Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 18: Bourbons, Populists, and Progressives
Section 1
Bourbon Democrats and Independents
Use the information from page 450 - 453 to complete the
1. By the end Reconstruction in 1877, Georgia was once again controlled by the
2. Politicians used _______________________ to try to __________________ the vote of
African Americans and ____________________ to whites to support the Democratic
Party saying ________________ had to remain united to maintain their
________________ over blacks.
3. The main politicians in control of the party [Democrat] were sometimes called the
"_______________________" by their enemies.
4. This was a ________________ making fun of the fact that they seemed to want to hold
on to ___________ ways and not make ___________________.
5. Even though they praised the Confederacy, most of the Bourbons accepted that slavery
was ________________ and that something _____________ would have to emerge.
6. From 1876 until their first major challenge in 1890, three men controlled the
__________________ office and the ________________ seats of Georgia - Joseph E.
____________________, Alfred B. ___________________, and John B.
7. These men became known as the Bourbon _________________________.
8. A _______________________ is a group of three in authority or government control.
9. From 1877 to 1822, ________________ Colquitt was governor of Georgia.
10. From 1873 to 1880, John B. Gordon, reputed ________________ of Georgia's Ku Klux
Klan, was one of Georgia's U.S. ___________________.
11. Gordon resigned from the Senate in 1880 to take a position with the Western and
Atlantic _________________.
12. Governor Colquitt then _____________________ Joseph _______________, former
president of the Western and Atlantic, to the _______________ seat.
13. In 1886, _______________ was elected ________________ and reelected in 1888 for
another two-year term.
14. When Joseph Brown retired in 1891, ________________ once again served as U.S.
senator, from 1891 to 1897.
15. When Gordon came back to the Senate in 1891, _________________ was Georgia's
other ____________________.
16. These three men were _____________________ politicians for all those years. While
they supported the "Lost Cause" ideas, they also supported ________________, the
___________________ , and other "____________ _______________" concepts.
17. In the 1880s, Georgia ______________________ were divided.
18. The more ____________________ Republicans, called "_____________ and
_______________,' wanted a party ______________ to both whites and blacks.
19. The more ____________________ Republicans, called "________ ______________,"
believed that they would get more ______________ if they did not have any
______________ party members.
20. Because their party was _____________, Republicans joined with the
______________________ in trying to ________________ the Democrats.
21. The only real ____________________ to the Democrats in the late 1870s and early
1880s came from the ________________________.
22. The Independent leader was U.S. Congressman Dr. William __________________, a
planter and medical doctor representing north Georgia.
23. By 1880, even with ___________________ from Republicans, Independents were
_________________ to prevent Alfred Colquitt's ____________________ as governor.
24. Hoping they might win in 1882, the Independents tried to get a big _______________ -
Alexander __________________, a former vice president of the Confederacy - to run
as an Independent. In the end, however, he ___________ as a Democrat, and once
again the Independents _____________.
25. The Bourbon Triumvirate were conservative with _________________.
26. They believed in lower _______________ and less government _________________
on ______________ services, including the public ________________ system that had
been founded following the war.
27. The also believed, however, in _____________________ the economy to include more
28. The Democratic Party's __________________ of white voters rested on the basic ideas
in their public speeches about the good days of the "_________ _________________."
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 18: Bourbons, Populists, and Progressives
Section 2
Farmer Discontent and Populism
Use the information from page 454 - 460 to complete the
1. Many of Georgia's middle-class and poor ________________ became increasingly
unhappy as cotton _______________ dropped at the same time that the prices of
goods they needed to buy went ___________.
2. Railroad ____________ made the ______________ of shipping their products to
market even higher.
3. Many could barely make a ___________________; owners of small farms sometimes
found themselves having to ______________ their land to pay their _____________.
4. ___________________ believed that ______________ were unfair, and many even
thought that they did not get the ________________ they once had.
5. As farmers became more _____________________, they organized, eventually
founding a _________________ party to work for major reforms.
