Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 19: A Step Backward for Civil Rights
Section 1
African Americans and Segregation
Use the information from page 472 - 480 to complete the
1. The late 1800s and early 1900s was a period when prejudice resulted in growing
___________________, ________________________, and even violence.
2. By the end of the period, laws and customs had created a _______________-class
3. A major step toward this lower status was the establishment of ___________________
4. One of the most significant methods to ___________________ white supremacy in
society was the __________________ of segregation laws.
5. The U.S. Congress had a _______________ ________________ Act in 1875, which
made discrimination in ________________ places illegal.
6. But in the 1880s, a series of cases called the "civil rights cases," the _______________
Court had said that, while government could not discriminate, it could not prevent
owners of _______________ businesses from deciding who they would
7. Throughout the 1890s and early 1900s, both the state of ________________ and local
communities passed laws and ordinances calling for segregation, or _____________
______________ laws.
8. The term ____________ _______________ had been used in the mid-1800s for a type
of black character in _____________________ shows. White performers
_____________________ their faces and sang and danced in a way that made
__________ of African Americans. The term became a racial _____________.
9. "Jim Crow" was first connected to _____________________ in the North before the
Civil War.
10. The term survived and became the _____________________ for the new laws that
____________________ states passed to create a second-class, separate, and
______________________ position for African Americans.
11. Jim Crow laws made the practice of segregation ________________.
12. ______________________ cars were among the public spaces that states segregated.
13. __________________ passed such a law in 1891. A similar Louisiana law was
_____________________ on purpose by African Americans who thought it was
_________________________ under the Fourteenth Amendment.
14. Homer ___________________ (who was one-eighth African American and seven-
eighths white in heritage) ____________________ the Louisiana law after he was
removed from a first-class railroad car.
15. In the famous 1896 ____________________ v. ____________________ decision, the
U.S. Supreme Court _______________ that public places could be separate by
_____________, but that they had to be "_______________."
16. This ________________-____________-_________________ doctrine allowed
segregation to continue in the United states for decades.
17. Supreme Court __________________ John Marshall Harlan ________________ with
the Plessy v. Ferguson decision. He wrote that if the Supreme Court
________________ separate train cars, it could lead to many other _______________
of segregation.
18. With the separate-but-equal doctrine ___________________ by the Supreme Court,
___________________ states began ____________________ dozens of state laws
and local ordinances to _________________ separate public spaces from cradle to
grave, from separate schools and __________________ to separate
19. The Supreme Court decision that first applied the separate-but-equal doctrine to
___________________ was a case from Georgia- _____________________ v.
_____________________ County Board of Education. The 1899 Cumming decision
allowed Richmond County to keep a white high school ______________ while
________________ Ware High School for African American students.
20. The court said the Richmond County Board of Education's _________________ to
use the Ware High _______________ for black elementary schools instead of the high
school did not establish _____________________.
21. The decision also acknowledged that ____________ allowing African Americans in
_______________ schools was constitutional. In practice, the separate aspect of the
doctrine was enforced, but the _______________ part was not.
22. These laws affected the lives of _____________ black and white Georgians and had a
profound impact on the _____________________ between the races.
23. _________________ places became more and more separate.
24. While African Americans could ____________ in stores, they could not __________ at
lunch counters in those stores. Courts used separate ____________ to swear in
25. Eventually __________________ and water ___________________ were separate, as
were the __________________ rooms in railroad and streetcar stations.
26. "___________________ Only" and "________________ Only" signs began to appear
throughout Georgia and the other southern states.
27. Whites had the _____________-______-___________ on sidewalks and roadways.
28. No matter how _____________________ and _________________ African Americans
became, they were always considered ____________________ to any whites.
29._________________ and violence became the way to enforce the
____________________ rules of racial standing.
30. As these new forms of _________________ interaction were emerging, Georgia went
through a period of difficult racial _________________ and sometimes violence.
31. A form of __________________ violence was lynching. _________________ occurs
when a mob of people murder someone. _________________ and shooting were the
most common methods of killing.
32. African Americans had a variety of ___________________ to the Jim Crow laws in the
South. Some ______________ away. In the 1880s, a ___________________ of
African Americans from the South to the ________________ ________________
33. During the Civil War, the U.S. Congress had passed the ____________________ Act to
____________________________ people to settle in the grassy, flat, windy plains.
34. A family could become owners of _________ acres of land (one-fourth of a square mile)
if they _________________ on and __________________ the land for
_______________ years.
35. African Americans who were part of this migration west were known as
36. A.M.E. Bishop Henry McNeal ____________________, one of those legislators
___________________ from the Georgia General Assembly during Reconstruction,
became increasingly concerned that African Americans would not ever have
_____________________ in the United States.
37. He began to preach that African Americans should migrate to __________________.
38. By the early twentieth century, small numbers of African Americans began to move
39. Those numbers ____________ after 1915. In that year, the __________ was
_____________________ at Georgia's Stone Mountain, and _________________ of
violence against African Americans increased.
