Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 17: Reconstructing the State
Section 1
Political Reconstruction
Use the information from page 418 - 428 to complete the
1. After ____________ long years of bloodshed, the U.S. ______________ _________
ended in the late spring of 1865. (Page 417)
2. The period of __________________________ from 1865 to 1877 set Georgia on the
path it would follow for many decades. (Pages 417)
3. One of the major ________________ at the end of the war was how the Union and the
former Confederacy would be _______________________.
4. The South had considered itself a separate _________________ during the war. If that
logic was followed, then it was a _________________________ nation at the end of the
war and could have been considered "________________________."
5. However, the United States government had not considered ____________________
to be _________________, so it did not look at the South as a conquered nation but an
area that had been in ____________________.
6. The return of ____________________ to the Union is a confusing story because
___________ sides were trying to gain _________________.
7. One side wanted Georgia after the war to be as much _____________ Georgia before
the war as possible. The other side wanted Georgia to go in a new
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8. Before the Civil War ended, ______________________ Abraham Lincoln had begun
preparing for the South to return to its "___________________
_____________________ with the rest of the country.
9. Lincoln believed that this process, called _____________________________, should
be directed by the ______________________.
10. He was willing to ___________________ any ______________ southerner who
renounced secession and accept the end of slavery.
11. Under Lincoln's Reconstruction plan, after ___________ percent of the voters in a
former Confederate state had taken an oath of ___________________ to the United
States, the state could begin to form a new _______________________.
12. Many northern leaders thought that Lincoln’s “Ten Percent" plan made it too
___________ for ex-Confederates to return and that it did not call for any guarantees
for rights for the ______________________ (the newly freed slaves).
13. In July 1864, the U.S. ____________________ offered a plan that required more. At
least ___________ percent of the former Confederates in each state would have to take
the loyalty _____________, and each new state constitution would have to be
___________________ by those who __________ __________ participated in the
14. Congress' plan also contained guarantees of rights for ________________ Americans.
15. Lincoln did not sign the _____________-______________ Bill, which outlined
Congress's plan, so it did not become _______________.
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16. On April 14, 1865, southerner John _________________ ________________ entered
the _______________ Theatre in Washington, D.C., where ______________________
and Mrs. Lincoln were watching a play, and ______________ the president. Lincoln
___________ a few hours later.
17. Vice President Andrew ___________________ became the president.
18. He [Johnson] was a ___________________, while Lincoln had been a
____________________. He was also from the South, a _____________________,
who had ____________________ secession and the war, which he blamed on the
__________________ class of the South.
19. Since Congress had ___________________ in March 1865 and would not meet again
until December, _________________ believed he had several months to carry out
_________ own Reconstruction plan.
20. That __________ included renouncing both ___________________ and the
_______________ owed by the Confederate government and ratifying the
______________________ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
21. That amendment made it ____________________________ for anyone to be held in
"___________________________ _______________________," which was another
way of saying "_________________________."
22. In June 1865, President Johnson appointed Columbus attorney and Unionist James
_____________________ as ______________________ governor.
23. That October, _________________ male voters elected ______________________ to
a state constitutional convention.
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24. The ________________________ passed the president's requirements, although some
___________ ____________ like having to do it.
25. These delegates also wrote a new _______________________.
26. It [constitution] outlined _____________________ rights in Article 1 and, in following
articles, established the _____________________, ______________________, and
______________________ branches of government and outlined their powers. Article
V held "__________________________" provisions.
27. There were some restrictive _____________________. One said a requirement for
___________________ was to be a free white ____________. Another said that no
one could __________________ office unless he was __________________ to vote. A
third provision made the ______________________ of a white person to a "person of
African descent" ____________________.
28. That November, voters chose Charles Jones Jenkins of Richmond County as
___________________ and elected a new General ___________________.
29. The new state constitution said that the General Assembly had "to provide by law for the
government of ______________ persons of color." As a result, the legislature passed
________________ ________________, laws that applied __________________ to
the freedmen.
30. Georgia's Black Codes were milder than those in other southern states, but they still
_________________ freedmen the right to serve on ____________,
_________________ against whites, or marry a white person.
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31. In special elections in the fall of 1865, white southerners, who considered themselves
"reconstructed" under Johnson's plan, elected _______________________ to the U.S.
__________________. Their state legislatures chose ______________________.
32. It [Georgia] chose as its two senators Alexander Stephens (former ___________
_______________________ of the Confederacy) and Hershel Johnson (a former
_____________________ senator).
33. Overriding Johnson's ____________, Congress passed a _____________
________________ Act in 1866, guaranteeing rights to freedmen.
34. That summer, Congress passed the ___________________ Amendment to the
Constitution, making anyone _____________ or ________________________ in the
United States a ___________________ of the country with certain citizenship
35. States were also _______________________ from repaying the Confederacy's debts
or _______________________ owners for freed slaves.