6. The first farmers' group became known as the "Patrons of Husbandry," which soon
became known as the _________________.
7. In the late 1870s and early 1880s, the ____________________ ___________________
8. The __________________ served several purposes.
9. Farmers, who worked alone most of the time, could come together for
_____________________ and to talk about their _________________.
10. They could also join together in cooperative buying stores, or _______________.
11. The co-ops _________________ supplies - seed, fertilizer, farm tools - so they could
negotiate ________________ prices.
12. The _______________ Farmers' Alliance in ________________ began in 1887. In
1889, it successfully joined with other farmers in the South to ________________ the
____________________ (a group with exclusive control) that sold ______________,
the material used to bind and cover cotton bales.
13. In 1890, the Alliance began to get involved in ___________________.
14. Members [of the Alliance] wanted _________________, including the use of silver as
well as gold for _________________, the _____________ of the convict lease system,
the secret _________________ for voting, and a __________________ income
15. That [graduated income tax] means that the ________________ a person's income, the
higher the ____________________ of tax that person would pay.
16. The Alliance also called for the ______________________ to take ownership of the
______________ and communications such as the __________________ and the new
invention, the ____________________.
17. Under government ______________________, they believed ______________ would
come ________________ because there would no longer be a need for profits for
18. In the 1890 election, the Georgia Alliance ___________________ voters to elect only
Democrats who ___________________ the Alliance reforms.
19. Alliance member William J. _________________ of Hancock County had no opposition
in the ___________________ race.
20. The Alliance was also successful in ___________________ six U.S. congressmen
and a majority of the _______________________ in both houses of the Georgia
legislature. In fact, this Georgia General Assembly got the nickname the
“_____________________ Legislature."
21. Unfortunately, however, many of the men who had __________________ themselves
to Alliance reforms were ____________ friends of the Alliance once they were in
22. They did not ______________ most of the reforms the farmers had wanted, and they
appointed John B. __________________ as a U.S. senator even though he
___________________ many of the Alliance ideas.
23. This major ____________________ led many farmers to see the Alliance as
_______________________ and _______________________ in the group fell quickly.
24. In its place [Farmers' Alliance] arose a new ____________________ group, one that
had begun in the Plains states. This group believed in ______________________, the
political doctrine that "supports the rights and powers of the _________________
people in their __________________ with the privileged elite."
25. Farmers joined with members of _______________ organizations to form a new
political party called the People's Party, which was usually called the
_________________ Party.
26. Thomas E. ________________ of Thomson became not only the _______________
spokesman for populism in Georgia, but a major figure in the movement nationally.
27. Elected to the state ______________________ in 1882, Watson became
_______________________ by efforts to promote ___________________ in Georgia
and wanted to support the _______________________ way of life.
28. He supported _________________ causes, including public __________________ and
the ending of the ________________ lease system.
29. He made his __________________ when he did not support Georgia Democratic
Congressman Charles _______________ for the position of Speaker of the House.
Crisp was a ___________________ Democrat who had opposed the
________________ of the Alliance.
30. In 1892, the national Populist Party was ______________ in those states with large
numbers of ________________.
31. The party tried to make life _______________ not only for farmers but also for
_________________ workers and other people left out of the growing ______________
that industrialization was creating.
32. Among other reforms, the Populist __________________ called for a graduated income
tax, government ownership of railroads and communications, a better system of
________________ for farmers, an ________________-hour workday for factory
workers, and a more __________________ political system allowing the
________________ themselves to vote for their U.S. senators rather than having them
_______________ by the state legislatures.
33. The also believed in a _____________ ballot so voters could not be
___________________ into voting a particular way.
34. The party nominated James B. ________________ as their candidate for
___________________ of the United States.
35. In 1892, Georgia Populists held their first convention and ____________________
farmer W. L. Peek as their candidate for _________________. The convention also
chose ___________________ for other state offices and for U.S. Congress.