40. Another draw to the North was ________________.
41. The numbers of African Americans leaving the ________________ became so great
that this movement from South to North became known as the ________________
42. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, however, most African Americans did
not ________________.
43. They had to "_______________ _____________ [their] ___________________" where
they were.
44. Those words were spoken by ________________ _____ _______________________,
a major leader for the black community during this time.
45. Freed at the end of the Civil War, Washington worked hard in a West Virginia
_____________ before becoming a ______________ boy for the mine's owner. The
mine owner's wife _________________ Washington to ______________.
46. At sixteen, he entered __________________ ___________________ in Virginia, where
he worked his way through school
47. On the recommendation of his Hampton principal, he became the _________________
of a new school for African Americans in ____________________, Alabama.
48. Washington ________________________ that African Americans had to acquire the
_____________________ and ________________ that would help them find jobs and
raise their economic status.
49. In 1895, the organizers of the International _________________ Exposition in Atlanta
asked Washington to __________________ on the opening day.
50. [In his speech] He urged whites to _________________ African Americans. He hoped
that ___________________ would come, although he believed it would be
51. This seeming _______________________ of segregation and social inequality in order
to get along with southern whites became known as "_______________________."
52. To Washington, who had __________________ with southern whites his entire life, this
was a _____________________ approach.
53. He believed that it might _________________ in better race ___________________
and a gradual _________________ acceptance of African American equality.
54. In the early 1900s, an emerging African American _________________ began to
debate Washington's ideas.
55. William Edward Burghart (W.E.B) ____________________ had grown up in
Massachusetts, where he had been _______________ free and had not faced the
same racial ____________________.
56. His first encounter with ______________________ came in 1885 when he went to
______________________, Tennessee, to attend ______________ College.
57. He was ______________________ affected by his ________________________ and
began to develop his ideas of educating leaders for African Americans, leaders he
called the "________________________ _________________." He wanted them to
have a liberal arts education to develop __________________ and
______________________ skills.
58. Dubois graduated from ___________________ with bachelor's and master's
_______________, went to the University of ________________ for two years, and
then returned to Harvard for a ____________ degree.
59. In 1897, he was ____________________ to come to Atlanta University where he not
only ________________, but also worked hard as a _________________ studying
conditions for African Americans.
60. His famous work The __________ of ______________ ________________ was
published in 1903.
61. Two years later, he was among black leaders who met at __________________
_________________ to discuss ways of __________________ racial discrimination.
62. Out of this meeting developed the __________________ ______________________.
63. Events of the next few years, including the Atlanta race ____________ and the loss of
the right to _______________, convinced DuBois that African Americans would have to
_____________ things up to achieve _________________.
64. The Niagara Movement joined with _______________ liberals in 1909 to form the
National Association for the Advancement of colored People (_____________).
65. DuBois believed that African Americans _________________ ____________ take a
gradual approach to civil rights and equality. He wanted to ________________ racism.
66. For the rest of the twentieth century, the NAACP took cases of ____________________
to _______________ to try to get the nation to live up to the __________________ of
the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 19: A Step Backward for Civil Rights
Section 2
African American Institutions and Life
Use the information from page 482 - 486 to complete the
1. It was easier for African Americans to build a better life for themselves in ____________
2. Cities became home to the ________________ and _____________________ who
would become the __________________ of an African American middle class.
3. In the cities, ________________ and some men could find work as _______________
4. Those that could get an education could _______________ or practice other
5. In spite of ___________ ______________ laws, African Americans built
____________________, educational, and business institutions that gave them what
was _________________ them in the white community.
6. African Americans owned ________________ shops, restaurants, ________________,
and _____________ stores. In every city, African American families owned
_________________ homes that prepared their departed for their final resting place.
7. Each city in Georgia developed a ________________ downtown of businesses,
professional offices, __________________ stores, and entertainment facilities that
_________________ African Americans.
8. In Atlanta, that area was Auburn Avenue, also known as "_______________
9. It [Sweet Auburn] was home to Atlanta ____________ _________________ Company,
to Citizens Trust _______________, to shops and stores, and to the now-famous
_____________________ Baptist Church.
10. When Atlanta formed a chapter of the ________________, its offices were on Auburn
11. One of the most successful, African American ______________________, the Atlanta
Daily World, was there as well.
12. African Americans had a strong interest in __________________ during this period.
13. In addition to attending public schools, African Americans themselves ______________
schools for their children.
