Air and Water in the
Environment
T E A C H E R ’ S G U I D E
Online version
and additional resources
available at
www.scholastic.ca/education/nlscience
Password:
Sci1nL2
Online version
and additional resources
available at
www.scholastic.ca/education/nlscience
Password:
Sci1nL2
2
Grade
Table of Contents
3 Welcome to the
Air and Water in the Environment
Unit
6 Planning Guide
10 Preparing for the Unit
Individual Teaching Plans
11 Air in the Environment
18 States of Water
25 Water and Temperature
33 Moisture Around Us
42 Changes in Moisture
48 Changing Moisture Levels
54 Changes in Air Conditions
61 Protection from Different Weather Conditions
69 Air, Water, and People
75 Pollution
Assessment
80 Specific Curriculum Outcomes Checklist
81 My Inquiry
82 Student Self-Assessment of Inquiry Process
83 Teacher Assessment of Inquiry Process
84 Inquiry Process Rubric
86 Additional Resources
88 Letter to Parents and Caregivers
Air and Water in the
Environment
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 1
Let’s Do Science, Newfoundland and Labrador
Grade 2 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment Teacher’s Guide
Reviewers:
Catherine Phillips, NL
Janice Ryan, NL
Indigenous Reviewer:
Craig White, Education Consultant, St. John’s, NL
Copyright ©2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
175 Hillmount Road, Markham, Ontario, Canada, L6C 1Z7.
Pages designated as BLMs or reproducibles may be reproduced under license from
Access Copyright, or with the express written permission of Scholastic Canada, or as
permitted by law.
All rights are otherwise reserved, and no part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, scanning, recording or otherwise, without the prior written
consent of the publisher or a license from The Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency
(Access Copyright). For an Access Copyright license, visit www.accesscopyright.ca or
call toll free to 1-800-893-5777.
ISBN 978-1-4430-4326-7
Printed in Canada.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 17 18 19 20 21
Science Cards
This collection of 12 Science Cards will support students’
exploration of air and water in the environment with each
large-format card focusing on a different concept. The bright,
colourful photographs and detailed illustrations will engage
students and give them multiple opportunities to explore
a variety of concepts. These stand-alone cards can also be
used at centres to stimulate student explorations. Also, digital
versions of these cards are available on the Teacher’s Website
to be used with an Interactive Whiteboard.
In this unit, students develop their understanding of air and
water in the environment through a variety of explorations and
investigations. Multiple components will engage students and
support learning of the specific science concepts.
Welcome to the Air and Water
in the Environment Unit
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 3
Science Read Alouds
Two Read Aloud texts allow you to introduce and
engage students with science concepts. Come On,
Rain! by Karen Hesse and Jon J. Muth is a story
full of wonderfully rich vocabulary that introduces
the concepts of moisture in the environment and
changing air conditions.
The Little Knight Who Battled the Rain by Gilles Tibo and Geneviève Després
is a delightful story that explores the effects of weather on objects and
materials and which can lead students to an investigation of how to protect
objects and materials under different weather conditions.
Anchor Video
The Anchor Video: Air and Water in the Environment, found on the
Teacher’s Website, introduces students to essential questions about
changing air conditions; moisture in the air, in materials, and in
living things; and how we can keep our air and water clean and safe
to use. The video gives a number of examples to activate students’
thinking and to promote questions.
Poster
The What Is the Inquiry Process? poster will support
students as they follow the steps for guided and open
inquiries throughout the unit and learn to question,
observe, and explore.
Interactive Whiteboard Activities
There are 9 interactive activities for the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB)
found on the Teacher’s Website. These activities provide
students with a variety of hands-on learning experiences
and the opportunity to apply learning in a supported
environment. The IWB Activities are tied to the teaching
plans to ensure that the learning is done in context.
2
3
4
1
What Is the
Inquiry Process?
ISBN: 978-1-4430-4041-9 Illustrations by Leanne Franson
Ask a question.
Make a plan.
Explore.
Record your
results.
Think about
the results.
Make conclusions.
Share what
you learned.
4
Science Library
The Science Library provides a collection of colourful and
engaging non-fiction and fiction texts at a variety of reading
levels. These texts support students as they explore various
science concepts and skills. See the Science Library Guide in the Teacher’s
Guide Binder or online for brief summaries, science connections, and
suggested reading approaches (e.g., Independent Reading and Read Aloud).
Teacher’s Guide
This guide provides detailed suggestions for using all of the components
including the Science Cards, Anchor Video, reproducible
Blackline Masters (BLMs), and IWB Activities with your
students. Visual cues such as book covers, thumbnail
images, and icons highlight the use of each component
along with tools such as Science Folders and Journals,
the Word Wall, and the I Wonder Wall. Strategies and
tools you need to assess students’ learning, such as
rubrics and checklists, are also included.
Embedded within the teaching plans are connections
to Guided and Shared texts from Literacy Place for
the Early Years, Grade 2 that relate to the concepts
explored in Air and Water in the Environment.
Teacher’s Website
In addition to the Science Cards, Anchor Video, and IWB Activities
mentioned above, the Teacher’s Website provides a digital copy of the
Teacher’s Guide for this unit along with access to an image bank
containing the variety of photographic images found on the Science
Cards and IWB Activities. These images may be used for teachers
to create new IWB Activities or for students to incorporate into
presentations. Find the Teacher’s Website at
www.scholastic.ca/education/nlscience
Password: Sci1nL2
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 5
Planning Guide for Air and Water in the Environment
Teaching Plans Specific Curriculum
Outcomes
Components Materials Literacy Place
Connections
Air in the
Environment
Students will explore
evidence that air
exists all around them
and use scientific
terminology when
communicating their
understanding.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 1.0
• 2.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 3.0
Science Card 1
Anchor Video:
Air
and Water in the
Environment
IWB Activity 1
electric fan (optional)
streamers or light
scarf (optional)
balloons
books
hand-held pump
shatterproof cups
low-sided container of
water (e.g., a baking
dish)
empty water bottles
scrap paper
plastic or paper bags
straws
whoopy cushion
(optional)
students’ Science
Journals
States of Water
Students will identify
the three states of
water and compare
the characteristics of
water and ice.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 1.0
• 2.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 4.0
Science Card 2
IWB Activity 2
BLM
Same or
Different?
IWB Activity 3
students’ Science
Journals
washing tubs, plastic
sheeting, newspapers,
or towels
ice cubes or Freezies
(optional)
warm, room
temperature, and cool
water in shatterproof
glasses, tubs, or
bottles of various
volumes
sponges
various kinds of paper
empty containers of
various sizes
thermometers
digital camera
(optional)
An Early Worm
Got Out of Bed
(“Fog,” page 7,
Shared Reading–
Active Learning
Kit)
6
Teaching Plans Specific Curriculum
Outcomes
Components Materials Literacy Place
Connections
Water and
Temperature
Students will predict
how and why water
changes from one
state to another,
make and record
observations and
measurements while
investigating how and
why water changes
state from liquid to
solid or vice versa,
and discover the role
of temperature in
changes of state.
Skills [GCO2]
• 6.0
• 7.0
STSE/K [1/3]
• 5.0
Science Card 3
What Is the Inquiry
Process?
poster
BLM
When Did It
Melt?
IWB Activity 4
kettle or humidifier
two mugs
thermometers
metal spoons or hand
mirrors
frozen shapes or
Freezies (optional)
incandescent lightbulb
or hair dryer
containers of different
shapes and sizes
tray or container for
transport
timer (optional)
ice cubes
cups with warm, room
temperature, and cool
water
trays
index cards
markers
plastic googly eyes
bowls, cardboard,
bubble wrap, and
other materials to
insulate ice-cube
people
students’ Science
Journals
washtubs or other
large waterproof
containers
water or snow
(optional)
Journey of a Water
Drop
(Guided
Reading, Level N)
Moisture Around Us
Students will ask and
explore questions
about the amount and
location of moisture in
the environment and
in living things.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 9.0
• 10.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 8.0
Science Card 4
BLM
Which is the
Juiciest?
Come On, Rain!
(Read Aloud)
What Is the Inquiry
Process?
poster
BLM
My Plan
slices of fruits and
vegetables of varying
moisture levels
paper towels
clear plastic bag
leafy house plant
digital camera
(optional)
spray bottle of water
dehumidifier
students’ Science
Folders
students’ Science
Journals
Continued on next page...
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 7
Planning Guide for Air and Water in the Environment (continued)
Teaching Plans Specific Curriculum
Outcomes
Components Materials Literacy Place
Connections
Changes in
Moisture
Students will explore
changes in location,
amount, and form
of moisture, and
communicate with
others as they are
exploring.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 12.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 11.0
Science Card 5
IWB Activity 5
BLM
Concept
Diagram
paper towel
pencils or markers
wet towels or bowls of
water
two identical containers
(ideally metal cans)
water and ice
students’ Science
Folders
students’ Science
Journals
plastic wrap
ice cubes or snow
warm water
metal tray or pie plate
large glass jar with a
wide mouth
digital camera (optional)
coloured paper
paint brushes (optional)
Changing Moisture
Levels
Students will,
through guided
inquiry investigations,
discover how and why
moisture changes, and
communicate what
they did and what they
found out.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 14.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 13.0
Science Card 6
What Is the Inquiry
Process?
poster
BLM
My Inquiry
identical pieces of cloth
sealable plastic bags
slices of fruits and
vegetables
digital camera (optional)
Flex Arm camera
(optional)
food dehydrator
(optional)
containers of various
shapes and sizes (e.g.,
cups, saucers)
variety of materials (e.g.,
foil, construction paper,
mirrors, plastic wrap, wax
paper, felt, cotton)
heat sources (e.g.,
hairdryers, electric fans,
or heat lamps)
students’ Science
Folders
small plastic cup and
container it will fit in (e.g.,
bowl)
plastic wrap
marker
small stone
lamp (optional)
8
Teaching Plans Specific Curriculum
Outcomes
Components Materials Literacy Place
Connections
Changes in Air
Conditions
Students will observe
and measure changes
in air conditions,
select tools
appropriate for their
needs, and explore
how weather affects
objects and materials.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 16.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 15.0
Science Card 7
BLM
Venn
Diagram
IWB Activity 6
• BLM
Pinwheel
variety of weather
instruments
thermometers
paper or index cards
markers
crayons
coloured pencils or
markers
scissors
straws
paper fasteners
single-hole paper punch
digital camera (optional)
The North
Wind and the
Sun
(Guided
Reading, Level
H)
Protection from
Different Weather
Conditions
Students will explore
and choose materials
that can protect
objects and materials
in specific weather
conditions.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 19.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 17.0
• 18.0
Science Card 8
T
he Little Knight
Who Battled the
Rain
(Read Aloud)
Science Card 9
coloured construction
paper (sheets)
students’ Science
Folders
common and galvanized
nails
rust protection coatings
craft sticks
paint and/or wood stain
leather swatches
plain fabric and waxed
fabric
protective spray, such as
Armor All
small squares of dark-
and light-coloured
construction paper
digital camera (optional)
Air, Water, and
People
Students will explore
how water is used
and obtained in
their homes and
local community,
and construct and
label pictographs to
communicate some of
their findings.
Skills [GCO 2]
• 21.0
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 20.0
Science Card 10
IWB Activity 7
BLM
Our Water
Use
IWB Activity 8
students’ Science
Folders
students’ Science
Journals
Pollution
Students will explore
the causes and effects
of air and water
pollution, and suggest
personal actions they
can take to reduce
pollution.
STSE/K [GCO 1/3]
• 22.0
Science Card 11
IWB Activity 9
Science Card 12
bottle of dirty water
bottle of clean water
students’ Science
Journals
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 9
1. Curiosity Centre
The Curiosity Centre gives students an
opportunity to investigate science ideas and tools
through active participation, free exploration,
and independent play. In this hands-on centre,
students can touch, feel, and explore objects
related to air and water in the environment.
The Curiosity Centre could have
bags, balloons, transparent plastic cups,
whoopy cushion, straws, paper, paper
towels, containers of various sizes and
shapes
samples of liquid and solid water: ice cubes;
Freezies; warm, room temperature, and cool
water in various containers
bubble wrap, plastic wrap, felt, cardboard,
various fabrics, Styrofoam, and other
materials useful for wrapping ice to slow
melting times
baking trays, newspaper
items to test for moisture, such as soil,
moss, baby wipes
Check the centre frequently to ensure it is
well stocked with items. Invite students to
contribute to the centre by bringing in items
or photographs related to air and water in the
environment. Remind students to tidy up the
materials when they are finished.
Note: You may choose to display new items
every few days or introduce items one at a time
throughout the unit.
Preparing for the Unit
2. Science Journals and Folders
Demonstrate for students
how to record observations,
questions, ideas, results,
notes, and so on, by writing or drawing pictures
in their Science Journals. Encourage students to
add new questions or ideas to their Journals as
often as they like.
Science Journals along with completed BLMs,
drawings, stories, etc. related to the unit can be
stored in the students’ Science Folders
3. Word Wall
Add any relevant science terminology
to the Word Wall throughout the unit.