36. These actions began a ________________ between President Johnson and the
________________________ in Congress for __________________ of
37. Southern whites remained _____________________, however, and all of the
____________________ states except ________________________ rejected the
Fourteenth Amendment.
38. In March 1867, the other former Confederate states, including Georgia, were divided
into five ____________________ districts, each of which was
_____________________ by U.S. __________________.
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39. The U.S. military commander of the district oversaw voter _______________________
in each state, including registration of the male _____________________.
(_________________ were still not allowed to vote.)
40. The voters in the states then had to __________________ (approve) the new
_______________ constitution and the Fourteenth _______________________ to the
U.S. Constitution.
41. Governor Charles J. ___________________ had been elected in November 1865 after
having taken part in the convention that drafted the 1865 constitution.
42. In 1867, the governor [Jenkins] went to Washington to ask the _________________
Court to stop military ______________________. He was _____________________.
43. Back in Georgia, many conservative white __________________ urged voters to vote
"____________" on whether to have another constitutional _____________________.
They [African Americans] and some Republican whites ___________________ it.
44. Most of the convention ___________________ were members of the __________
Republican Party of Georgia. This party's members included _________________
Americans, ___________________ who had come to the South, and some southern
45. Conservative whites had nicknames for those last two groups: the northerners were
called ___________________________, and the southern whites who became
Republicans were known as _____________________. Both names were meant to be
46. General George ______________ became the military commander in Georgia in 1868.
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47. When he said the state had to pay the ________________ cost for the convention,
Governor Jenkins __________________. Meade ________________ him from office
48. Jenkins then left the state, taking with him both the _____________ of the governor's
office and his official ____________________. The state ___________________ took
$400,000 of the state's money to a bank in New York.
49. Meanwhile, the new state constitution the delegates wrote was a __________________
50. One of the most important feature was the _______________________ that the
Georgia legislature establish a system of ______________ public schools for
___________ of Georgia's children, ________________ and __________________.
51. Georgia's voters __________________ the new constitution and elected
__________________ Americans to both _________________ of the General Assembly.
52. One of the African American men elected was Henry McNeal __________________, a
__________________ at the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Macon.
53. During the war, he [Turner, a free person] became the first African American
_______________________ in the U.S. Army.
54. Turner came to __________________ after the war and was active in
__________________, serving as a ___________________ to the 1867 constitutional
convention and later in the ______________________.
55. One of the ________________ acts of the new legislature was to ________________
the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in July 1868.
56. With the requirement met, __________________ allowed Georgia _____________ into
the Union.
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57. Thinking they were safely back in the ________________, the ____________________
in the Georgia legislature, with the cooperation of about thirty white Republicans,
____________________ the African American legislators from both house of the
General Assembly.
58. They claimed that having the right to ____________ did not mean that African
Americans had the right to hold ________________.
59. _______________ leaders were horrified.
60. ____________________ called for a meeting of the _________________ legislators in
Macon. They founded the ________________ and ___________________ Rights
Association and turned to the national government for help.
61. With the beginning of _________________ Reconstruction, a _________________
organization known as the ________ ____________ ___________ (KKK) came to
62. Founded by former Confederate General Nathan Bedford _______________ in
Tennessee in 1866, the Klan became an ______________________ that tried to
frighten those it considered __________________ - carpetbaggers,
__________________ , and African Americans.
63. The ___________ worked mainly at the ____________ level, where local leaders
picked their _________________ and planned their _______________ acts.
64. Ku Kluxers, as they were sometimes called, used ____________________ and outright
violence to try to defeat the __________________ Party, maintain ______________
control, and control _________________ Americans both in their work and their
personal lives.
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65. The Klan saw itself as keeping African Americans "________ _____________
66. The U.S. House of Representatives _____________________ to the ______________
of the Georgia legislature [removal of Black legislators] by ___________________
Georgia's representatives in March.
67. In December 1869, after months of ______________ violence and upon
recommendation of Governor Rufus ___________________, who had been elected
governor in 1868, the U.S. government _________________________ military rule in
Georgia while Georgia underwent further ________________________.
68. Georgia and these states [the states that had not been readmitted to the Union] were
now pressured to ratify the ________________________ Amendment.
69. That amendment guaranteed that no one could be ______________ the right to vote
because of ___________ or _____________. This is sometimes called the
"_________________ _________________ amendment."
70. In fact, when ratified by the states, this _______________________ opened voting to
African Americans not only in the ________________, but also in the
__________________ states that had not previously allowed them to vote.
71. In January 1870, the new military commander of Georgia, General Alfred H. Terry,
_________________ the seats of the African Americans who had been removed from
the ______________________ Assembly in 1868.