14. This was especially important at the __________________, or high school, level
because public high schools were not ___________________.
15. In Augusta, a former _______________ and Atlanta University graduate Lucy Craft
______________ founded a school named the ___________________ Institute.
There, young _____________ and _______________ received a classical education
that included __________________, mathematics, sciences, and liberal arts courses.
16. Laney became widely recognized as a _________________ in the education for African
American youth. She [Laney] and Henry McNeal Turner were the ____________
African Americans whose ____________________ hung in the state Capitol building.
17. African American education in the south got a major ______________ when a
Philadelphia ________________ named Anna Jeanes established a ___________ to
pay well-qualified ______________ teachers to help improve schools and communities.
18. _____________________ organizations, usually __________________ ones, were
responsible for all of the first ___________________ for African Americans.
19. The oldest of the Atlanta colleges was Atlanta ________________ College, founded by
the American _____________________ Association. The school, later known as
__________________ _____________________, was the first major source of African
American teachers such as Lucy Laney.
20. The establishment of ____________ College, founded by the __________________
Aid Society of the Methodist Church, followed in 1869.
21. The only African American college for _______________ in the United States began in
1869 as ____________________ Baptist Institute. Its early support came from the
American Baptist Home Mission Society, and the school took the name of the
__________________ of that organization, Henry L. ____________________.
22. In 1898, Morehouse hired a new faculty member, John _______________. In 1906,
Hope became the school's first African American ___________________.
23. Hope was also active in many causes for African Americans, including the
___________________ Movement and the NAACP.
24. In 1929, Hope made Atlanta University the first African American _________________
school in the country.
25. One of the best-known African American _______________ was _________________
Burns Hope, wife of John Hope.
26. After marrying John and moving to _________________, she became the leader in
efforts to provide __________ ____________ and _______________________ for
African American children in the neighborhood around Morehouse.
27. In 1908, she founded the Neighborhood Union to provide the African American
community with _________________, educational, ____________________, and
recreational services.
28. Lugenia was also a _________________ of Atlanta's chapter of the NAACP.
29. Like her husband, she was an ________________ and strong supporter of __________
rights. She was one of the leading African American women in the
___________________ movement.
30. The first ______________-supported institution for African Americans was founded in
1890 in __________________.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 19: A Step Backward for Civil Rights
Section 3
Voting Rights
Use the information from page 488 - 490 to complete the
1. _______________________ was not the only attempt to force African Americans into a
__________________-_____________ position in southern society.
2. Georgia's _______________ politicians were determined to maintain ______________
3. To do that, many began to urge that _________________ American men not have a
_______________ in the political process. That goal led to the successful effort to
________________________ (take the right to vote away from) African American men.
4. The _____________ tax established by the 1877 constitution kept many ____________
- blacks and whites - from voting. _________________ and violence kept other African
Americans away from the polls or "____________________" them to vote for the
5. A new effort at reform in the 1890s ____________________ many Democrats that they
needed to erect new barriers to ___________________ African Americans from politics
6. In 1900, another ________________ step toward disfranchisement was the Democratic
Party's rule that its primaries for statewide offices would be open to whites
7. By giving African Americans no part in __________________ the Democratic
candidates, they would have very little ____________________ in state politics.
8. In spite of protests by African American leaders, the _____________ ______________
9. However, the white primary did not cover the ________________ election. In areas
where blacks outnumbered whites, African Americans might be able to
______________ officials by voting for candidates from the ___________________ or
another party.
10. In 1899 and again in 1901, state representative Thomas __________________ had
introduced a bill that would put a stop to __________ African American voting.
11. The bill would have required voters to pass a _________________ test.
12. To make sure that illiterate poor _________________ were not eliminated, a provision
called a _________________________ clause was added to Hardwick's bill.
13. The grandfather clause tied the __________________ to vote to whether one's father or
grandfather was able to vote right after the Civil War,
14. The Hardwick bill, however, was _________________ approved.
15. Over the next few years, _________________ led more whites to call for a
disfranchisement _____________.
16. The _________________ had contributed to an atmosphere of _______________
tension by writing sensational stories. Some of those stories were about
____________________ (supposed) attacks on white women by black men.
17. In 1906, articles about such ____________________ (none of which were ever proved)
led a white ____________ to gather in downtown Atlanta.
18. Mayor James _______________________ came out and _________________ with the
crowd to go home. But the mob moved through downtown ____________________,
attacking African Americans and __________________ African American businesses.
19. While law _______________________ officials tried to ______________ events on
Monday and Tuesday, white groups continued to attack black
20. African Americans had gotten _________________ to defend themselves and, in some
places, were able to ward off attackers.