4. I Wonder Wall
Build the I Wonder Wall throughout the
unit by posting students’ questions as
they arise. Refer to the I Wonder Wall
often and select questions that students may be
ready to answer.
5. Reading Centre
Add texts (books, magazines, and photographs)
relating to air and water to the Reading Centre.
Or, you may choose to include these texts in
the Curiosity Centre. The titles in the Science
Library will help start off a collection of books.
Also refer to the lists of texts pertaining to Air
and Water in the Environment in the Additional
Resources section of this guide (pages 86–87).
Word
10
Focus: Students will explore evidence that air exists all around them and use scientific terminology
when communicating their understanding.
Air in the Environment
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 1.0 pose questions that lead to exploration and
investigation [GCO 2]
• 2.0 communicate using scientific terminology
[GCO 2]
• 3.0 explore how air surrounds us, takes up
space, and is felt as wind when it moves
[GCO 1/3]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• select materials to demonstrate how air
surrounds us, takes up space, and can be felt
as it moves
• use scientific terminology to communicate
their observations
NOTES:
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 11
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
recognize the role and contribution of science in their understanding of the
world [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
Social Studies
Students will be expected to:
describe how people’s interactions with their environment have changed
over time [2.4.2]
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• speak and listen to explore, extend, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts,
ideas, feelings, and experiences [GCO 1]
• respond personally to a range of texts [GCO 6]
• Review school safety rules before students go outside for an investigation.
• Use trays or other containers when working with water and wipe up any
spills immediately.
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
Science Card 1
Anchor Video:
Air
and Water in the
Environment
IWB Activity 1
electric fan (optional)
streamers or light scarf
(optional)
balloons
books
hand-held pump
paper towels
transparent, shatterproof
cups
low-sided container of
water (e.g., a baking dish)
empty water bottles
scrap paper
plastic or paper bags
straws
whoopy cushion (optional)
students’ Science Journals
Display a KWLN chart.
Create a Wordle or
another word cloud
puzzle.
Invite an Elder or an
Indigenous Knowledge
Keeper to participate in
the Nature Walk.
• air
• water
• weather
• wind
• temperature
• question
• explore
• observe
• evidence
Safety
12
• “Air” is the mixture of gases found in the lowest part of Earth’s
atmosphere. Air is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with traces of water
vapour, carbon dioxide, and other gases.
• Air takes up space. A balloon expands when inflated with air because air
takes up space.
• Air has mass. Weight is a measurement of mass; if a balloon were weighed
before and after it was inflated with air, the inflated balloon (balloon +
air) would weigh more.
• Air moves. We feel air movement or see its consequences when it makes
other objects or substances move. Wind is the movement of large masses
of air.
• Air can exert pressure. As air is pumped into a container, it fills the
container and then compresses (squeezes), generating pressure. Air
pressure can be used to do work; for example, in automobile tires, air
pressure supports the vehicle.
• The volume (amount of space it takes up) and density (mass per unit
volume) of air changes with temperature. Heating adds energy, which
causes the gas particles in air to move faster and further apart; in a flexible
container (e.g. a balloon) or in the atmosphere, this causes the volume
to increase and the density to decrease. Therefore, a cubic litre of cold
dense air will weigh more than a cubic litre of warm, less dense air. A
hot air balloon rises because the air within it is less dense than the air
surrounding it.
• Students often believe that scientists only invent things or solve practical
problems, and imagine them as working alone in laboratories. Address
this misconception by integrating “science” and “scientist” into enjoyable
activities that involve observation and exploration. For example, during the
nature work, mention how a scientist would look for interesting things and
try to find out more about them, just like they are doing.
• Grade 2 students rely on their five senses to tell them about their world far
more than logical ideas. Perhaps because air is invisible, students may not
think of air as being a substance at all, or imagine that it comes and goes
(such as with wind or by breathing), not existing otherwise. Students may
think of wind as a different substance than air.
• Students at this age often think that evidence is something they already
know, have personally experienced, or that someone told them, and are
unlikely to consider observations of an experiment to be evidence. Ask
students to explain their reasoning to get insight into their viewpoints and
gently challenge these ideas.
Science Background
Possible Misconceptions
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 13
Air and Water Around Us
Create a chart, such as a KWLN chart, for recording the class exploration of
air and water. This is also an opportunity to start the I Wonder Wall. Share
Science Card 1 and ask students to tell you what they notice about the
pictures. Prompt thinking by asking:
What do these pictures show?
Record students’ ideas and questions on the KWLN chart. Then, wonder aloud
why the flag, the dandelion seeds, and ribbons on the fan are moving and
then, if there is anything the same about the iceberg, the running water, and
the steam from the kettle. Pause during your wondering so that students can
respond, and encourage them to share any questions they have. Then ask:
Where can you find air and water?
How do you know if there is air and/or water in the picture?
How can we group these pictures into air and water?
Record students’ responses using a T-chart or take the opportunity to
demonstrate using a graphic organizer such as a Venn diagram.
Anchor Video
Play the Anchor Video: Air and Water in the Environment which is located
on the Teacher’s Website. Set a focus for viewing by asking students to think
about why air and water are important. You may choose to pause the video
to allow students to answer questions or to discuss any questions which
students may have.
I Wonder Nature Walk
Take the class on a walk outside, somewhere that has natural water (e.g., a
body of water, a puddle) and objects that will readily show wind movement
(e.g., a flag, vegetation). You might invite an Elder or an Indigenous
Knowledge Keeper to participate in the walk, and ask her or him to share
stories or other cultural aspects of how air is important to Indigenous
peoples, such as the importance in predicting weather when living on the
land. Photograph or have students sketch things that pique their interest and
which relate to air and water in the environment.
As you are walking, model posing “I wonder” questions about air and water.
For example, ask:
I wonder why the leaves are moving?
I wonder why it’s warmer out of the shade?
I wonder why the grass is wet?
Ask students what they wonder about as the walk continues. Students may
not naturally generate I wonder questions related to air and water around
them, but do not restrict the topic of their questions.
ACTIVATE
14
Back in the classroom, sketch a large map of the walk route in a central place
and, working as a class, have students add the photographs and/or sketches
from the walk. Students might make drawings from memory and add these
images. Continue to model “I wonder” questions about air and water as
students work on adding images. Prompt students to ask their own questions.
Encourage creative ways of expression, such as supporting a student to draw a
picture of a phenomenon they are curious about. Use of a question generator
such as Wonderopolis or question matrix may lead students to deeper
questioning. Add these questions to the I Wonder Wall in the classroom.
Air and Water Words
Create and make copies of a Wordle, using terminology that came up in
the Nature Walk or any or all of the following unit terminology: air, water,
ice, water vapour, steam, moisture, weather, wind, rain, snow, hail, fog,
cloud, dew, frost, humidity, question, explore, investigate, observe, predict,
measure, record, sequence, group, conclude, communicate, solid, liquid, gas,
evaporation, condensation, melting, freezing, temperature, thermometer, rain
gauge, windsock, anemometer, weather vane, waterproof, rust, stream, river,
lake, pond, ocean, wells, pipes, tap, pollution, conservation. Have students
circle any words they don’t know, and tell that they will learn about these
words in this unit. Have students keep the Wordle somewhere they can
access easily and refer to throughout the unit. Alternatively, make thematic
Wordles based on key concepts, such as air, states of matter, moisture,
drying, weathering, and the environment.
Introducing Air
Open a window or turn on an electric fan to show students the effects of air
movement on a light object, such as a streamer or light scarf. Ask students
to explain what happens to the object. Respond to students’ suggestions by
asking:
How do you know? What is the evidence?
Explain that evidence is something we observe (e.g., see, hear, or feel) that
backs up an idea. Add “evidence” to the Word Wall, and continue to use it
during discussions with the students. Then, ask:
Is there anything else you wonder about what we observed?
Is there anything you wonder about evidence?
Add students’ questions to the I Wonder Wall.
Carnival of the Air
You will perform three demonstrations, some of which involve direct student
participation. Before class, or at the start of class with student help, set up
a stage area to perform the demonstrations as acts in a show. Students can
Word
CONNECT
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 15
create a banner or sign for each act. You might wear a costume, such as
the top hat and tails of a ringmaster for the Carnival of the Air; you could
also present the demonstrations as a magic show. Make a video of each
demonstration.
Demonstration 1:
Gather balloons, a few books, and (if available) a hand-held pump. Speak
like a carnival barker and say:
Watch as I raise these books without touching them!
Show a balloon to the students, and then place it under the books. Using
the pump or your breath, inflate the balloon until the stack of books begins
to rise. You might ask for a volunteer to inflate the balloon. When the
performance is over, ask:
Why do you think the books rose?
What was in the balloon? What is the evidence?
Where did the air come from? How do you know?
Demonstration 2:
Gather paper towels, a transparent shatterproof cup, and a low-sided
container of water, such as a baking dish. In your carnival voice, say:
I am now going to put a paper towel in water, and it won’t get wet!
Place a crumpled paper towel inside the bottom of the cup, and invert the
cup in the container of water. The air in the cup will displace the water, so
water will not enter the cup and moisten the towel. Ask for volunteers to
perform the same act. Challenge students to explain the trick and provide
evidence for their explanations. If any of the towels get wet, ask students to
suggest reasons to explain this, again asking them to provide evidence.
Demonstration 3:
Gather several empty water bottles and scrap paper. Hold the empty water
bottles horizontally and place a small, crumpled piece of paper inside the
neck of each bottle. In your carnival voice, say:
Blow the paper into the bottle and win a prize!
Invite students to try to blow the paper into the bottle. It will not go in because
the paper will push up against the air already filling the bottle. Guide students in
coming up with an explanation and providing evidence for their ideas.
16
Get In On the Act
Tell students they are going to create their own act for the Carnival of the
Air; their act must show that air is a substance that takes up space. Allow
students to explore and choose a variety of items (such as those at the
Curiosity Centre) that can be filled with air, for example, bags, balloons,
transparent shatterproof cups, or a whoopy cushion, as well as various
materials that can be used to add air to or keep air in these items, such as
straws, paper, and containers of water. Have students work in small groups
to create and then perform their act. After performances are complete, have
each group describe how their act showed how air takes up space, or ask
other class members to describe what the act showed about air.
Question List
Invite students to generate a personal list of questions that they would like
to explore and investigate throughout the unit. Students can record the list of
questions in their Science Journals.
Weathered Objects
Ask students to bring to class a small, inexpensive object that can be left
outside over the course of the year. Tell students that you will keep the
objects outside and bring them back to class periodically so that students can
observe how the objects have been affected by the weather. Invite students
to predict what, if anything, they think will change about the object. Ask
students to record their predictions in their Science Journals.
CONSOLIDATE
IWB Activity:
Have students circle
the images where air is
found using Activity 1: Is
there air there? (see the
Teacher’s Website).
EXPLORE MORE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 17
Focus:
Students will identify the different states of water and compare the characteristics of water and ice.
States of Water
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 1.0 pose questions that lead to exploration and
investigation [GCO 2]
• 2.0 communicate using scientific terminology
[GCO 2]
• 4.0 explore characteristics of the three states of
water [GCO 1/3]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• describe the characteristics of water in one of
its states
• use appropriate scientific terminology to
communicate their observations
NOTES:
18
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
willingly observe, question, and explore [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
Social Studies
Students will be expected to:
• describe how people’s interactions with their environment have changed
over time [2.4.2]
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• interpret, select, and combine information using a variety of strategies,
resources, and technologies [GCO 5]
• use writing and other forms of representation to explore, clarify, and reflect
on their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learnings; and to use their
imaginations [GCO 8]
There are three main states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Solids, liquids,
and gases have distinctive physical properties. When a substance changes
from one state to another (e.g., ice melts), the particles making up the
substance remain the same, but their arrangement relative to one another
and their amount of motion changes.
- Solids are made of particles that are packed tightly together and have
little movement. They keep their shape. Heating some solids can turn
them into liquids.
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
Science Card 2
IWB Activity 2
BLM
Same or
Different?
IWB Activity 3
Literacy Place:
An Early Worm
Got Out of Bed
(“Fog,” page 7,
Shared Reading–
Active Learning
Kit)
students’ Science Journals
washing tubs, plastic sheeting,
newspapers, or towels
ice cubes
Freezies (optional)
warm, room temperature, and
cool water in shatterproof
glasses, tubs, or bottles of various
volumes
sponges
various kinds of paper
empty containers of various sizes
thermometers
digital camera (optional)
Freeze water in
containers of various
shapes or provide
Freezies.
Invite an Elder or an
Indigenous Knowledge
Keeper to share how
the different states of
water figure in traditional
activities.
Gather Internet and print
resources related to
the importance of ice to
polar bears.
• explore
• investigate
• evidence
• solid
• liquid
• gas
• water vapour
Science Background
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 19
- Liquids are made of loosely packed particles and have medium
movement. Liquids can flow and take the shape of any container. Heating
a liquid can turn it into a gas. Cooling a liquid can turn it into a solid.
- Gases are very loosely packed particles and have high movement. They
spread out and change their shape to fill up whatever container they are
in. Cooling a gas can turn it into a liquid.