72. With the ex-Confederates removed, the majority of the new legislature
_______________ the Fifteenth Amendment.
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73. Among the ____________________________ chosen for the December-March session
of the U.S. Congress was African American Jefferson Franklin _____________ of
74. Long became the first African American to make a _______________ on the floor of the
U.S. House of ________________________ when he urged the House to reject a
______________ that would change the _____________ required of ex-Confederates.
75. In 1872, with a _________________ elected as governor and Democratic
____________________ in both houses of the General Assembly, Georgia was back in
the control of ____________________ white southerners.
76.They believed they had "____________________" or "______________" the state from
the North's Reconstruction policies.
77. These Democrats became known as the ____________________.
78. With Redeemers in control, political _________________ that African Americans had
made began to _____________________.
79. Some Democrats _____________ from the party and became ____________________
80. In 1877, some Georgians wanted a new ____________________.
81. In June 1877, Georgians ______________ for a new constitutional convention by a
small margin.
82. The new constitution set up a ________________ state government and
___________________ the power of the _____________ areas of Georgia.
83. The constitution also established a _____________ _____________, which had to be
______________ in order for a citizen to vote. That made it difficult for _____________
people to vote, affecting both poor ______________ and most African Americans.
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84. In the early 1870s, the Republicans of the _____________ had hoped to stop the
violence of the __________ by passing the Ku Klux Klan Act.
85. They also tried to stop _____________________________ in public places by making it
__________________ in the 1875 ________________ ________________ Act.
86. (____________________________ is the unfair treatment of a person or a group
because of ____________________.)
87. But _________________________ of those two laws was not possible where the
Redeemers controlled __________ enforcement and the ________________ system.
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 17: Reconstructing the State
Section 2
Economic and Social Reconstruction
Use the information from page 430 - 439 to complete the
1. One of the most important problems facing Georgia and other southern states at the
end of the war was how to _________________ their ____________________.
2. The other issue to be addressed by the people of Georgia and the other southern states
was how the postwar __________________ would be structured.
3. Most _______________ southerners and many white northerners, however, did not
believe that ___________________ and whites were ________________.
4. Most white southerners hoped to maintain _______________ ___________________
(white control of government and society based on the belief that the white race is
superior to any other race.)
5. One of the most important actions taken by the _________________ government
during Reconstruction was the establishment of the ___________________ Bureau.
6. Founded in March 1865, the Bureau was led by Oliver O. __________________ (for
whom Howard University in Washington, D.C., was named).
7. Officially named the Bureau of ___________________, Freedmen, and
______________________ Lands, this agency provided ______________ to the ex-
slaves as they adjusted to their ______________________ and to the responsibility of
providing all the ______________________ of life for themselves.
8. The Bureau also provided______________ to poor whites who were struggling after the
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9. As the economy developed in the postwar period, the Bureau was there to try to help
___________________ the freedmen and poor whites from __________________ who
tried to ______________ advantage of them.
10. The Bureau also coordinated efforts to provide __________________ for the African
11. One of the most _________________________ areas of the Bureau's work was in
12. Working with northern ____________________, missionary societies, and other aid
groups, the Bureau helped bring ___________________ and education to those who
had been legally denied those benefits before the Civil War.
13. When ______________________ returned home as the war came to an end in the
spring of 1865, many Georgians worked to get crops __________________ and
14. The state produced less than __________ percent of the cotton it had
___________________ in 1860 and far less _______________ and ______________
as well.
15. Nevertheless, ___________________ continued to be "_____________" in Georgia's
Black Belt or Cotton Belt, that rich band of soil through the state that was good for
growing cotton.
16. Production [of rice] __________________ after the war and continued to drop in the
late 1800s as rice grown in ____________ took a larger share of the market.
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17. In the first year or two after the war, many freedmen had ___________________ to the
_______________ and large ___________________ did not have enough
18. Plantation owners still had their ______________, but they needed workers. Most
freedmen, on the other hand, __________ _________ land but knew how to
____________ the crops.
19. The most obvious way to bring _________________ to the land was for landowners to
pay ________________.
20. The Freedmen's Bureau set ____________________ for wages.
21. Some landowners had little _______________ after the war, especially if they had
_____________________ heavily in the Confederacy.
22. If the crop was ___________ good in a year, the landowner probably did not make a
_________________ (the amount left over after costs are subtracted from the sale
23. Another problem with wage _____________ was that the freedmen found that working
in the fields for wages was somewhat like the _______________ system under slavery.
24. As a result, another system began to emerge called _________________
____________________. (A _________________ is someone who rents land or living
space from an owner).
25. Some tenants ______________ the landowner a ____________ of the crop.
26. This system was known as ___________________________.
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27. Most tenant farmers and sharecroppers had to _____________ what they needed for
the upcoming year - such as ______________, ____________________, and even
_______________ - on __________________.
28. If the tenant did not make __________________ money to pay back the entire
______________, the unpaid amount was added to next year's _____________.
29. If the ___________________ or other factors resulted in a poor ________________,
the sharecropper went even _________________ into debt.
