Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 16: Georgia in the Civil War
Section 1
Georgia Goes to War
Use the information from page 386 - 401 to complete the
1. In early _________, Georgia joined with other southern states in a confederation whose
main _________________ became fighting a war to be independent from the
_________________ ___________________.
2. In the early years, the _________________________ were in other states, but
Georgia provided ___________ and __________________ for the war effort.
3. In the months between the election and the end of his term, President James
_____________________ did not do anything to stop the states that
_____________________ although he personally believed that secession was
4. By the end of 1861, _____________ states in the ________________ ________ had
5. All seven sent delegates to a special convention in Montgomery, Alabama, where they
voted to join together in what they considered a new country called the
______________________________ States of ____________________.
6. The delegates chose Jefferson ______________ of Mississippi as president and
Alexander Stephens of ___________________ as vice president.
7. In March, a few days after Abraham Lincoln became ____________________,
Georgia’s secession convention delegates met again, this time in Savannah.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!2 of!11
8. The convention [in Georgia] accepted the ________________________ constitution
without sending it to the _________________ for their vote.
9. Georgia Governor Joseph E. _______________, a strong believer in secession, had
quickly started to make Georgia _________________________.
10. He called for volunteers for two ____________________ for Georgia’s protection.
11. On January 3 [1861] , even before secession , he had ________________ Fort Pulaski
from the ____________________ government and claimed it for Georgia.
12. After secession, he began to ________________ other important federal government
properties that were within Georgia’s boundaries including the U.S. _____________ (a
factory that made gold and silver money) in Dahlonega and the U.S.
______________________ in Augusta.
13. In South Carolina, the commander of ____________ _________________, located in
Charleston harbor refused to ______________________ the fort.
14. President Lincoln had made it clear he was going to keep U.S.
___________________that was within the borders of the states that seceded.
15. The fort was in desperate need of __________________, so Lincoln sent a
supply expedition.
16. In April 1862, the ________________________ government learned that the supplies
were coming with an ________________ escort. Confederate President
_____________________ Davis gave the order to ____________ the fort.
17. Since Major Robert ____________________, the fort’s commander, would not
surrender, the Confederates opened ____________.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!3 of!11
18. Lincoln now considered the Confederates to be in open rebellion ________________
the government of the United States.
19. He called for state __________________ to join him in putting down the
_____________________. He asked for ________________ days of service because
he believed the rebellion would be over __________________.
20. The ___________ had begun. On both sides, __________________ rallied behind
their governments.
21. Many of the ordinary soldiers of the _____________ were motivated by
22. In the _________________, ordinary Confederates, most of whom did not own
__________________, wanted to ________________ their homes and families.
23. By spring 1862, the Confederate government had begun to _____________ men to
serve; the following year, the _______________ did as well.
24. A draft is a ________________________ enrollment for military service.
25. Before the surrender of Fort Sumter, eight ______________ states of the Upper South
were still _____________ of the Union.
26. ___________________ seceded very quickly, followed by North Carolina, Tennessee,
and Arkansas.
27. The western area of Virginia was so ______________ about Virginia’s secession that it
voted to form a new state - __________ ___________________ - and rejoin the United
28. The _________________ had many ____________________ going into the war.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!4 of!11
29. It had a much larger _______________________ and most of the
__________________________in the country.
30. Almost all ____________________ were made in the north.
31. The ______________ belonged to the Union.
32. The North also had a ____________________ national government, an ____________
in wartime.
33. The Confederacy had the advantage of fighting in __________________ surroundings
and having the support of the local population.
34. The Confederacy also hoped to get some __________________ and, perhaps, military
aid from the ____________________.
35. They thought the British would need southern _________________ for their textile mills.
36. That is one _________________ they thought they might be able to
________________ the more powerful Union.
37. Georgia began to _______________ as the state took part in the war.
38. Georgia leaders encouraged the growing of food _______________ instead of cotton.
39. In fact, Georgia became one of the major _____________________ of food for the
Confederate army.
