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How To: Master Math Facts: Cover-Copy-Compare
This intervention promotes the acquisition of math facts. The student is given a sheet containing math facts to
practice. The student studies each math fact with answer that appears on the sheet, covers the fact briefly and
copies it from memory, then compares the student-copied math fact and answer to the original correct model (Joseph
et al., 2011; Skinner, McLaughlin & Logan, 1997).
Materials:
Cover-Copy-Compare Worksheet (attached)
Cover-Copy-Compare Log (attached)
Procedures: Here are the steps of Cover-Copy-Compare for math facts:
1. [Teacher] Create a Cover-Copy-Compare math fact sheet. The teacher selects up to 10 math facts for the
student to practice during the session and writes those facts (including number sentence and answer) as correct
models into the left column of the Cover-Copy-Compare Worksheet (attached). The teacher then pre-folds the
sheet using as a guide the vertical dashed line ('fold line') dividing the left side of the student worksheet.
2. [Student] Use the Cover-Copy-Compare procedures. During the Cover-Copy-Compare intervention, the student
is trained to follow these self-directed steps for each math fact:
Study the correctly completed math fact (model) that appears in the left column of the sheet.
Fold the left side of the page over at the pre-folded vertical crease to hide the original math fact
('Cover').
Copy from memory the math fact and answer, writing it in the first response blank under the 'Student
Response' section of the Cover-Copy-Compare worksheet ('Copy').
Uncover the original correct model and compare it to the student response ('Compare'). If the student
has written the math fact and answer CORRECTLY, the student moves to the next item on the list and
repeats these procedures. If the student has written the math fact INCORRECTLY, the student draws a
line through the incorrect response, studies the correct model again, covers the model, copies the
model again from memory into the second response blank under the 'Student Response' section of the
sheet, and again checks the correctness of the copied item..
Continue until all math facts on the sheet have been copied and checked against the correct models.
3. [Teacher] Log: items mastered by the student. The teacher should formulate an objective standard for judging
that the student using Cover-Copy-Compare has 'mastered' a particular math fact (e.g., when the student is able
to copy that fact with answer from memory without error on three successive occasions). The teacher can then
apply this standard for mastery to identify and log items mastered in each session, using the appropriate Cover-
Copy-Compare Log Sheet (attached).
Variations: One modification of Cover-Copy-Compare that may make it even more effective is to have the student
respond orally. The student covers the original math fact and orally states the fact and answer rather than putting it in
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writing (Skinner, Bamberg, Smith, & Powell, 1993). Because students can often respond more quickly by stating
rather than writing their response, oral responding can speed the task and result in a larger number of effective
learning trials in the time allocated.
References
Joseph, L. M., Konrad, M., Cates, G., Vajcner, T., Eveleigh, E., & Fishley, K. M. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the
cover-copy-compare and variations of this self-management procedure. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 122-136.
Skinner, C. H., Bamberg, H. W., Smith, E. S., & Powell, S. S. (1993). Cognitive cover, copy, and compare: Subvocal
responding to increase rates of accurate division responding. Remedial and Special Education, 14(1), 49-56.
Skinner, C. H., McLaughlin, T. F., & Logan, P. (1997). Cover, copy, and compare: A self-managed academic
intervention effective across skills, students, and settings. Journal of Behavioral Education, 7, 295-306.
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.
Worksheet: Cover-Copy-Compare
Student: Date:
Spelling Words/Sight Words/Math Facts
2.
Student Response
2a.
2b.
3.
3a.
3b.
4.
4a.
4b.
5.
5a.
5b.
6.
6a.
6b.
7.
7a.
7b.
8.
8a.
8b.
9.
9a.
9b.
10.
10a.
10b.
1.
1a.
1b.
Fold Line
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.
Worksheet: Cover-Copy-Compare
Student: Date:
Math Facts Student Response
Fold Line
1. 1a. 1b.
2. 2a. 2b.
3. 3a. 3b.
4. 4a. 4b.
5. 5a. 5b.
8
+ 1
9
9
x 8
72
16
- 8
8
2
+ 6
8
2
x 4
8
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.
Worksheet: Cover-Copy-Compare
Math Facts Student Response
Fold Line
6. 6a. 6b.
7. 7a. 7b.
8. 8a. 8b.
9. 9a. 9b.
10. 10a. 10b.
12
- 12
0
3
+ 5
8
12
x 12
144
13
- 7
6
7
+ 7
14
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Cover-Copy-Compare Log: Mastered Items
Student: ____________________________________ School Yr: ______ Classroom/Course: _________________
Type of CCC Worksheet: ___ Math Facts ___ Spelling Words ___ Sight Words
List Name/Description: __________________________________________________________________
Cumulative Mastery Log: During the intervention, log each mastered item below with date of mastery.
Item 01: Date
:
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Cover-Copy-Compare Log: Mastered Items
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:
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