Water vapour is always present in our atmosphere and is invisible. The
steam that comes from a kettle is actually small droplets of condensed
water that form when the water vapour contacts cooler air. Similarly,
clouds are not water vapour; they are formed of water droplets that
condense from water vapour in the air high in the atmosphere.
Students are likely to see ice, water, and steam as distinct substances and
believe one substance “turns into” another. Address this by asking students
to explain their thinking (e.g., when ice melts, ask where the ice went and
where the water came from).
Young students rely primarily on their senses to get information about the
world. Gases can therefore be difficult for grade 2 students to conceptualize,
since they generally cannot be seen. Prompting students to smell cologne or
other aromatic substances, can help them move toward an acceptance of the
existence of gases. Note that water vapour is always invisible: steam (and
fog and clouds) is made up of tiny droplets of liquid water suspended in air,
which condensed from the water vapour when it contacted cooler air (such
as outside a kettle).
Gas, Liquid, Solid
Share Science Card 2 with the class. Invite students to describe what they
see. Then, tell students that every picture has the same thing in it, and
challenge them to tell you what it is. Allow students to make suggestions.
After listening to suggestions, point to the water in each picture and ask
students to name it. Students likely will call each state of water by a different
name (e.g., ice, water, steam). Link back to previous knowledge of seasons
and weather, and of hot and cold, by asking questions such as:
What is the weather like in this picture? How do you know?
What time of year was this picture was taken? What clues do you see
that tell you?
What is the temperature like? What evidence is there of that?
Invite students to answer the question on the card: What happens when ice
melts? and What happens when water boils? Introduce the terms “solid,”
“liquid,” and “gas” and add them to the KWLN chart. Prompt students to
share what they know about each term and what they wonder about each of
the terms. Challenge students to give other examples of each state of water.
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
IWB Activity:
Invite students to
use Activity 2: Solid
or liquid? (see the
Teacher’s Website) to
sort images of water as
liquid or solid.
20
Students may have difficulty thinking of examples of gas; if so, present
familiar examples and ask if it is a gas or not. Examples may include your
breath (air), car or ATV exhaust, helium for balloons, or propane for a bbq.
Point very close to steam and clouds on Science Card 2 to “show” water in
the gas state and say that this is evidence of water being a gas. You might
introduce the term “water vapour.” Add “solid,” “liquid,” “gas,” and “water
vapour” to the Word Wall and then have students draw an example of a solid
and a liquid in their Science Journals.
Water World
Create mini science centres with tangible examples of liquid and solid water
that students can explore. Examples may include ice cubes (various shapes
and sizes) or Freezies (different sizes); and warm, room temperature, and
cool water in shatterproof glasses, tubs, or bottles of various volumes. Use
washing tubs, plastic sheeting, newspaper, or towels to keep the area dry.
Also provide material that will allow students to explore the properties of
liquid and frozen water using their five senses, such as sponges, various
kinds of paper (e.g., loose leaf, toilet paper, wax paper, paper towel), empty
containers of various sizes, and thermometers. Make a record of students
explorations by making a video or taking digital photos. As students explore,
prompt deeper questioning and thinking by wondering aloud:
I wonder if ice makes things wet?
I wonder what happens when I put ice in water?
I wonder what happens when I put this paper in the water?
I wonder what material would best clean up a water spill?
What do you wonder about?
Invite students to record any new questions they have on index cards or
sticky notes and add them to the I Wonder Wall.
Introduce/review the terms “explore,” “investigate,” and “evidence” during
discussions and add these terms to the Word Wall. Provide prompts such as:
How could you explore that idea?
How might a scientist investigate to see if that idea is true?
What evidence can you find to support your thinking?
Word
CONNECT
Word
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 21
Same or Different?
Divide the class into small groups, and provide copies of BLM Same or
Different? Instruct students to think back to their explorations of ice and
water. Ask:
How are ice and water the same? How are they different?
For each answer given, have students decide as a group where and how to
record that answer on their graphic organizer. When work is complete, have
each group display their finished graphic organizer in the classroom. As a
class, discuss any differences between the graphic organizers, whether in
categorization of a response or in how groups decided to represent it.
Three “Types” of Water
Provide students with materials with which to create a scene depicting water
in each of its three states. If students struggle, consider providing a scenario.
For example, say:
Imagine you and your family go for a walk in the winter beside a river or
the ocean. You bring along a thermos of hot chocolate to drink along the
way. Can you think where you might find water in its liquid, solid, and gas
state on this day?
Alternatively, provide students with pictures to use as reference and/or for
clues, such as pictures of a kitchen scene, a waterfall in winter, or a picnic
scene.
Living with the Three States
Invite an Elder or Indigenous Knowledge Keeper to talk about the effects
and importance of the different states of water on traditional activities such
as hunting or fishing. For example, the visitor could talk about how snow
changes with the temperature and affects activities such as pulling sleds
(e.g., on warmer days, snow melts, which makes it more difficult to pull
sleds; on colder days, snow is dry and crystalized and so blows in wind more
easily, which makes travel more difficult).
CONSOLIDATE
Same or Different?
Name:
_______________________________________________________
How are they the same?
How are they the different?
24 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment
© 2016 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
IWB Activity:
Challenge students to
name each form of water
shown in the illustration
using Activity 3: Where’s
the water? (see the
Teacher’s Website).
Literacy Place Connection:
“Fog” on page 7 of An Early Worm Got Out of Bed describes the feeling
of fog. Revisit or read the text with students and ask:
Is fog a solid, a liquid, or a gas? (Fog is made up of tiny droplets of
liquid water suspended in the air.)
22
Polar Bears and Ice
Working in small groups, challenge students to find an answer to the question:
Is ice important for polar bears?
Provide Internet and print resources. Groups can share their findings with the
class as a poster or an oral presentation.
Labelling States of Water
Revisit Science Card 2 and invite students to use sticky notes to label the images
on the card according to the states of water shown. (Students will readily
identify liquids and solids. Help them to identify gases [water vapour] any time
there is air shown. Remind students that water vapour is invisible: steam, fog,
and clouds are made up of tiny droplets of liquid water suspended in air, which
condensed from the water vapour when it contacted cooler air.)
EXPLORE MORE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 23
Same or Different?
Name: _______________________________________________________
How are they the same?
How are they the different?
24 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Focus: Students will predict how and why water changes from one state to another, make and record
observations and measurements while investigating how and why water changes state from
liquid to solid or vice versa, and discover the role of temperature in changes of state.
Water and Temperature
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 5.0 investigate changes that occur when the
three states of water are heated or cooled
[GCO 1/3]
• 6.0 predict based on an observed pattern
[GCO 2]
• 7.0 make and record observations and
measurements [GCO 2]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• plan and test a means to slow down the rate of
melting of an ice-cube person
NOTES:
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 25
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
willingly observe, question, and explore [GCO 4]
appreciate the importance of accuracy [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• communicate information and ideas effectively and clearly, and to respond
personally and critically [GCO 2]
• respond personally to a range of texts [GCO 6]
Ensure that kettle/boiling water are not left unattended and that cords are
not placed where someone can trip over them.
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
Science Card 3
What Is the Inquiry
Process?
poster
BLM
When Did It
Melt?
IWB Activity 4
Literacy Place:
Journey of a Water
Drop
(Guided Reading,
Level N)
kettle or humidifier
two mugs
• thermometers
• metal spoons or hand mirrors
frozen shapes or Freezies
(optional)
• hot and cold water
• paper towels
incandescent lightbulb or hair
dryer
containers of different shapes
and sizes
• tray or container for transport
• timer (optional)
• ice cubes
cups with warm, room
temperature, and cool water
• trays
• index cards
• markers
• plastic googly eyes
bowls, cardboard, bubble wrap,
and other materials to insulate
ice-cube people
• students’ Science Journals
washtubs or other large
waterproof containers (optional)
• water or snow (optional)
If using, put metal
spoons in the fridge to
cool.
Make ice in containers
of various sizes and
shapes or provide
Freezies.
Arrange access to a
freezer.
Freeze ice cubes with
plastic googly eyes
attached to make ice
people.
Make ice in various
colours (with food
colouring) in different
shapes and sizes.
• water vapour
• steam
• evaporation
• temperature
• thermometer
• evidence
Safety
26
• Review school safety rules before students go outside for an investigation.
To change state from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas, a substance must
be heated to a specific temperature. To change state from gas to liquid or
from liquid to solid, a substance must be cooled to a specific temperature.
Water is the only natural substance that can exist in all three states (solid,
liquid, and gas) in the normal temperature range of Earth. Water changes
from a solid (ice) to a liquid at 0 °C, and from a liquid to a gas (steam, or
water vapour) at 100 °C.
Students may think of water, steam, and ice as being different substances.
Melting may be conceived as ice changing into water (or vice versa for
freezing), and students may believe that dissolving and melting are the
same thing. Evaporation (change of state from liquid to gas) is particularly
challenging. Common misconceptions are that steam is hot air and that
steam becomes air when it disappears. When asked to explain the bubbles
in boiling water, students might call the bubbles air or heat.
Students may conceive of heat and cold as being substances that can be
added or taken away. This view can be reinforced by expressions such as
“letting the heat out” or “letting the cold in.” Address this by rephrasing
students’ remarks. For example, if a student were to say during the Stop the
Melt investigation that “the bubble wrap keeps the cold in,” you might say,
“So you think that bubble wrap keeps the ice from getting warmer.”
Changes
Share Science Card 3 with the class. Ask students to tell you about what is
happening in the picture. Allow students to describe any element that captures
their interest. Encourage students to notice differences between the “sunny”
side and the “shady” side. Then, ask students to find the water in the picture.
Ask about the states of water with questions such as:
Do you see any ice? Is that water?
What is happening to these icicles? Why might that be happening?
What is that coming out of the mugs?
Science Background
Change of State Science Term
solid to liquid melting
liquid to gas evaporation
gas to liquid condensation
liquid to solid solidification (freezing)
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 27
Put the Kettle On, Please
Have the students gather around you. Review safety rules and then boil a
kettle. (Note: you can also use a small humidifier for this demonstration;
leave out the comparison of water temperature if you do.) Before you start,
pour some of the water into a mug. As the water heats, ask students to share
what they think is happening. Use the term “observe” and add this word to
the Word Wall. When steam begins to form, ask:
What do you observe is happening?
What is coming out of the kettle?
Where did it come from?
Explain that the steam that comes from a kettle is actually small droplets
of condensed water that form when the water vapour contacts cooler air.
Remind students of the term “water vapour” and explain that it is water in
the gas state. Tell students that when water goes from the liquid state to the
gas state (when it becomes water vapour), this is called “evaporation.” Add
this term to the Word Wall.
Pour a small amount of the boiling water into a mug, and set it beside the mug
you filled before turning on the kettle. Wrap your hands around each mug or
use a thermometer, and describe the difference in temperature aloud. Ask:
I wonder if temperature has something to do with steam. What do you
think?
Add students’ ideas to the unit KWLN chart.
Have ready a number of cold, metal spoons or small hand mirrors at room
temperature. If you are using cold spoons, pass them around and ask
students to tell you about their temperature; keep one spoon at the front.
Challenge the class to predict what will happen if you hold the cold spoon
or mirror in steam. Record students’ predictions. Boil water or turn on a
humidifier, and carry out the demonstration. When condensation forms, ask;
What is this substance? How do you know?
Where did the water on the spoon come from?
What is the evidence for that (how do you know)?
How could we find out (how can we explore/investigate that)?
Record students’ ideas. Introduce the term “condensation” and add it to the
Word Wall.
CONNECT
Word
Literacy Place Connection:
Journey of a Water Drop (Guided Reading, Level N) follows a water
drop on its journey from the sky to the earth and back up to the
sky. You may wish to focus specifically on pages 10–13 and review
with students the concepts of evaporation and condensation.
28
It’s Melting!
Inform the class that they are going to perform an investigation to explore
melting. Provide students with the frozen shapes (ice from containers or
Freezies), hot and cold water, paper towels, and a thermometer. Also provide
tools to apply heat, such as an incandescent lightbulb or a hair dryer—do
not allow students to use these items without supervision and be aware of
the potential presence of water at all times. Review what a thermometer tells
you and how the liquid goes up when temperature goes up and down when
temperature goes down. Add “temperature” and “thermometer” to the Word
Wall.
Allow students to explore the materials independently. As they are exploring,
wonder aloud if these items might be used to find out more about melting. If
students need more direction, be more specific; for example, say,
I wonder if there is a way to make ice melt faster? Maybe we could use
these materials to find out.
As they share their ideas, guide students to think about what they think will
happen (predict) and how they will know what happens (observe, measure,
evidence). Remind students that they can use their senses to learn about
what is happening. For example, ask:
What changes do you see? Feel? Hear? Smell?
Avoid telling students what to do. Instead, ask questions to prompt deeper
thinking, such as:
How will you know that you have made it warm?
How would a scientist find that out?
Before students begin their investigations, display the What Is the Inquiry
Process? poster and read the steps with the students. Explain that making
a plan, exploring, recording results, and drawing conclusions are all part
of finding an answer to a question. Provide any materials students need
to record their observations. You might also document them working with
photographs and/or videos. After the investigation, have the class create a
bulletin board or Webpage to share their questions and conclusions. Include
a section for students to add new questions based on their results.