40. The state also increased its ______________________.
41. Before the war, Georgia _________________ most of the manufactured goods it
needed from Europe or the _______________.
42. Early in the war, the Union plan was to ___________________ (prevent access to) all
Confederate ports.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!5 of!11
43. Daring adventurers, called blockade __________________, mostly private ships, made
money and became _______________ in the South, but their efforts were not enough.
44. After a search throughout the South, Colonel George Washington Raines chose
Augusta as the site for the Confederate _______________ Works, which manufactured
__________________________ for the entire Confederacy.
45. Georgia had a good system of ____________________, but the lines now had to carry
much more freight and many passengers as troops went to the battlefronts.
46. The home front in Georgia and other Confederate states was held together in large part
by ___________________.
47. As men went off to war, women found themselves in far different _____________ from
their prewar duties. They took over ___________________, farms, and shops.
48. They did what they could to raise _____________ needed for the cause, founded aid
organizations to help ___________________ soldiers, and by the end of the war, were
__________________ men they had never met before, an unthinkable ___________
before the war.
49. One of the major ___________________ the state and the entire Confederacy faced
was the ____________________.
50. ___________________ for the war was a challenge.
51. The Confederate government passed a small tax on ____________________ at the
beginning of the war.
52. The Confederacy also _____________________ money by issuing bonds, but many,
including planters, were unwilling to ____________ money to the government by
buying the bonds.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!6 of!11
53. A ______________ is a document that serves as proof of a debt and requires the
payment of the debt plus __________________.
54. Most of the money to pay for the war was simply _________________ up without
anything at all, like ____________ or ________________, backing it up. This meant
that the _____________ of the money depended on the _____________ people had in
the Confederate government.
55. As the war continued and people became ___________ ____________ that the
Confederacy might win, the money became less ___________________.
56. ____________________ began demanding ______________ of it [money] to pay for
57. In other words, ____________________ began.
58. The decreasing value of the money made many farmers less willing to ____________
their crops to the army if they were going to be _____________ with Confederate
59. The ____________ started simply _______________ what it needed and leaving
behind ____________ that said the government owed the farmers’ money.
60. The economy was also _________________ by the Union blockade.
61. Not only did the blockade keep goods from coming ___________ the state, it also
prevented goods from _______________.
62. So money that normally came into the state through _____________ was cut off during
the war.
63. Because goods were not coming in, ___________________ occurred.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!7 of!11
64. Although Georgians were lucky that the actual fighting did not come their way until late
1863, many of the institutions of normal life were __________________ early when so
many of the _____________ left the state for ________________________ in other
65. Before the war, Georgia under Governor ________________ had just begun to set up a
public _________________ system; that effort stopped.
66. For the schools and academies that did remain open, more and more ______________
became teachers. (Before the war, most teachers were ______________.)
67. Like _________________, teaching became an acceptable _____________________
for females during the war.
68. After the war, teaching and nursing became the two major _______________________
available to women.
69. The war also affected ____________________. In the beginning, both the Union and
the Confederate sides thought _____________ was on their side.
70. When the war began going badly for the _______________________, some ministers
came to __________________ that God was ________________ because of the way
slaves had been treated.
71. Georgia's first experience with _________________ troops was near Savannah.
72. The commander at Savannah was Brigadier General William H. T. _______________,
a Georgian.
73. With the assistance of confederate General _________________ E. Lee, the city built
___________________ (fortified structures for artillery) and ____________________
(embankments) and put stones and other obstructions in the river.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!8 of!11
74. The major action of the war in the first ____________ years happened away from
75. In Tennessee in early 1862, Union General Ulysses S. ________________ won two
________________ before the Confederates slowed him down.
76. Meanwhile, Confederate General Robert E. ___________ had just been appointed to
head the Army of Northern Virginia at the beginning of June 1862.