36. The ____________________ tried to keep whites, including farmers, in their party by
calling for white ____________________ and pointing out the danger of
___________________ the white vote between the Democrats and the Populists.
37. While Populist leaders, including Watson, did not believe in the social
______________________ of the _____________, they did appeal to
________________ voters showing how Populist reforms would help them.
38. The Democrats also tried to get black ______________, sometimes by intimidation and
39. After an intense and emotional ____________________, the Democrats
___________________ most of the Populists, including, Tom Watson.
40. In some places, __________________ voting or _________________ of votes had
taken place. This is known as _________________.
41. In 1893, the entire nation fell into the _____________ economic __________________
that had happened up to that time.
42. _______________ closed, and businesses went _____________________. Farmers
and workers __________________ as prices dropped.
43. The hard times ___________________ the Populist Party.
44. For the next two years, Georgia's Democrats tried to ___________ the Populists back
to the party.
45. The next major contest was in 1896, the year of the U.S. ___________________
46. At their convention [in 1896], the Democrats nominated the young and talented speaker
William Jennings _______________.
47. They [Democrats] __________________ many of the Populists' ________________ for
their platform including the ideas of silver as well as gold money, the graduated income
tax, and the direct election of U.S. senators.
48. When the Democrats adopted these reforms, the Populists had a _________________.
After much discussion, the Populists decided to ________________ nominate Bryan as
their presidential candidate.
49. In Georgia, the _________________ had passed some reforms, and the state party
also adopted the crucial issue of ____________ coinage. That issue brought most
_______________ back to the Democratic Party.
50. The result was a major _______________ for the Populists.
51. ________________ won the electoral votes of the South and much of the West. He still
________________ overwhelmingly to Republican William __________________, who
got the popular and electoral votes of industrial, urban states with much greater
52. This was the beginning of the ___________ for the People's Party in the United States.
53. ___________________ had stirred up racial _________________ in Georgia.
54. The Democrats had tried to keep whites in the party by appealing to ______________
and the goal of preserving white power.
55. A movement began to find ways to _____________ blacks out of the political process
56. With the end of ___________________, Georgia was basically a __________-
______________ state, with the Democrats firmly in control for decades.
57. To make sure that the "______________" democrats kept power, the Democratic Party
began certain __________________ in the late 1800s to eliminate any challenges to
the elite class.
58. In the late 1890s, in the Democratic primaries, candidates for statewide office were
chosen not by overall _________________ vote but by the votes of each
59. The system was called the _______________ ____________ _________________.
For each representative that the county had in the Georgia General Assembly, the
county got __________ unit votes.
60. Representation was laid out in the 1877 constitution, which had _____________ levels
of representation: the most ____________________ counties, the next twenty-six
counties, and the least populated counties.
61. Since there were more _______________ counties, the rural counties always
____________________ the urban counties.
62. In 1917, the legislature passed the Neill Primary Act, which made the "informal" county
_____________ _________________ into law.
63. For decades, the ___________________, most rural counties had far more political
_________________ than the largest.
64. This caused increasing _________________ as the business-oriented cities became
more _____________________ on racial matters and more concerned about policies
that were good for business.
65. Although the county unit system was challenged in _________________, the federal
courts were initially hesitant to get involved.
66. The system did not __________________ until 1962 with a Tennessee case called
Baker v Carr, where the U.S. Supreme Court said that _____________ person's vote
should count ________________.
67. While people in cities had their ______________ delivered to them for _____________,
that was not the case in rural areas. (Page 461)
68. One of the reforms that farmers in the Grange and the Farmers' Alliance had called for
was free mail _________________ in rural areas. (Page 461)
69. As a reformer for the farmers, Tom _______________ supported this cause.
70. While he was a U.S. ____________________, Watson introduced a ___________ in
1892 setting aside money for an experiment in rural free delivery (____________).