It’s Freezing!
Ask students if they have ever waited for something to freeze, such as
an ice rink or a Popsicle. Allow students to share their stories; when/if
an opportunity arises, prompt students to recall specifics about the time,
conditions, or any other relevant details. Alternatively, wonder aloud if it
always takes the same amount of time to make ice.
Display a selection of containers of different shapes and sizes in which to
make ice. Tell students you are going to fill the containers with water and
put them in the freezer at the same time. Allow students time to explore the
containers. Then, ask students to predict which container would make ice
the fastest and explain why they think so. Record students’ predictions and
reasons in a central place.
Word
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 29
Fill the containers with water and place them in a freezer. Use a tray or
container to make transport easy, as you will be taking the containers out to
make observations once every 15 minutes. Each time you take the containers
out, have students record their observations using a method of their own
choosing (e.g., digital photos, sketches, or jot notes). Or, a parent volunteer
could take small groups of students to the freezer in order to observe and
record the changes.
After results have been gathered, meet as a class to discuss them and
ask for explanations of what happened. Prompt students to support their
explanations with evidence from their observations. Ask:
How did what we see show that that is true?
Add the findings to the unit KWLN chart. Encourage students to record
additional questions based on the results. If time allows, assist students in
exploring these questions by providing materials and supervision.
Ice and Water
This investigation may be carried out during the It’s Freezing! investigation
above, in the waiting periods. Provide ice cubes; three shatterproof cups
filled with warm, room temperature, and cool water respectively; a
thermometer; and trays to contain any spills. If necessary, review the use of
the thermometer. Ask:
In which glass will the ice melt the fastest? Why?
What will happen to the temperature of the water when the ice melts?
What evidence could you look for to support that prediction?
Have students work in groups or two or three; assign each group a letter (A,
B, C, etc.), and a particular cup of water. Direct students to write the letter
of their group on an index card. Then, have students measure and record
the temperature of the water with a thermometer, by placing the index
card behind the thermometer and marking a line at the top of the liquid
in the column. If your class is ready, have them record the actual number
(temperature) on the card.
Have all groups place one ice cube into their cup at the same time. Tell
the students to watch their ice cube, and then, as soon as it is completely
melted, raise the card with their group’s letter on it so you can see. Record
the letters in order on BLM When Did It Melt?
Have each group share the temperature of the water in their cup with the
class and use this to sort the group(s). Record their sorting results on BLM
When Did It Melt?, and then post the completed BLM in a central place. Have
volunteers describe any patterns they see in the results. Ask:
What do you notice about the temperature of the water for the groups
whose ice cube melted the fastest? How about the groups whose ice
cube melted the slowest?
Why do you think this happened? What evidence is there for that idea?
Where did the ice go? How do you know?
When Did It Melt?
Starting here, write the letter of each group as soon as they
raise their paper.
What was the temperature of the water for each group?
Cool WaterIn the MiddleWarm Water
32 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
IWB Activity:
Have students use
IWB Activity 4:
What’s happening to
the water? (see the
Teacher’s Website) to
identify the changes
taking place in each
photo.
30
Stop the Melt
Before class, make ice cubes with added plastic googly eyes. Briefly show
the ‘ice people’ to the class, and then return them to the freezer. If this is not
possible, briefly describe the ice people or show a photo of them. Tell students
that the ice people have an important message for their leader, and they all have
to leave the freezer to wait for her. The leader won’t come for 30 minutes! How
can they make sure the ice people last long enough to deliver the message?
Provide paper towels, bowls, cardboard, bubble wrap, and other materials of
your choosing at a central point in the classroom. You might want to have a
cupboard or box accessible for the ice people to ‘hide’ from sunlight. Divide
the class into groups and tell students that their job is to use the materials to
keep their ice person from melting for as long as possible. Prompt them to
think about what they have learned about melting and then come up with a
plan of what materials they will use and how. Consider telling students that
groups can work together to keep their ice people frozen longer. Students can
record their plans in their Science Journals.
After allowing time for thinking and discussion, provide an ice person to each
group on a paper towel or in a small container. Have students carry out their
plan, working on trays to avoid spills. Invite students to name their ice person.
Direct the class to watch how quickly their ice people melt. Invite students to
record the time using a digital timer or a central clock (this is not required).
While they are waiting, have students record in their Science Journals what they
did to protect their ice person. When records are complete, encourage students
to visit other groups to see what they did and ask questions and make comments
as melting occurs. Circulate and discuss with students what they did and why
they think it will work as they are working. Have students indicate when their ice
person has melted by raising their hand. Note the order in a central place.
Stop the activity after 30 minutes then review the results as a class. Ask:
Did any of the ice people last long enough to deliver the message?
What helped them to slow down the melting? What didn’t help?
Why do you think [choose a method] slows down the melting?
Was there anything you would do differently if you could do this again?
Build an Ice House
Use food colouring, water, and containers of different shapes and sizes to
create ice for students to build an ice house for ice people to live in. You may
provide commercially made trays in different shapes, empty juice and milk
boxes, or fill and freeze balloons and then cut the balloon away. Have students
work in a washtub or other large waterproof container, or outside, if the
temperature is appropriate. Students can use water or snow (when available)
as ‘mortar.’ When the house/houses are built, add ice people, and ask students
to predict whether they will last longer inside the house and why.
CONSOLIDATE
EXPLORE MORE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 31
When Did It Melt?
Starting here, write the letter of each group as soon as they
raise their paper.
What was the temperature of the water for each group?
Cool WaterIn the MiddleWarm Water
32 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Focus: Students will ask and explore questions about the amount and location of moisture in the
environment and in living things.
Moisture Around Us
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 8.0 explore evidence of moisture in the
environment, in materials, and in living things
[GCO 1/3]
• 9.0 propose an answer to an initial question
or problem and draw a simple conclusion
[GCO 2]
• 10.0 sequence or group materials and objects
[GCO 2]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• communicate places where moisture can be
found in the environment
• sequence three fruits or vegetables according
to moisture level
NOTES:
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 33
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
show interest in and curiosity about objects and events within the immediate
environment [GCO 4]
be open-minded in their explorations [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• communicate information and ideas effectively and clearly, and to respond
personally and critically [GCO 2]
• use writing and other forms of representation to explore, clarify, and reflect
on their thoughts, feelings, experiences, and learning; and to use their
imaginations [GCO 8]
Ensure students are not allergic to any foods used for testing.
Since it can dissolve more substances than any other liquid, water is
sometimes called the universal solvent. Many of the liquids found in living
things are composed of substances dissolved in water. For example, our blood
is 82% water. Small amounts of water (moisture) occur in almost any place
on Earth, including the atmosphere (humidity) and in soil and rock pores.
Water is essential for all living things. Water-based liquids in an organism
can carry many essential substances, such as sugars (e.g. in blood or sap)
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
• Science Card 4
BLM
Which Is the
Juiciest?
Come On, Rain!
(Read Aloud)
What Is the Inquiry
Process?
poster
BLM
My Plan
slices of fruits and vegetables
of varying moisture levels
• paper towels
• clear plastic bag
leafy house plant (e.g.,
Coleus)
digital camera (optional)
• spray bottle of water
• dehumidifier
students’ Science Folders
materials to test for moisture
(e.g., soil, moss, baby wipes,
bread)
students’ Science Journals
Prepare slices of fruits
and vegetables of varying
moisture levels, some of
which students can taste.
Gather photographs
or videos of athletes
perspiring. (optional)
Collect (or have students
collect) fresh, non-food
plant material.
• moisture
• moist
• juicy
Safety
Science Background
34
and dissolved salts (e.g. potassium, calcium). Most cell activities cannot
occur without the presence of water. About 65-75% of the human body is
water.
Students likely will think their bodies contain only substances they see
coming out of them, such as blood. Moisture in living things, such as juice
and sweat, is commonly seen as distinct from water instead of containing
water. Water is viewed as necessary to stop you being thirsty only, and that
other liquids substitute for this need. You might challenge this by diluting
condensed juice and asking students why water was needed.
Some students may not perceive fruits and vegetables as living things.
Provide pictures of the plant that produces the fruits and vegetables students
explore. Have students match the pictures to the fruits and vegetables.
What Is Moisture?
As a class, review Science Card 4. Ask students if they see any water in the
pictures, and if it is a lot or a little. Introduce the term “moisture” and add it
to the Word Wall, and explain that we use this word to describe just a little
bit of water. Add “moist” to the Word Wall, and explain that we use this
word to describe things that have only a little bit of water on them or in
them. Then, direct attention back to Science Card 4 and ask students to use
“moisture” or “moist” to describe something on the card. Ask:
What does moisture feel like?
What does it look like?
Do you have moisture in you? Do other living things? How do you know?
Which Is Juiciest?
Provide samples of various fruits and vegetables for students to test. Include
some that are very juicy, such as melons or citrus fruits, and some that are
quite dry, such as fresh beans or carrots. Tell students that foods that are
juicy have a lot of moisture (water) in them. Ask:
Which of these do you predict will be the juiciest? Which will be the least?
If we put these in order from juiciest to least juicy, what would that look like?
As a class, predict the sequence of the items from the most moist (juiciest)
to least moist (driest). Record the class prediction. You might record their
prediction by taking and printing photographs and making a display of the
predicted order.
Inform students that they are going to gather evidence to test their prediction
by measuring the amount of moisture in each item. Divide the class into
small groups, and provide each with paper towels and fruit and vegetable
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
Word
CONNECT
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 35
samples. Tell students they are not to eat these samples. Make sure a sample
of each fruit/vegetable item is tested by at least one group. Tell students to
work with a fresh paper towel for each sample. Demonstrate how to blot a
sample by placing it on the towel and holding it there for a few moments.
Show them the difference between a very moist and a dry sample. Ask:
What clues are on the paper towel that I can use to measure how moist
my sample is?
How can I use my senses to gather evidence of how moist each item is?
Tell students to test their samples in the same way you showed them. Remind
the class that whenever they do an investigation, they need to record their
results in some way. Encourage them to plan how they will keep a record
before they begin testing.
As testing proceeds, circulate and make sure students are recording their
results in some way. When testing is complete, gather the class together
and have each group share their results. Direct attention back to the posted
sequence they predicted, and ask the class to help you revise the sequence to
fit with their evidence. Prompt thinking about the results by asking:
Did anything surprise you in the results?
Is there anything you would like to learn more about?
What new questions do you have?
Have students make a record of the agreed upon sequence on BLM Which Is
the Juiciest? Students might add magazine or computer-printed images to the
BLM. You might provide new, clean samples of the fruits and vegetables and
allow the students to eat them.
Moisture in Living Things
Carry out at least one of the following three demonstrations/activities.
1. Place a clear plastic bag over a leafy house plant, such as a Coleus, and
tape it to the pot so it is airtight. Leave the plant in a sunny location.
Moisture will fog up the bag in a few hours. Show the plant in the bag to
the class and ask them to explain where the moisture came from.
2. Hand out or have students collect plant material from the schoolyard (e.g.
dandelions, fresh leaves). Invite students to predict if any of the materials
are moist (juicy), and then direct the class to test their prediction by the
same method they used for fruits and vegetable slices. Students can record
their results by drawing, writing, or taking digital photos. As they are
working, circulate and informally ask if their predictions were correct and/
or if they are surprised by the results they see.
3. Invite students to play a game or engage in another activity that will cause
perspiration, or show pictures or a video of athletes perspiring. Challenge
students to relate what they experience or see, to moisture. Ask:
What is sweat made of? Where do you think it comes from?
Is sweat evidence that we have moisture in us? Why or why not?
Which Is the Juiciest?
Name:
Draw pictures of the fruits and vegetables in sequence from the most moist (juiciest) to
least moist (driest).
Juiciest Driest
40 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
36
What about other living things? Do they have moisture too? How do you
know?
Invite students to find pictures of their favourite animal, including reptiles,
and look for evidence that supports their ideas about moisture in living
things.
Summary
A girl hopes for rain to break three weeks worth of hot, dry weather and is
rewarded when a refreshing storm arrives and rain is everywhere.
Show students the cover of Come On, Rain! and ask:
What is the weather like? How might the air feel?
What is the girl holding? Why might she have an umbrella when it isn’t
raining?
Tell students that as you read the text aloud, they should listen to find out
what the air is like throughout the story and to notice how the conditions of
the air change.
As you read the story to students, pause frequently to discuss the text
and illustrations. As you finish each page, clarify any new vocabulary or
concepts. Prompts for discussion could include:
After reading the first spread:
I wonder what “parched” means. Mamma says, “Three weeks and not a
drop” so it hasn’t rained for three weeks. I think “parched” must mean
“thirsty.
Do you think plants need moisture like people do? How do you know?
After reading the next two pages:
Why does the sight of “gray clouds, bunched and bulging under a purple
sky” fill Tessie with hope? What is she hoping for?
After reading about Mamma kneeling over a melon:
What do you think the air feels like? Why do you think this?
Why is Tessie sweating? How does sweating help us when we are very
hot? (Sweat contains water and cools off our skin.)
Read Aloud:
Come On, Rain!