77. Lee managed to hold off Union _______________ in fierce fighting at what was called
the _______________ ________________ Battles from June 25 to July 1, 1862. That
saved _______________________ from Union capture.
78. After winning a victory in the Battle of Second __________ _________ (Manassas) in
late August 1862, Lee went north into ____________________.
79. He needed _____________________ which he could get in Maryland.
80. He believed that a victory might "__________________" Maryland, a ______________
state that remained in the Union.
81. Lee's forces, outnumbered ________________ to _______________, dug in for
defense behind ____________________ Creek near the town of Sharpsburg.
82. Lee was opposed by Union Major General George B. ____________________ Army of
the Potomac.
83. Despite ________________ fighting, each army held its ground.
84. That day, _____________________ 17, 1862, was the _____________________ one-
day battle of not only the _______________ _____________, but all U.S. wars.
85. Almost ______________ were killed and 17,000 ________________ at the end of that
day of __________________ fighting.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!9 of!11
86. In the summer of 1862, Abraham _________________ had made the decision to
____________ down the institution of slavery.
87. During the summer, Lincoln drafted the ______________________
________________________. (_________________________ is the act of freeing
enslaved people.)
88. The Emancipation Proclamation said that, on January 1, ____________, slaves in the
areas still in rebellion would become ____________.
89. However, it did not apply to slaves in the _______________ states that had remained in
the Union.
90. To make sure that other states did not bring ________________ back after the war,
Congress and Lincoln supported a permanent _____________________ to the U.S.
Constitution that would make slavery _________________________.
91. In the West, __________________ General Ulysses S. Grant had _________________
to take Vicksburg, Mississippi, in the ______________ attempt in the winter of 1862 -
92. When they attacked Vicksburg (the second time), however, they still could not take the
heavily __________________ town. They instead began to dig in and, for the new few
weeks, laid ________________.
93. The town finally ___________________________ on July 4, 1863, after ___________
weeks of being bombarded by _________________ fire.
94. This important victory gave the Union control of the _____________________ River.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!10 of!
95. Meanwhile, in the East, the _________________________ had won a major victory in
___________________ in May, when General Robert E. Lee's troops defeated a Union
force almost twice as large at ________________________.
96. Confident of his troops after such a __________________, Lee decided to try once
again to _________________ Union territory, this time in ______________________.
97. Lee hoped that a victory in the ________________ might make the Union less will to
continue ____________________.
98. In June 1863, Lee's army of _________________ men headed north though Maryland
into Pennsylvania.
99. The Battle of ___________________ was a _________________ point in the Civil
100. The newly appointed commander of the Union Army of the Potomac, General George
Gordon ________________, had been sent to protect ___________________ and
101. On the _____________ day of the battle, perhaps the best-known fighting took place.
102. General George E. __________________ led over 14,000 _________________ troops
across an open field toward the Union forces on ___________________ Ridge.
103. In less than an hour, _______________ Confederates had become ________________
(those killed, wounded, or missing), and the attack - forever known as Pickett's
____________- was history.
104. ___________ was forced to retreat into Virginia, ending the _______________ of the
Confederacy for victory.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!1!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!11 of!
105. In November of that year [1863], ______________________ Lincoln went to the
battlefield [Gettysburg] to dedicate it as a national _________________ cemetery.
106. Lincoln's famous ___________-minute speech is known as the ___________________
Name ______________________ Class ____________________ Date __________________
Georgia Studies for Georgia Students
Chapter 16: Georgia in the Civil War
Section 2
The War Comes to Georgia
Use the information from page 404 - 412 to complete the
1. As the ____________ rate of soldiers rose due to battle and to ________________ in
the army camps, many Georgians became ___________________ with the war.
2. In 1862, the Confederate government had begun _________________ soldiers into the
army. The __________________ could afford to ___________ people to go as their
______________________, but middle-class _________________ could not.
3. During the first two years of the war, the __________________ had been fought in the
West and in the upper South, especially ____________________.
