How to create a logic model
Cottage Health Evaluation Toolkit
Did you review the basic components of the
program, including its mission, goals, objectives,
and activities?
Creating a logic model starts by having a conversation with
your stakeholders about the key building blocks of the
program and changes that you want to see. Sometimes
grant applications or strategic plans can be useful resources
for the conversation. It can be helpful to start the logic
model development by walking through a set of questions
that guide your conversations with stakeholders. Check out
the Conversation Guide included in this tool.
Have you identified the resources, activities and
participation for your logic model?
Inputs are the resources needed to deliver the
program and may include: key organizational
resources like program sta, funding, specic facilities/
equipment, as well as partnerships with other
organizations or experts.
Activities are what you do in your program and are
usually described in action verbs, such as assess,
create, “provide, “monitor, develop, educate, “train.
Its helpful to start by brainstorming all the activities
and then grouping them into key categories.
Participation is the people who will participate in
or be reached by those activities. This should be the
target audience for your activities, not the people/
groups delivering them. Ask yourself: whom do we
need to reach for these activities to be successful?
Have you identified the right time frame to
measure the outcomes of your program?
Often people think of short-term outcomes as changes that
happen in less than one year, intermediate as 2-5 years, and
long-term as more than 5 years, however, your time frame
may vary depending on the life of your program.
Checklist: Creating a logic model
are needed?
What are
our specic
Whom do
we want to
changes do
we expect
to see in the
short term?
changes do
we expect
as a result of
What will
be dierent
if we are
Short-term Participation Intermediate Long-term
Inputs Outputs Outcomes
Outcomes build on each other
Make sure each set of outcomes aren’t
just “more of the same over a longer
time frame.
Example: A common mistake is to develop a
short-term outcome of serving 100 people and
then simply adding to the number of people
who will be reached for longer term outcomes.
Instead, consider the impact you expect your
work to have with those 100 people over a
longer time frame. For example, how will their
behavior have changed?
How to create a logic model
Cottage Health Evaluation Toolkit
Have you identified the outcomes? What do you
want to see as a result of your actions?
Make sure your outcomes build on the activities and
each other in a stepwise matter. By creating this logical
progression, you can visually display progress toward your
long-term goals. You may not be able to measure the long-
term outcomes for awhile, but by measuring short-term
and intermediate outcomes, you are able to demonstrate
progress towards the goal you care about.
• Short-term outcomes are changes you expect to see
fairly quickly as a result of your programs activities
• Intermediate outcomes are often related to
actions—e.g., changes in participants’ behaviors due to
increased knowledge and changed attitudes.
• Long-term outcomes are changes you expect to see
in the later stages of your program, or even after the
program is over, such as improved health status for
program participants.
Did you test the logic of your logic model?
A logic model can work in both directions. Start from the left
side if you are evaluating an existing program. Start from
the right side if you are developing an evaluation for a new
If you start from the left side, you can talk about how you are
including specic inputs and activities so that” you can achieve
short and long term changes that are the goal of your program.
If you start from the right side, test it by walking backwards from
long-term outcomes and asking a series of “how?” questions.
Did you review the logic model with key
stakeholders to ensure you have a common
understanding of the program’s elements?
When you share the logic model with stakeholders, stress
to them that a logic model is always in draft form, as a
program is always changing and evolving to adapt to
external conditions or internal changes. Some questions to
ask stakeholders to ensure a comprehensive logic model is
• Are there additional resources being used that are not
reected in the “inputs” column?
• Do the activities listed represent your understanding of
what is being carried out?
• Are the participants you listed the people being
reached through the activities?
• Are the outcomes what you expect to see as a result?
Are the outcomes reasonable to expect given the level
of investment, timeline, and activities?
The Cottage Health Evaluation Toolkit was prepared by the Center for Community Health and Evaluation
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Clients have
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We connect
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How to create a logic model
Cottage Health Evaluation Toolkit
Conversation Guide:
How will we describe our program?
Use the following questions to start a conversation about a program or set of
activities that you are interested in evaluating. Your responses do not need to
be inclusive of all of your organization or coalitions programs and activities,
just the one you are evaluating.
1. What is the problem we are trying to solve or issue you are trying to address?
2. What specic activities will we undertake (e.g., convenings, press releases, training, direct services, advocacy, etc.) in order
to address the problem or issue?
3. For each of the activities identied above, who are we trying to reach?
4. What resources are needed to successfully complete the activities identied? (e.g., time, talent, technology, information,
money, community partnerships, etc.)
5. What changes do we expect to see as a result of our activities? (The timeframe below for short, intermediate and long term
changes is only a suggestion. Use what makes sense for your program!)
What changes do you expect to see in the short term? (e.g., 1 year)
What changes do we expect as a result of short-term outcomes being achieved? (e.g., intermediate, 2-5 years)
What will be dierent if we are successful in the long term? (e.g., 5+ years)
6. What is the environmental context in which our program takes place? Are there any factors that might inuence its
outcome that we should keep in mind?
How to create a logic model
Cottage Health Evaluation Toolkit
Case study example: The Health Connect Logic Model
Inputs Outputs Outcomes
Activities Participation Short-term Intermediate Long-term
What resources are needed to
implement the activities?
What specic activities will you
Whom are you trying to reach
through your activities?
What changes do you expect to
see in the short term?
What changes do you expect to
see as a result of achieving the
short-term outcomes?
What will be dierent if you are