30. There were many problems with this system, known as ____________ ____________.
31. In spite of the _________________________ of sharecropping, there seemed to be
little ___________________________ during the Reconstruction period.
32. Landowners often had little money to __________ and both landowners and
sharecroppers needed to make a __________________.
33. Their major _________________ was the land, so _____________________ provided
a way for both to benefit from it.
34. In Georgia's towns, ______________________ and artisans continued to operate their
______________________ during Reconstruction.
35. Many African American ___________________ who had practiced their ____________
on the plantations now moved to the _______________ to set up shops.
36. African American ________________ found work as _____________________ and
37. Some of the northerners who came to Georgia and other southern states during
Reconstruction brought _____________ and opened stores.
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38. Some of the ______________________ that had produced _________________
supplies closed.
39. ______________ mills, sawmills, and other factories that produced goods needed in
peacetime continued or _________________ operating.
40. Manufacturing, however, required more _______________ than ________________
41. With the shortage of money in the South, ___________________ money often had to
come from the _______________.
42. Whether the products were _________________________ or ___________________,
they had to get to __________________.
43. Before the Civil War, Georgia had almost 1,500 miles of ____________________ lines
to carry those goods. After the war, hundreds of miles of ________________ had to be
___________________ or repaired.
44. In 1866, during Presidential Reconstruction, Georgia _______________ a law to help
the state _____________ money.
45. Instead of keeping those convicted of __________________ in prison, the state
_______________ (rented) them out to private companies, including the railroad
46. The leasing company had to pay all the _________________ for housing,
_________________, and _____________________ the prisoners.
47. In return, the _____________________ did the work the company needed.
48. Over time, this ________________ _______________ system became very brutal.
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49. All areas of the ___________________ - farming, industry, and retail - suffered when
the nation went into a ____________________ beginning in 1873 and lasting until the
late 1870s.
50. The _____________ ____________ had affected and __________________ all the
institutions in Georgia and the South. That included, __________________,
___________________, and clubs and other organizations.
51. Before the Civil War, most blacks __________________ to the churches of their
52. Because the largest _____________________________ for the southern whites were
__________________ and _____________________, the majority of African
Americans also belonged to them.
53. Churches became the first institution to ____________________ (to separate by race),
as African Americans broke away to ___________________ churches of their own.
54. They wanted to ___________________ in their own way, to ___________________
their own ministers, and to have some __________________ in governing their own
55. Sometimes _______________ help found these churches, donating _______________
or _______________.
56. Black churches became the ________________ of life for many. It was from these
churches that other organizations often emerged including ________________, social
_____________ and mutual-aid societies.
57. ____________________ was the major issue after the war.
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58. In antebellum Georgia, learning to _____________ had been __________________ for
blacks, although a few ______________ schools had existed.
59. After the war, African Americans were eager to be _________________ (able to read
and write).
60. For some, their __________________ was the major push; they longed to be able to
read the _________________ for themselves.
61. White leaders in Georgia wanted to make sure that if African Americans became
____________________, whites [poor whites] did not lag behind.
62. During Congressional Reconstruction, Georgia passed a _________ for a public school
system for ____________.
63. During Congressional reconstruction, the law ___________________ a public system
for ___________ children of the state. From the beginning, however, the
_________________ system was ___________________.
64. This system provided a ___________________ (elementary) education only and had a
______________-month school year.
65. Those who wanted a _____________________, or high school, education had to attend
__________________ schools, which meant only those who could _______________
to pay could receive that education.
66. In 1872, Gustavus J. _____________, a professor at Oglethorpe College, became what
we now call the ___________________________ of schools.
67. A ___________________ education was basically for the upper classes. Before the
war, ___________________ colleges were run by religious denominations, and the
_______________ operated what is now the University of Georgia.
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68. The __________________ colleges also reopened when the war ended.
69. All of these colleges, state and church, were for ______________ only.
70. During Reconstruction, the state of Georgia did not address ______________
education for _________________ Americans. _________________ institutions did.
71. The Reconstruction era laid the groundwork for ___________ education for Georgia's
children, but it would be _____________________ before opportunities grew for
______________ black and white Georgians.
72. In many ways, Reconstruction was a ____________________.
73. By 1877, southern states were once again controlled mainly by _____________ whites.
74. In spite of these failings, Reconstruction left behind some _______________________.
75. Former slaves were _____________ and no longer burdened by the fear of
______________ family separation.
76. African Americans had __________________ that provided _________________
comfort and uplift.
77. Reconstruction brought the framework for an _____________________ system in
78. The ______________________ Amendment protected against a return of total
79. The __________________________ gave blacks ____________________ and the
______________ of equality
80. The __________________ said ____________ could not be used to deny