‘How RTI Works’ Series © 2012 Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org 2
Have the student respond orally. One modification of Cover-Copy-Compare that may make it even more
effective is to have the student respond orally. The student covers the original word and spells out the word
aloud (subvocally) rather than putting it in writing (Skinner, Bamberg, Smith, & Powell, 1993). Because students
can often respond more quickly by stating rather than writing their response, oral responding can speed the task
and result in a larger number of effective learning trials in the time allocated.
Adapt CCC for foreign-language vocabulary. Students can acquire foreign-language vocabulary via Cover-Copy-
Compare (Carter, Won, & Mayton, 2013). The teacher prepares a folder. On the outside of the folder is a master
list of 15 foreign vocabulary paired with corresponding terms in English. Inside the folder is a Cover-Copy-
Compare sheet with only foreign vocabulary terms appearing on the left side of the page. From the master list on
the cover of the folder, the student studies the first foreign word and its English equivalent. Next, the student
opens the folder (hiding the master list) and--from memory--writes the English equivalent next to the foreign
term that appears on the Cover-Copy-Compare sheet. Finally, the student refers back to the master list to check
his or her response. If incorrect, the student copies the correct English equivalent twice next to the foreign-
language term on the CCC sheet before advancing to the next item.
Carter, S. L., Won, C., & Mayton, M. R. (2013). Enhancing foreign language competency using the cover, copy,
compare technique: An exploratory evaluation. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(2), 105-116.
Joseph, L. M., Konrad, M., Cates, G., Vajcner, T., Eveleigh, E., & Fishley, K. M. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the
cover-copy-compare and variations of this self-management procedure. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 122-136.
Skinner, C. H., Bamberg, H. W., Smith, E. S., & Powell, S. S. (1993). Cognitive cover, copy, and compare: Subvocal
responding to increase rates of accurate division responding. Remedial and Special Education, 14(1), 49-56.
Skinner, C. H., McLaughlin, T. F., & Logan, P. (1997). Cover, copy, and compare: A self-managed academic
intervention effective across skills, students, and settings. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 295-306.