21. A meeting of African Americans near Clark College south of the downtown resulted in a
______________-____________ with the militia and the _______________ of many
African Americans.
22. Calm was not restored until Tuesday when a group of ______________ leaders met
with black ________________.
23. Some blacks left Atlanta after the _____________, and many began to question
whether whites would ever _______________ them fairly
24. In such an atmosphere, many white politicians called for ________________________.
25. One prominent leader was Tom _______________, who had changed his position on
voting rights. He now ___________________ that blacks had to be
____________________ from voting altogether to ensure they could not
_______________ the outcome of any elections.
26. In the 1907 governor's election, Watson supported Hoke _______________ when
Smith agreed to support disfranchisement of __________________ Americans through
the ___________________ Hardwick had tried to pass earlier.
27. Smith claimed it would be a way to ___________ up political campaigns by eliminating
attempts to _____________ the votes of African Americans or intimidate them into
voting a certain way.
28. It would also eliminate from ________________ the growing class of ______________
middle-class and _______________ African Americans in Georgia's cities.
29. In 1908, ___________________ Hoke Smith supported a state constitutional
____________________ that called for a _________________ test.
30. Georgia voters _________________ this amendment on October 7, 1908, by a margin
of two to one.
31. Losing the right to vote, meant that African Americans had almost no way to
__________________ politics, __________, or government policy.
32. The black community would not be heard when demanding better _________________,
_____________________ to their neighborhoods, or fairer _________________.
33. The lack of a ______________ in politics meant that the ____________________ of
the Jim Crow system became even greater in the decades to follow.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 19: A Step Backward for Civil Rights
Section 4
Catholics and Jews
Use the information from page 491 - 493 to complete the
1. Segregation in the _______________ was based on _____________, and African
Americans bore the worst of the discrimination and ______________________ (an
irrational hostility toward another person, group, or race).
2. However, other groups faced attacks from the white ____________________ majority.
3. In the late 1800s, a wave of anti-____________________ and anti-_______________
feeling spread throughout the United States as more Catholics and Jews came into the
4. In _________________, both became targets of threats and even ________________.
5. The first major _____________________ of Catholics had occurred before the Civil
War when a _________________ began killing Ireland's ___________________ crop,
a major food source.
6. Irish Catholics had helped _______________ Georgia's railroads. They had been
generally well ____________________ in the state.
7. By the end of the 1800s, however, alarm at the growing ___________________ of
Catholics and their __________________ power, led to growing anti-Catholicism.
8. When the ____________ was reestablished in 1915, Catholics became one of its
_____________________. For the KKK, being "_____________ American" meant
being _________________ and __________________________.
9. The Catholic community tried to fight back against the ___________________. Among
other things, the group [Catholics] printed pamphlets __________________ their
religion and trying to correct ________________________ that other Georgians had
about them.
10. Another minority that faced prejudice in the early twentieth century was one of Georgia's
__________________ groups, the __________________ community.
11. Jews in Georgia's towns and cities had been _________________ figures in business
and the professions.
12. As had happened with ___________________, however, the arrival of Jews into the
country in the late 1800s had led to a flare-up of anti-Jewish prejudice called
13. In 1913, Leo __________________ was the manager of a ______________ factory in
Marietta owned by his brother-in-law.
14. On the night of April 26, ________________ Jim Conley reported that he found the
______________ body of young Mary _________________, a worker in the factory.
She had come to collect her _____________ the previous day.
15. ____________ Frank, the last person to _____________ seeing her alive, was
___________________ and tried.
16. Sensationalist _______________________ stories of the trial suggested that being
__________________ and _________________ were evidence enough
________________ Frank.
17. Found _________________, Frank received a ______________ sentence.
18. Outcries of protest against the _________________ and the way the ______________
was conducted came from all over the country.
19. One person who was afraid that __________________ had not been done was Georgia
Governor John Marshall _______________. He was troubled by the lack of
_________________, by __________________________ in Jim Conley's story, and by
his growing conviction that Frank was an ____________________ man.
20. He [Governor Slaton] carefully __________________ the evidence and the trial
transcripts, including going to the scene himself. At the end of his _____________, the
governor used his constitutional power to _________________, or change, Frank's
sentence from death to _____________ in prison. Frank was transferred to the state
prison in ____________________________.
21. Many people did __________ agree with Slaton's commutation decision. The Georgia
National Guard had to be called out to __________________ the governor.
22. Those opposed to Frank were ________________.
23. A group of Marietta citizens, many of them ____________ known, decided to carry out
"___________________" themselves.
24. Organized as the ___________________ of Mary Phagan, they traveled to Milledgeville
in August 1915, _____________ Frank from the prison, carried him to Marietta, and
_____________________ him.
25. None of the men was ever ____________________ with the _______________.