Before Reading
During Reading
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 37
After reading about Tessie putting on her bathing suit:
How will the iced tea help to cool Mamma down? (quenches thirst and
replenishes water in the body)
After reading the next page when the rain comes:
What does the air feel like now?
After reading about the girls and their mamas in the rain:
Have you ever felt the air get cooler when it rains?
Why does the rain make everyone feel like dancing?
After reading the final two pages:
What does the air feel like now, after the rain?
What do you think “The rain has made us new” means?
Do you think the rain has helped the “parched plants”?
Discuss with students how the conditions of the air changed throughout the
story. Prompts might include:
What was the air like at the beginning of the story?
How did this change, just before the rain came?
What was the air like during the rain?
How did the air change after the rain? How did this change affect the
people and plants in the story?
Moisture in the Air
In front of the class, spray water in the air from a spray bottle. Ask students if
any of the water stays in the air; have students give reasons for their answers.
On a day when the air is sufficiently humid, bring a dehumidifier to class.
Turn on the dehumidifier as students watch, and let it run for several hours.
Help students observe the amount of water collected, then discuss the results
as a class. Ask:
Where did the water come from?
Why would we want to take moisture out of the air?
Moisture Around Us
Take students on a moisture treasure hunt in their immediate surroundings
or in the schoolyard. Guide students in looking for evidence of moisture
(e.g., water stains on ceiling tiles, condensation on windows, dew on grass,
frost on car windshields). As you are walking, ask students to suggest
places to look and to explain their choices. Take digital photographs or have
students draw or write to record where they find evidence of moisture. After
After Reading
CONSOLIDATE
38
the walk, decide as a class where the most moisture was found. Ask students
to tell you what evidence they used in making their decision. Photographs
and other recordings may be kept in the students’ Science Folders.
Comparing Moisture
Challenge students to conduct an independent inquiry to compare the
amount of moisture in different objects and materials from the Curiosity
Centre, such as soil, moss, baby wipes, or bread. Tell students they can
choose any object or material they are curious about, other than fruits or
vegetables. Point out the What Is the Inquiry Process? poster and prompt
students to ask a specific question and plan how they will find evidence to
answer that question. Hand out copies of BLM My Plan for students to record
the steps of their plans. Students can communicate their results in their
Science Journals, orally, or by making a digital presentation or a poster.
EXPLORE MORE
Name:
My question:
My plan:
I will need:
1.
2.
3.
4.
My Plan
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 41
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 39
Which Is the Juiciest?
Name:
Draw pictures of the fruits and vegetables in sequence from the most moist (juiciest) to
least moist (driest).
Juiciest Driest
40 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Name:
My question:
My plan:
I will need:
1.
2.
3.
4.
My Plan
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd. Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 41
Focus: Students will explore changes in location, amount, and form of moisture, and communicate
with others as they are exploring.
Changes in Moisture
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 11.0 explore changes in the location, amount,
and form of moisture [GCO 1/3]
• 12.0 communicate while exploring and
investigating [GCO 2]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• describe where liquid water comes from
and where it goes during explorations of
evaporation and condensation
NOTES:
42
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
be open-minded in their explorations [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• speak and listen to explore, extend, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts,
ideas, feelings, and experiences [GCO 1]
Evaporation is the process of water leaving the liquid phase and entering
the gas phase. Evaporation occurs even at low temperatures, such as when
a glass of water is left out at room temperature. The rate of evaporation
increases with temperature.
Condensation is the process of water leaving the gas phase and entering
the liquid phase. When water vapour comes into contact with a sufficiently
cold substance, the water vapour enters the liquid phase, or condenses.
Sometimes, water will go directly from a gas to a solid and form frost, in a
process called deposition. Deposition can only occur when air is saturated
(contains all the moisture it can hold) and the temperature is below 0° C.
Snowflakes are also formed by deposition.
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
Science Card 5
• IWB Activity 5
BLM
Concept Diagram
paper towel
• pencils or markers
• wet towels or bowls of water
• students’ Science Folders
two identical containers
(ideally metal cans)
• water and ice
• students’ Science Journals
• plastic wrap
• ice cubes or snow
• warm water
• metal tray or pie plate
• large glass jar with a wide mouth
• digital camera (optional)
• coloured paper
• paint brushes (optional)
Collect some ice
cubes or snow.
• evaporation
• condensation
Science Background
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 43
Students may think that evaporating water simply disappears or moves
in some way or by some agent while staying a liquid. It can be helpful to
explore the word “disappearing” with the class. For example, ask a student to
step into the hall and then ask the class if the person has disappeared or gone
somewhere else. When students observe evaporation, ask if the ‘missing’
water disappeared or went somewhere else, and to explain their thinking.
Students may imagine condensation as some sort of transformation from one
substance to another, such as liquid water becoming air (without a concept of
water vapour). Other common misconceptions are that condensation is water
leaking out of the container, or that air becomes liquid. To challenge these
ideas, have students review what they found out or observed about freezing and
melting, and then ask them to describe the relationship between water and ice.
Getting Dry
Share Science Card 5 with the class. Have students
suggest answers to the questions on the card.
Add their ideas to the unit KWLN chart. Prompt
deeper thinking by asking:
Is water always a liquid?
Can you think of any other examples of
something that we dry?
What happens to the moisture when items
are dried? (evaporation)
My Disappearing Hand
Provide each student with a paper towel and a pencil or marker. Tell students
to place one hand on the paper towel and trace it with the other. Then,
provide a way for students to wet the hand they traced, such as a wet towel
or a bowl of water. Have students place their wet hand inside the tracing,
which should leave a handprint within the outline. Invite students to predict
what will happen to their handprint. Record their predictions.
Have the students observe their paper towel again when the handprints
have at least partly dried. Ask them to tell you what has changed and if it
was what they predicted. Introduce the word “evaporation” and add it to
the Word Wall. Explain that when water seems to disappear like it did in
their handprint, we call that evaporation. Note: you may wish to start the
demonstration It Got Wet! as you wait for the handprints to dry.
Provide students with a copy of BLM Concept Diagram. Have them fill it in
using the word “evaporation.” Invite students to share their diagrams with a
partner. Completed BLMs can be stored in the students’ Science Folders.
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
IWB Activity:
Have students use
IWB Activity 5:
Dry it out! (see the
Teacher’s Website) to
match wet items with
the method of drying.
CONNECT
Word
Concept Diagram
Adapted from Frayer Model Diagram
Examples Non-examples
Definition Facts/characteristics
Name:
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 47
44
It Got Wet!
Gather the class around a table. Place two identical containers (metal cans,
if possible) of water on the counter and add ice to one. Invite volunteers to
touch the sides of the containers and share any differences they feel. Then,
let the containers sit until condensation forms on the container with the ice.
You may want to complete the activity My Disappearing Hand in the
meantime. When water has condensed on the container with ice, invite
volunteers to touch both the containers and share any differences. Have
students record their observations in their Science Journals.
Ask students for their ideas about where the water came from. Add these to the
unit KWLN chart, along with any questions student generate. Introduce the word
condensation” and add it to the Word Wall. Explain that when water seems to
appear, like it did on the container, we call that condensation. Provide students
with a copy of BLM Concept Diagram, and have them fill it in using the word
condensation.” Invite students to share their diagram with a partner.
Open and Closed
Bring the class together to observe what you are doing. Place two identical
containers with the same amount of water in each somewhere in the
classroom where you can safely leave them for a few days. A sunny window
would be ideal. Cover one container with plastic wrap, and leave the other
one open. Invite a volunteer to draw a mark on each container to show the
level of the water, or mark them yourself. You could also take a digital photo
of the containers. Every day for the next few days, observe the two
containers as a class, and ask students to describe any changes they notice in
the containers. Take pictures or have students draw their observations in
their Science Journals each day. Students will observe that the water level in
the open container falls, while that in the closed one stays the same. They
should also see water droplets on the plastic wrap. You might use different
coloured markers to mark the new water level each day.
If you took pictures, post them in the classroom. As a class, review what
was observed and brainstorm an explanation. Prompt students by asking
questions such as:
Did evaporation happen? In which one? What is the evidence?
Did condensation happen? In which one? How do you know?
Foggy Days
Display some ice cubes or snow, warm water, a metal tray or pie plate, and
a large glass jar with a wide mouth. Gather the class to watch you, and tell
them that you are going to make fog. Pour warm (not boiling) water into the
jar to a depth of about 2 cm. Place the ice cubes or snow on the metal tray or
pie plate, then set the whole thing on the open mouth of the glass jar. As the
students watch, the warm moist air in the glass jar will rise and condense
against the cold metal surface, forming a fog-like mist.
Word
CONSOLIDATE
Concept Diagram
Adapted from Frayer Model Diagram
Examples Non-examples
Definition Facts/characteristics
Name:
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 47
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 45
Have the students make drawings of their observations in their Science
Journals. Challenge them to show on their drawings where they think water
is evaporating and where it is condensing. Ask them to explain their choices.
Disappearing Designs
Provide students with coloured paper, water, and a variety of paint brushes
(optional). Invite students to use the various brushes, or their fingers, to
‘paint’ designs on the paper with water. Have them predict what will happen
to the water on their coloured paper. Ask:
What happened to the water?
Was your prediction correct?
EXPLORE MORE
46
Concept Diagram
Adapted from Frayer Model Diagram
Examples Non-examples
Definition Facts/characteristics
Name:
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd. Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 47
Focus: Students will, through guided inquiry investigations, discover how and why moisture changes,
and communicate what they did and what they found out.
Changing Moisture Levels
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 13.0 investigate conditions that affect changes
in the location, amount, and form of moisture
[GCO 1/3]
• 14.0 communicate procedures and results
[GCO 2]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• communicate ideal conditions for setting up a
lemonade stand
NOTES:
48
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
show concern for their safety and that of others in carrying out activities and
using materials [GCO 4]
work with others in exploring and investigating [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
Social Studies
Students will be expected to:
• describe how people’s interactions with their environment have changed
[2.4.2]
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• interact with sensitivity and respect, considering the situation, audience,
and purpose [GCO 3]
• use a range of strategies to develop effective writing and representing and
to enhance their clarity, precision, and effectiveness [GCO 10]
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
• Science Card 6
What Is the Inquiry
Process?
poster
• BLM
My Inquiry
identical pieces of cloth
• sealable plastic bags
slices of various fruits and vegetables
digital camera (optional)
Flex Arm camera (optional)
food dehydrator (optional)
containers of various shapes and sizes
(e.g., cups, saucers)
variety of materials (e.g., foil,
construction paper, mirrors, plastic
wrap, wax paper, felt, cotton)
heat sources (e.g., hairdryers, electric
fans, or heat lamps)
students’ Science Folders
small plastic cup and container it will
fit in (e.g., bowl)
• marker
• plastic wrap
• small stone
students’ Science Journals
• lamp (optional)
Invite a speaker
such as an Elder
or an Indigenous
Knowledge
Keeper to speak
about drying food.
Alternatively, you
can collect Internet
resources.
Prepare slices
of fruits and
vegetables, all of
the same thickness
(at least one slice
per student).
Dry slices of foods
in an oven at home.
• moisture
• evaporate
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 49
Changes in moisture levels occur primarily through evaporation and
condensation. Important factors that affect the rate of evaporation are:
temperature, humidity (the amount of water vapour in the air), and
air movement (e.g., wind or resulting from tumbling in a dryer). If you
heat a moist object, liquid water in or on the object will change to water
vapour and dissipate into the atmosphere. The less humid the air around
the object, the higher the rate of evaporation, regardless of temperature.
However, air can hold only so much water vapour; when the maximum
amount is reached, the air is saturated. In saturated air, there will be no
net evaporation from a moist object and it will not dry. Finally, as an object
dries, the humidity of the air closest to the object increases. When the air is
moving, this moist air dissipates more quickly and is replaced by drier air,
and the rate of evaporation increases. The converse is true of condensation:
the rate of condensation increases as air temperature decreases, humidity
increases, and air movement decreases.
Drying (dehydrating) food is one of the oldest and easiest methods of food
preservation. Most living things depend on water, including organisms
that decay our food. These organisms are therefore far less able to survive
on dehydrated foods. In addition, some biological processes continue in
the food items themselves after harvest, such as fruit ripening. These
are cellular processes which also rely on the presence of water, and are
therefore prevented by dehydration.
.
Students are likely to have had experience using heat energy to speed drying.
Some students imagine heat to be a substance of some kind, so that drying
is understood as water turning into heat. Many students’ understanding of
energy is restricted to the movement of their bodies, or they think of it as
something that is used up, like a fuel. To help students build a more accurate
view, place a thermometer in, or have students feel the air coming from, a
hair dryer set on low. Prompt students to consider what is happening with
the temperature of the air from the dryer, and how that affects drying. Ask if
the dryer would still work if it didn’t produce warm air.