4. With the exception of the taking of Fort Pulaski, the ____________________ of
Savannah and Georgia's coast, and the ______________ on the Western and Atlantic
Railroad, the ___________________ aspect of the war had not come to Georgia.
5. In late 1863, however, the fighting did come to ______________ Georgia.
6. Union General William Tecumseh ___________________ brought the war into Georgia
that summer with his campaign to take first __________________, then
7. The areas along Sherman's path were in _________________ when the war finally
ended in the spring of ______________.
8. While ______________ had been working to take _________________, Union General
William ______________________ had begun moving toward middle Tennessee on
June 24, 1863.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!2 of!!7
9. Opposing him was Confederate General Braxton ______________, who had retreated
all the way to _______________________.
10. Lincoln had wanted Rosecrans to _________________ Chattanooga immediately, but
Rosecrans waited until mid-August.
11. Confederate President Jefferson ______________ ordered _______________ to attack
Rosecrans and sent help.
12. Confederate reinforcements under General Joseph ___________________ arrived
from Mississippi, and Georgian James ____________________ headed through the
Carolinas and Georgia to join them.
13. The real battle began on September 18 near _____________________ Creek.
14. The ________________ of Chickamauga lasted ______________ days.
15. Because Bragg forced the ______________ out of Georgia, he was considered the
16. But the losses on both sides were _____________________: ______________ Union
soldiers and almost 20,000 _______________________ men were killed, wounded and
17. Bragg's officers wanted to immediately follow the __________________ Union troops
and __________________ the army. Instead he decided to lay _______________ to
18. In October, Lincoln had decided to put General _______________ in charge, and he
arrived on October 23 [outside of Chattanooga].
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!3 of!!7
19. On November 24-25, Union troops ________________ the Confederates first from
Missionary Ridge (southeast of Chattanooga) and then back into _________________.
20. As the troops wintered in Tennessee in 1863-1864, President Lincoln decided to
place General Grant in __________________ of all the union armies.
21. Grant believed in new strategies, including the idea of "continuous
___________________," even when the loss of life might be great.
22. He believed that the South had to give up the _____________ to fight.
23. Union General George _______________ received orders to advance on Confederate
General Robert E. ____________ in Virginia, and Grant chose General
________________ Sherman to command the _________________ of Georgia.
24. During the first two years of the war, most battles had been ________________, some
only a day, with long periods between fighting.
25. Battles [now] lasted _________________, with sometimes very few days to rest in
26. Another change in the strategy in 1864 was that the war was taken to the
___________________ population.
27. Rather than relying on __________________ being brought to them from behind, the
Union soldiers lived off the _____________ and the _______________.
28. When Sherman began his campaign for Atlanta, he had 98,000 troops to face the
65,000 troops of Confederate General Joseph E. ___________________, who replaced
_____________ after the Chattanooga disaster.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!4 of!!7
29. . As Sherman marched through north Georgia toward Atlanta, Johnston was
repeatedly forced to __________________ from his defensive position as Sherman's
men _______________ around him. When the two armies met in a conventional battle
on June 27 at __________________ Mountain, Sherman's troops had five times the
number of ____________________ as Johnston's.
30. Johnston's defensive tactics led Confederate President Jefferson Davis to replace him
with General John B. ________________.
31. Sherman continued to fight toward _______________, and by late July he was on the
32. Sherman, however, could __________ take the city from its defenders, who were led by
General Hood.
33. The war was becoming _________________ in the north, and many thought President
Lincoln might lose the _________________ in the fall of 1864.
34. The _____________________ Party of the north was running against him on a
__________________ of opposing emancipation and trying to make _____________
with the South.
35. (A _____________________ is a statement of the principles and policies that a political
party supports.)
36. Georgia's Alexander __________________ was still vice president of the Confederacy.
He hoped that a Democratic _________________ against Lincoln might bring a cease
fire (__________________) and perhaps even an end to the war, with the South
recognized as an independent ____________________.
