Suite 200
Santa Rosa, CA 95404-4752
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January 2011
Telephone: (707) 576-2145
Monterey District
1 Lower Ragsdale, Bldg. 1, Suite 120
Monterey, CA 93940
Telephone: (831) 655-6939
Central California Section
Merced & Visalia Districts
1040 East Herndon Avenue, Suite 205
Fresno, CA 93720-3158
Telephone: (559) 447-3300
Stockton District
31 E. Channel Street, Room 270
Stockton, CA 95202
Telephone: (209) 948-7696
Tehachapi District
1200 Discovery Drive, Suite 100
Bakersfield, CA 993309
Telephone: (661) 335-7315
Southern California Section
Los Angeles District & Metropolitan Districts
1449 W. Temple Street, Room 202
Los Angeles, CA 90026
Telephone: (213) 580-5723
Santa Barbara District
1180 Eugenia Place, Suite 200
Carpinteria, CA 93013
Telephone: (805) 566-1326
South Coastal Section
San Bernardino District
464 West 4th Street, #437
San Bernardino, CA 92401
Telephone: (909) 383-4328
San Diego & Riverside Districts
1350 Front Street, Room 2050
San Diego, CA 92101
Telephone: (619) 525-4159
Santa Ana District
28 Civic Center Plaza, Room 325
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January 2011
Santa Ana, CA 92701
Telephone: (714) 558-4410California
Department of Toxic Substances
1001 I Street
P.O. Box 806
Sacramento, CA 95812-0806
Telephone: (916) 324-1826
DTSC issues permits for treatment, storage, and
disposal of hazardous wastes; inspects facilities; maintains
a Superfund list; and has a site cleanup program.
Northern California Regional Offices
Sacramento Office
8800 Cal Center Drive
Sacramento, CA 95826-3268
Telephone: (916) 255-3618
Clovis Office
1515 Tollhouse Road
Clovis, CA 93611-0522
Telephone: (559) 297-3901
Berkeley Office
700 Heinz Avenue, Suite #200
Berkeley, CA 94710-2721
Telephone: (510) 540-2122
Southern California Regional Offices
Chatsworth Office
9211 Oakdale Avenue
Chatsworth, CA 91311-6505
Phone: (818) 717-6500
Cypress Office
5796 Corporate Avenue
Cypress, CA 90630-4732
Telephone: (714) 484-5300
San Diego Office
9174 Skypark Court, Suite 150
San Diego, CA 92123
Telephone: (858) 637-5531
California Department of Housing and Community
Division of Administration - Manufactured Housing
1800 Third Street, Room 260
Residential Environmental Hazards Booklet Page 44 of 48
January 2011
P.O. Box 31
Sacramento, CA 95814
Telephone: (916) 445-3338
Administration of codes and statutes relating to mobile
homes. It also allocates grants and loans for low-income
housing, house rehabilitation, and disaster relief.
California Department of Real Estate (DRE)
Fresno District Office
Department of Real Estate
2550 Mariposa, Room 3070
Fresno, CA 93721-2273
Telephone: (559) 445-6153
Oakland District Office
Department of Real Estate
1515 Clay Street, Room 702
Oakland, CA 94612-1462
Telephone: (510) 622-2552
Los Angeles Executive Office
Department of Real Estate
320 W. 4th Street, Suite 350
Los Angeles, CA 90013-1150
Telephone: (213) 620-2072
San Diego District Office
Department of Real Estate
1350 Front Street, Room 3064
San Diego, CA 92101-3687
Telephone: (619) 525-4375
Sacramento Principal Office
Department of Real Estate
2201 Broadway
P.O. Box 187000
Sacramento, CA 95818-7000
Telephone: (916) 227-0864
This unit provides information on lead toxicity and
treatment of lead toxicity in children.
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January 2011
AERATION: A technique by which air is introduced into a liquid; bubbles and aerosols
are generated and dissolved gases released. For example, water aerated by passing
through a shower head will release dissolved radon gas.