Preserving Food
As a class, review the evidence that living things contain moisture. Describe
how Mi’kmaq, Innu, Inuit, and other groups (e.g. early settlers, hunters,
fishers) used or use drying to store meats, fish, or other food. Invite a
speaker or share Internet resources with the class to find out more about
these methods. For example, an Elder or an Indigenous Knowledge Keeper
might share traditional drying methods for food preservation (e.g., Inuit
drying char, Innu or Mi’kmaq drying moose or caribou into jerky, or drying
berries). If possible arrange for samples of these dried foods to be available
for the students to touch and taste. The visitor might also speak about the
Science Background
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
50
process of removing the moisture from animal skins so they can be used to
create clothing.
Share Science Card 6 with the class. Ask:
Which foods are moist and which are dry?
Have students give evidence for identifying food as moist or dry. Then, ask
students if they are familiar with any of the foods or have seen them prepared.
Challenge them to match the moist food with its dry form. Encourage sharing
of other dried foods they know about. Ask students to explain what happens
when food is dried using the words “moisture” or “evaporate.”
Out to Dry
Get two identical pieces of cloth and moisten them with water. Wring out
any excess. Place one piece of cloth in a sealable plastic bag, and lay it on an
easily accessible surface in the classroom, preferably in sunlight. Alternatively,
you could place it on a cooling rack (for baking) or hang it on a clothesline
you create in the window using string. Place the other piece of cloth beside it,
either on a tray or piece of plastic wrap if it is on a surface or directly on the
cooling rack or clothesline. As you are setting up the cloth pieces, challenge
the students to predict which will dry first, and to give their reasons. Leave
the cloth pieces overnight, and then observe the changes in the two cloths as
a class. Ask students to explain what happened. Repeat their answers back to
them but rephrase using the words “condensation” and “evaporation” when
possible. Add any new student questions to the I Wonder Wall.
Where’s the Juice?
Show students previously prepared slices of various fruits and vegetables
(at least one slice per student). If possible, use the same types of fruits and
vegetables students sorted by moisture level previously (see Which Is Juiciest?,
page 35). Slices should all be of the same thickness. Tell students that they are
going to leave the slices out in the air for the next four days. Ask:
Do you think the slices will stay the same as they are now? Why?
How do you predict they will change? Why?
What kind of evidence will you look for?
Have each student write her or his name on a piece of paper or foil, and
then choose and place one slice on it. Leave the slices somewhere they won’t
be disturbed. Each day, have the students check their slice and record any
changes using drawings or digital photographs. Encourage students to use
as many of their senses as they can to observe changes (sight, smell, touch).
However, ensure that students do NOT taste the slices! You may also use a
Flex Arm camera to create a time lapse video of the changes. Students might
create a multimedia poster of the fruit using Glogster.
After the four days of observation, have each student use their photos or
drawings to create a timeline showing the changes in the samples, along with
any other observations that were noted. Post the timelines in the classroom.
CONNECT
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 51
As a group, discuss the timelines, and have the students agree on an order in
which all the various fruit slices dried. Guide a discussion of how this order
relates to how much moisture the fruit contained and where that moisture
went. Extend the discussion by asking for suggestions as to how they might
make their fruit dry more quickly.
After the investigation, allow students to experience how the taste of foods
changes when they are dried. Dry foods in an oven at home and bring them
into class, along with undried samples. Alternatively, dry fruit or vegetable
slices in a food dehydrator in class.
What Do You Want to Know About Evaporation?
Wonder aloud to the class about factors that affect evaporation. For example,
say:
I wonder if a lake evaporates as fast as a puddle?
I wonder if clothes dry as fast in the shade as in the sunshine?
I wonder what I can use to stop water from evaporating?
Ask students what they wonder about evaporation. Record their questions,
then inform them that they are going to have the chance to find answers to
these questions.
In a central location, provide a variety of shapes and sizes of containers (e.g.
saucers, cups) and materials (e.g., foil, construction paper, mirrors, plastic
wrap, wax paper, felt, cotton). Provide some sources of heat and/or air
movement (e.g., hairdryers, electric fans, heat lamps) and inform students
that you will help them if they want to use these tools.
Divide the class into groups of three or four students. Have each group
choose one of the questions you recorded during the initial discussion and
use the materials to try to find an answer. Remind students about the steps
of the inquiry process by pointing out the What Is the Inquiry Process? poster.
Have students record their plan, results, and conclusion on BLM My Inquiry
(see page 81). Completed BLMs can be stored in the students’ Science
Folders.
Provide materials for students to record their observations. If possible, have
students record their observations with a digital camera, or do so for them.
When student work is complete, have each group communicate what they
did (the procedure for their investigation) and what they observed (their
results) as a digital presentation.
Lemonade for Sale!
Tell students that they are going to create a plan for a lemonade stand, and to
make sure their customers are happy, they will need to use what they have
learned about the three states of water, and how water changes from one
state to another. Begin with a whole group brainstorming session by asking
questions such as:
My Inquiry
Name:
_______________________________________________________
My question:
My plan:
My results:
My conclusion:
How I will share what I learned:
© 2016 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 81
CONSOLIDATE
52
Where will you put your stand? Will it be in the shade or the sunshine?
Will you keep your lemonade in a large pitcher until someone buys a cup,
or pour out several cups beforehand?
Where will you store the ice? What kind of container will you use?
Should you put ice in the pitcher of lemonade before you pour it for
a customer, or put some in one cup at a time when someone buys a
glass?
Record students responses on a chart, but do not agree or disagree with any
suggestions. Have students work in small groups to create a poster, flyer, or
Webpage to describe their lemonade stand. Tell students to include all the
answers to these questions in their description. Have students present their
work to the class and ask them to explain the choices they made.
The Magic Cup
Show students a small plastic cup and a larger container it can easily fit in,
such as a bowl, and tell students that you are going to move water from
the cup to the container without touching anything. Fill the cup about
half full with water, and mark the level with a marker. Make sure students
understand that the line marks the height of the water. Place the cup into
the larger container and cover it with plastic wrap. Place a small stone in the
centre of the plastic wrap. Have students draw a picture of this apparatus in
their Science Journals.
Leave the apparatus in sunlight or under a lamp for the remainder of the day,
then leave it overnight in darkness. The next day, check the apparatus with
the class. Water vapour that formed under the plastic wrap under the heat of
sunlight or the lamp will have condensed, and run into the larger container.
Check the level of water in the cup relative to the marker line; it should be
lower. Have students make a drawing that shows how they think the water
moved.
EXPLORE MORE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 53
Focus: Students will observe and measure changes in air conditions, selecting tools appropriate for
their needs.
Changes in Air Conditions
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 15.0 explore changes in air conditions in
indoor and outdoor environments, and
describe and interpret these changes [GCO 1/3]
• 16.0 use appropriate tools [GCO 2]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• observe and measure changes in air conditions
such as temperature and wind speed
• select appropriate tools to use to measure
particular air conditions
NOTES:
54
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
show concern for their safety and that of others in carrying out activities and
using materials [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
Social Studies
Students will be expected to:
• describe how people’s interactions with their environment have changed
over time [2.4.2]
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• communicate information and ideas effectively and clearly, and to respond
personally and critically [GCO 2]
• Weather is a combination of sunlight, precipitation (rain, snow, hail),
wind, humidity, air pressure, and temperature for a given area at a
particular time. Scientists measure and record these conditions in order
to describe the weather and to identify patterns over time. Meteorologists
forecast weather so that communities can prepare for specific conditions.
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
• Science Card 7
• BLM
Venn Diagram
• IWB Activity 6
• BLM
Pinwheel
Literacy Place:
T
he North Wind and
the Sun
(Guided
Reading, Level H)
weather instruments (e.g.,
thermometers, hygrometers,
anemometers, wind socks,
weather vanes)
• students’ Science Journals
• paper or index cards
• markers
• crayons
• coloured pencils or markers
• scissors
• straws
• paper fasteners
• single-hole paper punch
• digital camera (optional)
If necessary, gather
photos or videos
of various weather
instruments.
Invite an Elder or an
Indigenous Knowledge
Keeper to talk about
how knowledge of
weather is important
in traditional practices
such as being on the
land.
Punch holes through
both sides of a straw
at one end (one per
student).
• temperature
• thermometer
• rain gauge
• anemometer
• wind sock
• weather vane
Science Background
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 55
Common misconceptions about weather include: clouds can block wind
and slow it down; wind is caused by moving objects or by Earth turning;
cold weather makes wind or makes stronger wind; rain falls out of holes or
funnels in clouds; rain is clouds sweating or melting; rain is caused by the
wind shaking clouds, by clouds colliding, or by clouds getting too heavy.
A Change in the Air
Focus on the images on Science Card 7 one at a time, and guide students on
an imagination walk through each scenario. Have the class tell you what
they imagine the air feels like. Record students’ ideas for each scenario on a
large chart and post the chart in a central place.
Then, divide the class into pairs and provide each pair with a copy of BLM
Venn Diagram. Tell the class that they are to work with their partner to
choose two of the imagination walks, and use the BLM to compare and
contrast the air in each scenario. Provide prompts such as:
Was there anything different about how the air felt?
Was the temperature the same in both?
Was the air moving in both? If so, was it moving the same amount?
Invite students to suggest another scenario (e.g., entering a walk-in freezer
or walking on a hot beach) and lead an imagination walk to describe the air
conditions.
Measuring Weather
Gather together some instruments used to measure air conditions, wind speed,
and wind direction, such as thermometers, hygrometers, anemometers, wind
socks, and weather vanes. When possible, demonstrate how the instruments
work. Display the instruments in the classroom and allow the students to
explore them. (If you cannot assemble a collection of instruments, show
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
Venn Diagram
Name:
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 59
Literacy Place Connection:
In The North Wind and the Sun (Guided Reading, Level H) the North
Wind challenges the Sun to prove who is stronger. Invite students to
describe the air conditions when the North Wind is blowing and then
when the Sun is shining. Ask:
What evidence do you see in the illustrations to show the air is
moving?
CONNECT
56
students photos or videos of weather instruments.) Discuss what air condition
each instrument measures and how it is used. Ask:
When is it important to know air conditions?
Weather Knowledge
Invite an Elder or an Indigenous Knowledge Keeper to talk about how
knowledge of weather is important in traditional practices such as being on
the land. Ask the guest to share information such as, when out on the land,
how they predict the weather; what they do to stay safe in severe weather;
and if they use any special tools to measure the weather.
Air Temperature
Working in small groups of three or four, have students explore
thermometers. If necessary, remind students how the liquid rises and falls
with temperature changes. Ask students to suggest ways to record the
temperature (e.g., draw a line on a paper that is as long as the liquid is high,
draw a line on an index card attached to the thermometer).
Tell students that you are curious about the air temperature inside and outside
the school. Invite students to ask questions about this; if necessary, prompt
thinking by saying “I wonder if the temperature is the same inside all the
time?” Record the students’ questions. Then, as a class, choose a question to
investigate, or have the small groups decide on their own question to
investigate. Work with the students to come up with a plan for gathering data
with the thermometers. Students should plan to measure and record air
temperature at different times of the day and in different locations, both inside
and outside the school. Students can record these observations in their Science
Journals. Assist students in keeping track of their data over the day as needed.
Spin Me Around: Pinwheels
Gather a class set of the following: crayons, coloured pencils or markers;
scissors; straws; paper fasteners, and copies of BLM Pinwheel. You will also
need at least one single-hole paper punch. Either before class or as the students
are working, punch a hole through both sides of all of the straws at one end.
Have students collect their supplies. Draw their attention to the BLM and
explain that they are to cut along the dotted lines and stop where the line
stops. Circulate when the students are cutting out the pinwheel, making
sure they don’t cut too far. Invite students to decorate their pinwheel after
they cut it out. Tell them to decorate both sides as they will be able to see
both sides of the paper when they are finished. When students have finished
decorating, have them use a paper punch to make holes where there are
black dots on their pinwheel.
Demonstrate the next steps to the class:
1. Form the pinwheel by looping each cut triangular piece back towards
the centre and lining up all the holes.
2. Insert the paper fastener through the aligned holes, and through the
holes in the straw, before opening it. It should be tight enough to keep
the pinwheel together but not so tight the pinwheel won’t spin.
IWB Activity:
Challenge students to
identify the weather
instruments using IWB
Activity 6: Mystery
Object (see the
Teacher’s Website).
Pinwheel
Cut along the dotted lines. Don't cut too far!
Name:
60 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 57
After your demonstration, have students assemble their pinwheels as you
showed them. Circulate to offer assistance as needed. When pinwheels are
finished, invite students to make them move by blowing on them. Ask:
What is making the pinwheel move?
Invite students to test the pinwheels in various locations in and around
the school to note how fast the pinwheel spins in different locations and
conditions. Students may wish to record their observations by taking digital
videos.
Weather Station
As a class, create a display showing the collected weather instruments and
describing what air conditions each measures. If possible, create a weather
station with the instruments. Make a large chart in a central area in the
classroom to display collected data. Have volunteers help you to read and
record data on the weather each day for several weeks using appropriate
instruments. Invite a student to make a weather report to the class each day.
Students could also take turns giving the weather report over the PA to the
entire school.
Blowin’ in the Wind
Have students draw a series of pictures of an object (e.g., a tree, clothes on
a clothesline, or a flag) to show how it looks in various air conditions (e.g.,
no wind, light wind, and strong wind). Encourage students to exchange their
work with a partner and explain what is happening in each picture and why.