37. Hood's and Sherman's _______________ fought the rest of July and August.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!5 of!!7
38. Finally, _________________ pulled his troops from the trenches north of the city and
sent them around the ___________________ of Atlanta to destroy the
___________________ and __________ Atlanta off from the rest of the South.
39. Hood at first went to northern Georgia, hoping to cut off the _________________
Sherman and his men were getting from ___________________.
40. He [Hood] was unsuccessful and had to ____________________ to Alabama.
41. Sherman sent a __________________ to Lincoln; "__________________ is ours..."
Thanks, in part, to Sherman, Lincoln ___________ reelection in the North.
42. General Hood took his army through northern Alabama and then into Tennessee,
hoping Sherman would ____________________ him.
43. Sherman, however, was determined to ________________ through Georgia from
Atlanta to the _________________ Ocean.
44. His "_________________ to the __________" was aimed at making "__________ so
_________________" that Georgia would want to ____________ it.
45. His troops left a __________________ Atlanta in mid-November and spread out over
the countryside.
46. They ________________________ railroads and bridges, __________ food from
Georgia's fields and _________________ up the cotton crop.
47. In the Georgia state capital of _________________________, the Union soldiers held a
_______________ (pretend) session of the legislature and ______________ Georgia's
ordinance of secession.
48. As Union troops marched the ___________ hundred miles to the sea, ______________
Americans left the plantations and _________________ them.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!6 of!!7
49. Sherman's march meant __________________. However, they often encountered
_______________ from the northern troops.
50. (_________________ is abusive or discriminatory behavior toward members of another
51. Many northerners thought _______________ was wrong, but they did not believe in the
___________________ of blacks and whites.
52. Sherman's troops reached ___________________ on December 21, 1864.
53. In February, Sherman's army left for ______________ Carolina, the state where both
_________________ and the ______________ had begun.
54. While most of Georgia's _______________ Milledgeville had been spared
__________________ much of Columbia was _________________ down.
55. These ______________ in Georgia and South Carolina accomplished what Sherman
had hoped. More and more ____________________ were ready for peace.
56. By 1864, the main Confederate _________________ of war camp for
___________________ Union soldiers in Richmond had become overcrowded.
57. The Confederate government decided to build a new _____________ camp deeper
within the Confederacy. The site chosen was in Macon County in southwest Georgia
near the railroad _____________ of Andersonville.
58. The prison opened in February ___________. In March, Captain Henry __________
took over command.
59. Unfortunately, ______________________ quickly became overcrowded. By August
1864, it held more than _____________ Union prisoners.
60. This overcrowding led to _______________ problems.
Georgia(Studies(for(Georgia(Students!!!!!!!!!Chapter!16!-!2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Page!7 of!!7
61. The creek [running through the prison] became __________________ with sewage and
garbage, ____________________________ the drinking water. This caused
________________ to sweep through the prison population.
62. ____________ and other necessary items were difficult to get in a Confederacy dealing
with __________________, so prisoners became ______________________.
63. ___________ and insects plagued the prisoners during the summer.
64. During the time of Andersonville's operation, almost _______ percent of those sent
there ___________. Captain Wirz was _______________ for many of the problems
although some have argued there was little he could do.
65. The last action in Georgia came when Union General James _____________, with
thirteen thousand men, came into Georgia from Alabama.
66. Georgia General Howell ____________ and his three thousand ___________________
offered only weak ___________________.
67. Meanwhile in Virginia, Union General _____________ laid siege to Petersburg and
68. In April [1865], ____________ was forced to abandon their [Petersburg and Richmond]
69. He headed toward ____________ Carolina.
70. Lee, seeing that further fighting would cost more _____________ without any
_________________, surrendered on April 9, 1865, at ________________________
Court House, Virginia.
71. For _____________ men and women, the end of the war meant _________________.