(Page 461)
71. Although the bill _________________, the postmaster _______________ to put the
program into effect. (Page 461)
72. In 1896, with a new postmaster, the first ______________________ routes were
established. One of the forty-four experimental routes in the United States was in
__________________, Georgia. (Page 461)
73. RFD became very popular, and Congress made it ________________ in 1902.
(Page 461)
74. Because of his important role in this legislation, Tom Watson got the name "Father of
______________ ___________ _____________________." (Page 461)
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 18: Bourbons, Populists, and Progressives
Section 3
Progressivism in Georgia
Use the information from page 462 - 465 to complete the
1. As ______________________ faded throughout the country, a new _______________
movement had already begun.
2. While populism was centered in the ______________ areas and composed mainly of
farmers, this new movement began in _______________ where urban, middle-class,
educated men and women began to call for reforms to deal with the problems brought
on by ____________________________ and __________________________.
3. This movement for reform was known as ___________________________.
4. Although Georgia had some _____________________, it was usually small and the
companies were ___________________ owned.
5. In the end, one of the progressive ideas that ____________________ the most
Georgians was ___________________ voting.
6. In 1906, attorney Hoke ________________, owner of the Atlanta Evening Journal, was
elected governor as a ___________________.
7. Like other progressives throughout the country, Smith believed that
_______________________ had a role in ___________________ business and
industry and in ____________________ the public.
8. He strengthened the railroad commission's power to _________________ the
__________________ and gave the commission power over _________________ such
as electric companies and streetcar lines.
9. He founded the __________________ court system in Georgia and convinced the
legislature to increase ________________ for schools. He also started the state's
Department of ___________________ and ______________ and supported a ______-
hour work week for textile workers.
10. One of the major targets of reform for Georgia's progressives was Georgia's
_________________ system, which __________________ the convict lease system.
11. The system had resulted in ____________________ treatment for those convicted of
even minor offenses.
12. In 1908, the state passed a law that ___________________ the leasing out of prisoners
to private business. Instead prisoners could be ___________ by the state or by local
government to work on the ______________.
13. To prevent prisoners from ___________________, they were often chained together
leading to the infamous _____________ ______________.
14. When he became a U.S. __________________ in 1912, Smith continued his
progressivism by introducing in the Senate two ___________ that bear his name.
15. The Smith-Lever Act (1914) established the system of agricultural ________________
agents who provided _________________ and _______________ for farmers.
16. The Smith-Hughes act (1917) set up U.S. government support for _________________
education in high schools.
17. A progressive reform attempted unsuccessfully in Georgia was women's
18. ____________________ refers to the right to vote.
19. Two of the best-known Georgia ___________________ (as these reformers were
called) were the sisters Rebecca Latimer ___________________ and Mary Latimer
20. ____________________ Felton became the more __________________ of the two.
21. She became involved in the Women's _________________ ____________________
Union (WCTU), which worked to make alcohol ____________________.
22. Rebecca Felton also worked to __________________ the convict lease system and for
_________________________ reform.
23. Their activities with the WCTU and other projects to strengthen _______________ and
___________________________ led Felton and other women to support women
having the ________________ to vote.
24. If women could _____________, they would be able to _____________________ the
laws in ways good for the home.
25. The idea of women having political ___________________ was, however, __________
reform than Georgia's politicians wanted. They saw it as being outside the
"____________________ ______________" of a woman, whose focus was to be the
home, not the sometimes hostile world of politics.
26. In 1918, Congress passed the ________________________ Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution, which said women could not be _______________________ against in
27. The amendment then went to the states for ______________________. The Georgia
legislature very quickly voted __________ to ratify.
28. In 1920, the required _____________-__________________ of the states had voted
____________ and Georgia women got the right to vote along with women
__________________________ the country.
29. Ironically, in spite of the ___________________ to women's suffrage, Georgia became
the _______________ state to have a __________________ senator.
30. In 1922, U.S. Senator Tom Watson ___________ with four years remaining in his term.
His friend Governor Thomas Hardwick ____________________ Rebecca Felton to
Watson's seat until an election was held to choose a permanent replacement.
31. By the time the Senate actually met again, Walter George had been _____________ to
the seat. But he allowed Felton to serve the first ______________ the Senate met.