CONSOLIDATE
EXPLORE MORE
58
Venn Diagram
Name:
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd. Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 59
Pinwheel
Cut along the dotted lines. Don't cut too far!
Name:
60 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Focus: Students will explore and describe how weather affects objects and materials, and investigate
ways to protect objects and materials under different weather conditions.
Protection from Different
Weather Conditions
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 17.0 explore the effects of weather on objects
and materials [GCO 1/3]
• 18.0 investigate ways to protect objects and
materials under different conditions [GCO 1/3]
• 19.0 select and use materials to carry out their
own explorations and investigations [GCO 2]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• describe and explain the changes that occur in
objects and materials left outside
• suggest ways to protect objects and materials
from particular weather conditions
NOTES:
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 61
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
consider their observations and their own ideas when drawing a conclusion
[GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• speak and listen to explore, extend, clarify, and reflect on their thoughts,
ideas, feelings, and experiences [GCO 1]
• interpret, select, and combine information using a variety of strategies,
resources, and technologies [GCO 5]
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
• Science Card 8
The Little Knight
Who Battled the Rain
(Read Aloud)
Science Card 7
(optional)
• Science Card 9
coloured construction
paper (sheets)
common and galvanized
nails
• rust protection coatings
• craft sticks
• paint and/or wood stain
• leather swatches
plain fabric and waxed
fabric
protective spray, such as
Armor All
• students’ Science Folders
small squares of dark- and
light-coloured construction
paper
• digital camera (optional)
Survey an area around your
school to find weathered
human-made and natural
objects and materials (e.g.,
rust, peeling paint, rotted
wood, cracked concrete,
or tattered fabrics). You
may wish to add some
weathered objects for
students to find.
Create a list of clues
describing objects and
materials for the Scavenger
Hunt. Alternatively, prepare
copies of a numbered map
identifying a material or
object at each stop.
Gather pictures or articles
about a recent extreme
weather event in your
region and invite someone
from the community who
remembers the event
or an expert, such as a
meteorologist, to add
insight.
• weathering
• rust
• waterproof
62
Weathering is the changes that occur in materials and objects exposed
to changes in moisture, air movement, and air temperature (weather).
Eventually, weathering results in the breakdown of materials either into
smaller parts (e.g., when paint breaks down) or changes to another chemical
substance (e.g., the oxidation of metals such as iron).
The rate of weathering can be decreased by reducing the contact of materials
and objects with weather changes. For example, paints and stains keep
moisture from penetrating wood, synthetic coatings are added to fabrics
to make them wind- or moisture-resistant, and objects may be wrapped in
waterproof substances such as plastic sheeting to protect against both wind
and moisture.
Weathering due to acid rain can be (and in many areas has been) reduced
by eliminating or reducing the sources of pollution that contribute to making
rain acidic.
Students may think weathered objects are dirty, and imagine they can be
restored by washing. They may explain weathering of objects as the result
of not taking care of the object. Explain to students that weathering is a
natural process when objects and materials are left outside under different
weather conditions.
Dressing for Weather Conditions
Remind students that when weather conditions change, it can affect us. It
can get warmer or cooler, drier or wetter, more still or windy. Share Science
Card 8 with the students, and have them answer the questions: What kind of
weather is the clothing designed for? How does each item protect you? You
might also invite students to show to their classmates any items of clothing
they wore today that offer protection from the air conditions (weather). Ask:
What would you wear on a hot, sunny day?
What would you wear on a cold, snowy day?
What would you wear on a warm, windy day?
What would you wear on a cool, rainy day?
Why is it important to wear clothing that protects you from the weather
conditions?
Science Background
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 63
Summary
The little knight isn’t afraid of anything, except rain! Rain makes his armour
rust. But when a tremendous rain storm with violent winds lasts for 39
days and strands the villagers in their treetop homes, the little knight must
overcome his fear to save his village.
Ask students to think of a time that the weather interrupted their plans
for something special (e.g., rain during an outdoor party or strong wind
on a picnic). If student have difficulty thinking of anything, share a story
about changing air conditions (temperature, wind conditions, moisture or
precipitation) that you weren’t prepared for, such as low temperature on a
hike or having clothes on the clothesline when it started to rain.
Tell students that you will be reading a story about a huge rain storm in a
special village. Ask them to listen as you read aloud to discover what effects
the storm had on the village and to think about how the people could protect
themselves from these air conditions in the future.
As you read the story to students, pause frequently to discuss the text and
illustrations. Alternate between asking students to respond in a whole group
or with a partner. Prompts for discussion could include:
After viewing the first page of small illustrations:
Why do you think the little knight wears armour?
What is armour made of?
After reading and viewing the next two pages:
What is the only thing that the little knight is afraid of? (rain)
What affect does the rain have on his armour? (makes it rust)
Why might rusty armour be a problem?
After looking closely at the illustration of the village in the treetops:
What is special about the little knight’s village? How is it different from
other places people live?
What would it feel like to live in a village built in the treetops? How might
the air feel? (If necessary, remind students of the imagination walks they took
for the scenarios on Science Card 7 and how the air felt in each scenario.)
Why are ladders important to a village in the treetops?
What other ways might the people get to their homes from the ground?
What do you think would be the best way to reach their homes?
CONNECT
Read Aloud:
The Little Knight Who Battled the Rain
Before Reading
During Reading
64
After reading about and viewing the image of the storm:
What would the air feel like during the storm?
After reading the next two pages:
What does the little knight do when he is afraid?
Why do you think eating chocolate cake makes him feel better?
After reading the next two pages about the ladders:
What affect do the strong winds have on the village? (breaks and blows
the ladders away) Why is this a problem?
After reading and viewing the next four pages, ending when the little knight
promises a solution:
What does the air feel like after the storm ends and the light rain is falling?
What new problem do the villagers have?
After reading and viewing the next six pages, ending when the little knight
bakes chocolate cakes:
What idea does the little knight have to save the village?
How do you think the cats and birds can help him?
After reading about the delivery of the chocolate cake to the villagers:
How do you think the villagers will solve the problem of being stranded
at the top of the trees?
After reading and viewing the next two pages:
What did the villagers do? Was this one of the ideas we had for reaching
the houses?
How else might they protect their homes from strong winds?
After reading the rest of the text:
Why do you think the little knight is no longer afraid of the rain?
Ask students to think about the effects of the wind and the rain in the story.
Discuss how the villagers could protect themselves from these conditions in
the future. Provide prompts such as:
What should the little knight do when he goes out in the rain? (protect his
armour)
How could the little knight protect his armour from rusting?
How can the villagers keep their ladders from being blown away again?
Are some materials better than others for being made into ladders? Why
do you think so?
Do you think it is a good idea to build a village in the treetops? Why or
why not?
After Reading
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 65
Scavenger Hunt
Hold a class discussion to engage students’ previous knowledge of weather.
Hold a brief discussion to find out how students think weather affects objects
and materials. Introduce the term “weathering” and add it to the Word Wall.
Share Science Card 9 with the class. Have students share their ideas about
how weather affects the objects and materials shown. Ask:
Are these objects new? How do you know?
Why do things change when they are left outside?
How does paint change on things that are left outside?
Tell the class that they are going to go on a scavenger hunt to find objects and
materials that have been out in the weather (e.g., rusted metals, peeling paint,
rotted wood, cracked concrete, tattered or faded fabric). The scavenger hunt
should be confined to a particular area around the school. Give each student or
small group a list of clues about items to find. The clues should describe how
the object/material has been affected by weather. For example, the clue for
fabric might be “The wind and rain have worn me out.” Alternatively, provide
a numbered map, and have students find the weathered object/material at
each stop on the map. Students may take a picture or make a drawing of
the weathered objects and materials they find. Ask students to explain what
conditions caused the weathering of each of the objects and materials.
Fading Away
Hold up a piece of coloured construction paper and wonder aloud if the
weather can affect paper. Allow students to respond and record their
predictions on a chart. Ask:
How can we test these predictions? What should we do to the paper?
Allow students to come up with suggestions, and follow up on any that are
reasonable. For example, students might tape a piece of construction paper in
a sunny window, or sprinkle water on a piece to model rainfall. Students can
sketch or take pictures of the results of their investigations. Invite students to
share their results and make conclusions about how weather can affect paper.
Remind students to store the pictures in their Science Folders.
Protection From the Weather
Now that students have observed how various weather conditions can affect
objects and materials, invite them to generate questions about how they
could protect these items. Provide prompts such as:
How can objects be protected from rust?
How can we keep objects and materials dry?
How can we protect against sun damage?
Gather a variety of materials for students to investigate different ways
to protect objects and materials from the effects of particular weather
Word
66
conditions (moisture and sun/heat damage). Small groups of students
can choose objects or materials to investigate and make a plan for testing
their items. If students need more assistance, the investigations could be
completed for one test at a time with the whole group.
Moisture:
Rust Students can test common versus galvanized nails in water.
Encourage students to investigate various coatings to reduce or prevent
rusting of the nails.
Warping and rotting – Students can compare untreated craft sticks with
sticks that have been painted, stained, or treated.
Water repellant – Students can test how water repellant untreated leather
is vs leather that has been treated with a protective spray. Or, students
may choose to test plain fabric vs fabric that has been treated with a wax
coating.
Sun or heat damage:
Sun damage – Students can test to compare dark- vs light-coloured
construction paper to model degrees of plastic and fabric colour fading.
Sun and heat damage – Students can test untreated leather and plastic vs
pieces treated with Armor All or another protectant to model damage to
cars.
While students are investigating, encourage them to think about new
questions they have about protecting objects and materials from the weather.
These questions can be recorded on sticky notes or cards and attached to the
I Wonder Wall. Invite each group to share with the class what they learned
about protecting objects and materials from different weather conditions.
Weathered Objects
Revisit the small objects that have been kept outside since the beginning of
the unit. Ask:
Do any of the objects show signs of weathering?
What weather conditions may have caused the changes?
Bring the objects back to the classroom several more times over the course
of the school year and invite students to examine them for change. You
may wish to have students take digital pictures to show the progression of
weathering. Discuss what could have been done to protect the objects from
the weather.
CONSOLIDATE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 67
Extreme Weather Conditions
Share with students pictures or articles about a recent extreme weather
event in your region (e.g., an ice storm, severe thunderstorm, hurricane, or
flooding). If you experienced the event personally, share your memories of it.
If not, you might invite someone from the community who remembers the
event or have an expert, such as a meteorologist, visit the classroom to add
insight. Ask class members if they have ever had experiences with a really
big storm. Give students the opportunity to share. Start and keep a KWLN
chart on the topic of extreme weather.
After the discussion and/or class visit, ask students what else they would
like to know about extreme weather events. Record suggestions on the
KWLN chart. Divide the class into groups of three to four students. Direct
each group to choose one question from the KWLN chart they would like
to research. Provide access to relevant books and Websites. Allow students
to choose how they will present their findings to the rest of the class; for
example, as an oral presentation, a poster, or a dramatic skit. After each
group has made their presentation, add any new information or make
revisions to the KWLN chart. Encourage students to add any new questions
to the I Wonder Wall.
EXPLORE MORE
68
Focus: Students will explore how water is used and obtained in their homes and local community, and
construct and label pictographs to communicate some of their findings.
Air, Water, and People
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 20.0 explore how water is used, obtained,
and distributed in personal, local and regional
environments [GCO 1/3]
• 21.0 construct and label concrete-object graphs
or pictographs [GCO 2]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• survey water use in their home and create a
labelled pictograph to communicate the results
• describe the source(s) of water for their
community
NOTES:
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 69
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
be sensitive to the needs of other people, other living things, and the local
environment [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
Math
It is expected that students will:
• construct and interpret concrete graphs and pictographs to solve problems
[2SP2]
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• create texts collaboratively and independently, using a variety of forms for
a range of audiences and purposes [GCO 9]
Only about 3% of the water on Earth is fresh water. This includes ice,
surface water (in lakes, rivers, and the like) and ground water. Ground
water is found in the spaces between materials in Earth’s upper layer.
About 70% of Canadians (66% of those in Newfoundland and Labrador)
rely on surface water for their supply. The remainder comes from ground
water. Wells are common in many rural communities that lack sufficient
infrastructure to develop other sources.
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
• Science Card 10
• IWB Activity 7
• BLM
Our Water Use
• IWB Activity 8
• students’ Science Folders
• students’ Science Journals
• rainwater
• snow
• ice
• run off
• stream
• river
• lake
• pond
• ocean
• well
• pipes
• tap
• water supply
• surface water
Science Background
70
• Typical water use by Canadians at home is shown below.
.
Unless they do not use a municipal supply, students are unlikely to have
considered where the water in a faucet comes from.
Sources of Water
Brainstorm or review with students the different sources that provide people
with water, for example, lakes, rivers, streams, creeks, ponds, oceans, and
wells. Tell students that there is also water underground which they can’t
see. Explain that this water, called “groundwater,” is found in spaces under
the earth. This water is often directed to the municipal water supply. Ask:
How does the water get to your house? (Students may say that water is
pumped in or comes through the pipes.)
How Do We Use Water?