ACTIVATED CARBON: A material made from burnt wood which is used to remove
organic solutes, such as pesticides, and some inorganic solutes, such as chlorine, from
water. Dissolved organic solutes are removed from the water by absorption onto the
activated carbon. The activated carbon must be periodically replaced when it becomes
saturated and unable to adsorb any more solute. Activated carbon is not effective in
removing heavy metals, such as lead, and salts, which make water hard.
ANNUAL AVERAGE LEVEL: The average of measurements taken at different times
over the period of one year or the level measured by a device left in place for a full year.
CARCINOGEN: A substance that causes cancer.
CATHODE RAY TUBE: The cathode ray tube, or CRT, is the display device used in
most computer displays, video monitors, and televisions.
CERTIFIED LABORATORY: A laboratory that has demonstrated that it can meet the
federal and state standards for accuracy and precision for a given analytical procedure.
DISTILLATION: As referenced in this booklet, distillation is a technique used to purify
water by removal of inorganic contaminants such as salts through heating the solution
and condensing the steam. The resultant distilled water has a reduced salt
concentration. Distillation is not effective in removing pesticides and volatile organic
contaminants such as chloroform and benzene.
EXPOSURE: Contact with an agent through inhalation, ingestion, or touching. For
example, exposure to radon is primarily through inhalation; exposure to lead is primarily
through ingestion.
FILTRATION: Purification of water by removing undissolved solids or sediment by
passing the water through a filter or sieve. Filtration does not remove dissolved salts or
organic contaminants.
FRIABLE: Easily crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to a powder by hand.
LEVEL: Another term for concentration; also, the amount of a substance in a given
volume of air, liquid or solid.
LITER: Metric unit of volume equivalent to 1.057 quarts of liquid. One gallon is
equivalent to about four liters.
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January 2011
MILLIGRAM: A unit of weight. There are 1,000 milligrams in one gram and about 28
grams in one ounce.
MITIGATION: Mitigation means any action taken to reduce or eliminate the risk to
human health and the environment from hazardous waste.
PARTS PER MILLION: A unit of concentration. For example, air that contains 1 part per
million formaldehyde contains 1.2 milligrams formaldehyde in 1 million milliliters air, i.e.
1,000 liters air. Also, water which contains 1 part per million lead contains 1 milligram
lead in 1 million milligrams water, i.e., 1 kilogram water. One part per million can be
compared to one cent in ten thousand dollars.
PASSIVE DETECTOR: A measuring device that functions without any energy input or
ongoing attention from the user. For example, use of a passive radon detector to
measure radon requires only that the detector be left in place for a specified time.
PICOCURIE: A unit of amount used in measurement of radioactive substances. For
example, five picocuries of radon are five trillionths of a curie and are equivalent to 11
radioactive radon atoms decaying every minute.
RADIOACTIVE: A term used to describe atoms that are unstable and break down or
decay to form another kind of atom. For example, radium breaks down to form radon. In
the process of decay some high-energy particles are emitted. The detection of these
particles by special instruments indicates that a substance is radioactive. The high-
energy particles and gamma rays are called radiation.
REACTIVE: A solid waste that is normally unstable, reacts violently with water, or
generates toxic gases when exposed to water or other materials.
REVERSE OSMOSIS: A technology used to purify water by removing the salts from
water. Osmosis involves the diffusion of water from a dilute to a concentrated solution
across a semi-permeable membrane that allows only the passage of water. In reverse
osmosis, water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane from a concentrated
solution to a stream of purified water. For example, in the desalination of seawater,
reverse osmosis is used to separate the salts from the water generating drinking water
and a residue of salts.
RISK: In the context of this booklet, risk indicates the chance of developing a disease
after exposure to an environmental hazard. Risk depends on the time period for which a
person is exposed to a particular hazard and the level of the hazard.
SOFT WATER: Water that does not contain large amounts of dissolved minerals such
as salts containing calcium or magnesium.
SOLDER: A metallic compound used to seal joints between pipes. Until recently, most
solder contained about 50 percent lead. Lead solder is now banned for plumbing
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TOXICITY: The extent to which a material is toxic.
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