Ask students to tell you about any ways they used water today before they
came to school. Make a list as students respond. Then, ask them if they have
used water today in school, and add these responses to the list. Share
Science Card 10 with the class. Ask students to describe the various ways
that water is being used in the illustration. List students’ responses, then ask:
Residential Water Use, Canada
Cleaning
5
%
Showers & Baths
35
%
Laundry
20
%
Kitchen & Drinking
10
%
Toilet Flushing
30
%
Source: Environment Canada
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 71
Are there any ways that your family uses water that are not shown in the
picture? Tell me about them. (Record any uses not shown on the Science
Card.)
Are there any other ways that people use water that you know about?
What are they?
As a class, brainstorm uses of water. Use the unit KWLN chart to record
students understanding and questions.
Water at Home
Tell the class that they are going to find out more about how their family
uses water at home by conducting a survey. Briefly explain what a survey
is. Provide students with BLM Our Water Use. The BLM provides a space for
recording the source of water at home. Instruct students to ask an adult to help
them identify the source of their water at home. Students use the rest of the
BLM to track, using tally marks, some common household uses of water in
their household over a weekend or in one day. Students may need their family
members to help them track some uses. Tally your own water use, too.
Review or demonstrate to students how to construct a pictograph using the
data on your tally sheet. Then, have each student construct a pictograph of
the data on water use collected from their home. Invite them to draw pictures
like those on BLM Our Water Use or to invent their own. Have students store
completed BLMs in their Science Folders.
How We Used Water
Have students share the pictographs of their home water consumption by
posting them in the classroom. Ask students to compare their results to those
of their peers. Ask:
Does everyone use water for the same purposes?
Does everyone use the same amount of water?
Have students make record their conclusions in their Science Journals.
Incorporate students’ responses in the KWLN chart.
Then, as a class, use the pictographs to sort the activities by how often they
were done for the overall class. Record the sorting results in a central place.
Ask:
IWB Activity:
Have students
sequence activities
according to the
amount of water
required for each
activity using IWB
Activity 7: How much
water? (see the
Teacher’s Website).
CONNECT
Our Water Use
Name:
Circle or write the answer.
We get our water from
our town our well bottles another source
Day Tooth
brushing
Drinking Hand
washing
Toilet
flushing
Bath or
shower
Cooking Other
74 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
CONSOLIDATE
72
What could we do to use less water?
Do you think it is important to conserve water? Why?
Revise the KWLN chart with new information or questions.
Conserving Water
Challenge students to suggest how they could reduce water waste at home
and at school. Prompt them to look at the results of the water use survey
when they are brainstorming. Students can communicate their ideas as a
poster or Webpage that can be shared with the school.
How Do We Use Water in My Classroom?
Create a tally sheet of common ways that students use water throughout the
day at school: e.g., going to the bathroom, washing their hands, or getting a
drink of water. Post the tally sheet in a central location, such as on the door,
and have students add a tally mark to the sheet each time they carry out
one of these activities, over a period of two or three days. If necessary, use a
fresh tally chart each day. As a class, create a pictogram from the data. Ask:
Does anything on the graph surprise you?
Was anything more or less what you expected?
Can you use this information to suggest ways we can reduce water use
at school?
EXPLORE MORE
IWB Activity:
Alternatively, students
could use IWB
Activity 8: How do we
use water at school?
(see the Teacher’s
Website) to track
students’ water use
through the day.
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 73
Our Water Use
Name:
Circle or write the answer.
We get our water from our town our well bottles another source
Day Tooth
brushing
Drinking Hand
washing
Toilet
flushing
Bath or
shower
Cooking Other
74 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Focus: Students will explore the causes and effects of air and water pollution, and suggest personal
actions they can take to reduce pollution.
Pollution
Specific Curriculum Outcomes
Students will be expected to:
• 22.0 explore ways to protect and improve the
quality of air and water in the environment
[GCO 1/3]
Performance Indicators
Students who achieve these outcomes will be
able to:
• plan and carry out actions as a class that may
reduce pollution, and explain the importance
of pollution control
NOTES:
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 75
Attitude Outcome Statements
Encourage students to:
be sensitive to the needs of other people, other living things, and the local
environment [GCO 4]
Cross-Curricular Connections
Social Studies
Students will be expected to:
• demonstrate an understanding of how individuals and groups have
contributed to change [2.1.2]
• describe how people’s interactions with their environment have changed
over time [2.4.2]
• demonstrate an understanding of sustainable development and its
importance to our future (local, national, and global) [2.4.3]
Math
It is expected that students will:
• construct and interpret concrete graphs and pictographs to solve problems
[2SP2]
English Language Arts
Students will be expected to:
• select, read, and view with understanding a range of literature,
information, media, and visual text [GCO 4]
• respond critically to a range of texts, applying their understanding of
language, form, and genre [GCO 7]
Getting Organized
Components Materials Before You Begin Vocabulary
• Science Card 11
• IWB Activity 9
• Science Card 12
bottle of dirty
water
bottle of clean
water
students’ Science
Journals
Collect a sample of polluted water or mix
soil with tap water in a bottle.
Find videos of air and water pollution
associated with human activities. (optional)
Gather resources (e.g., books and
Websites) related to pollution.
Make arrangements to visit a local water
treatment facility, or invite a worker from
the facility or an expert on water pollution
to visit the class.
Invite an Elder or an Indigenous
Knowledge Keeper to discuss how air
or water pollution has affected their
traditional way of life.
• pollution
• polluted
76
In Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador has the lowest levels of the six
most common air pollutants: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile
organic compounds, ammonia, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter.
Sources of water pollution include: industrial discharges or spills, untreated
sewage, agricultural runoff, leaks in fossil fuel storage tanks or pipelines,
storm water overflows, deposition of airborne pollutants (e.g. sulphur
oxides dissolving in water to form acid rain), and plant and animal
decomposition.
In Newfoundland and Labrador, boil water advisories are usually issued
as a result of contamination of the water supply with Giardia. Giardia is
a parasite that enters the water supply by contaminated wildlife using a
surface water source, and cannot be killed by other disinfection methods,
such as water chlorination.
.
It is unusual for students to have thought about pollution at this age or
formed any misconceptions. Many people believe that air pollution or
pollution in general is a major contributor to climate change. The reality is
that most climate change is due to elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere. This greenhouse gas absorbs and retains heat from the sun,
raising the temperature on Earth.
Water Pollution
Bring in a bottle of dirty water (collect a sample from the environment,
or mix soil in with tap water) and a bottle of clean water. Pass the bottles
around and ask students which they would like to drink, bath in, or give to
Science Background
Air Pollutants Sources
sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides,
and carbon monoxide
- oil and gas industry
- transportation industry
- other industries (includes mining)
- fossil fuel use for heating and electricity production
- burning of firewood
volatile organic compounds - same sources as above for sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and
carbon monoxide
- paint and solvent use
- agriculture
- off-road vehicles
ammonia - agriculture; livestock waste and decomposing plant matter
particulate matter - burning firewood
- construction
- dust from roads (paved and unpaved)
Possible Misconceptions
ACTIVATE
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 77
a pet. Introduce the terms “pollution” and “polluted” and add them to the
Word Wall. Ask:
How are people, animals, and/or plants affected by the pollution?
When students have finished offering suggestions, lead them to an awareness
of how important it is to their lives to have clean water.
What Does Pollution Do?
Share Science Card 11 with the students. In addition, you might watch videos
of air and water pollution associated with human activities. Prompt
discussion of the implications of pollution on humans and wildlife by asking
questions such as:
Would you like to use this water? Why?
Would you like to breathe this air? Why?
Do you think water pollution would affect animals and fish? How?
How do you think air pollution affects animals and/or plants?
Divide the class into small groups. Have each group choose an aspect of
pollution that interests them, and then write a specific question to which they
can find an answer. Students can record their question in their Science
Journals. Provide resources such as books and Websites, and instruct students
to search for information related to the question they posed. When research is
complete, students can share their research with their classmates by giving a
class presentation, or creating a Webpage or poster.
Clean It Up!
Take students on a field trip to a local water treatment facility. Alternatively,
have a worker from such a facility or an expert on water pollution visit the
class. As a class, brainstorm questions students would like answered. After
the trip/visit, discuss with students why using water wisely is important.
Review the pictographs students created in Water at Home (see page 72)
and help them to interpret the graphs to analyze their water consumption at
home. Prompt deep thinking by wondering aloud about water use and water
pollution. For example, you might say:
I wonder why I can’t use all the water I want if we clean it up afterward?
I wonder what happens to the stuff that they take out of the water?
I wonder why we sometimes have to boil our water?
Have the class create a bulletin board presentation summarizing what they
learned during their trip/the visit. Revise and add to the unit KWLN chart
whenever possible.
What Causes Pollution?
Divide the class into small groups. Direct the groups to brainstorm ways in
which water and air might become polluted. Provide materials for students
Word
CONNECT
78
to record their ideas. When the groups have finished brainstorming, come
together as a class and invite each group to share their ideas. Create a class
list of ideas in a central location.
Have the class vote on which idea is most interesting to them. Write this in
a large format and post it in the classroom (e.g. air pollution comes from
cars). Then, divide the class into small groups and have the students conduct
research to find out if pollution actually happens the way they think it does.
Provide resources and time for students to conduct research to check the
validity of their ideas. Remind students to keep records of what they find, and
that they will be expected to share their information with the rest of the class.
After the groups have shared their findings, return to the statement you
posted. Ask students if their idea was completely correct, a bit correct, or not
correct at all. Have them explain their choice. Then, invite them to revisit
their statement and revise it, based on what they learned.
Let’s Keep It Clean!
Invite an Elder or an Indigenous Knowledge Keeper to discuss how air or
water pollution has affected their traditional way of life.
Share Science Card 12 with the class. Discuss the questions on the card as a
class. Then, ask students to suggest ways they, as a class, might act to reduce
pollution and, therefore, protect our environment. Then, work with the class
to create a plan to carry out their idea. For example, students might start a
recycling program, reduce the use of paper, or walk to school more often.
Students could create a poster campaign to encourage others in the school or
community to take action to reduce pollution.
What If?
Challenge students to draw, build a model, or relate a story in order to
communicate their ideas of how their community would be affected if we do
not act in ways that protect our water and air. Provide materials, books, and
online resources for students to use as needed.
Revisit any remaining questions posted on the I Wonder Wall and have
students discuss answers in small groups or with a partner. If there are
questions which cannot be answered at the time, these can remain on the
I Wonder Wall for students to research independently. Discuss what the
students have learned about the three states of water; moisture in the
environment, in materials, and in living things; changing air conditions; and
ways to protect and improve the quality of air and water in the environment.
IWB Activity:
Students can use
IWB Activity 9: Helpful
or harmful? (see the
Teacher’s Website) to
identify activities that
are helpful or harmful
to the environment.
CONSOLIDATE
EXPLORE MORE
WRAPPING UP THE UNIT
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 79
Specific Curriculum Outcomes Checklist
Name: __________________________________ Date: _______________
Rating: 1 – not evident; 2 – with assistance; 3 – mostly on own; 4 – on own consistently
Specific Curriculum Outcomes Rating and Observations
1.0 pose questions that lead to exploration and
investigation [GCO 2]
2.0 communicate using scientific terminology [GCO 2]
3.0 explore how air surrounds us, takes up space, and is
felt as wind when it moves [GCO 1/3]
4.0 explore characteristics of the three states of water
[GCO 1/3]
5.0 investigate changes that occur when the three states
of water are heated or cooled [GCO 1/3]
6.0 predict based on an observed pattern [GCO 2]
7.0 make and record observations and measurements
[GCO 2]
8.0 explore evidence of moisture in the environment, in
materials, and in living things [GCO 1/3]
9.0 propose an answer to an initial questions or problem
and draw a simple conclusion [GCO 2]
10.0 sequence or group materials and objects [GCO 2]
11.0 explore changes in the location, amount, and form of
moisture [GCO 1/3]
12.0 communicate while exploring and investigating
[GCO 2]
13.0 investigate conditions that affect changes in the
location, amount, and form of moisture [GCO 1/3]
14.0 communicate procedures and results [GCO 2]
15.0 explore changes in air conditions in indoor and
outdoor environments, and describe and interpret
these changes [GCO 1/3]
16.0 use appropriate tools [GCO 2]
17.0 explore the effects of weather on objects and
materials [GCO 1/3]
18.0 investigate ways to protect objects and materials
under different conditions [GCO 1/3]
19.0 select and use materials to carry out their own
explorations and investigations [GCO 2]
20.0 explore how water is used, obtained, and distributed in
personal, local and regional environments [GCO 1/3]
21.0 construct and label concrete-object graphs or
pictographs [GCO 2]
22.0 explore ways to protect and improve the quality of air
and water in the environment [GCO 1/3]
80 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
My Inquiry
Name: _______________________________________________________
My question:
My plan:
My results:
My conclusion:
How I will share what I learned:
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd. Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 81
Student Self-Assessment of Inquiry Process
Name: _______________________________________________________
Rating Scale = Great = Good = Needs to be better
Step 1
I asked a question.
I made a plan.
Step 2
I followed my plan.
I recorded my results.
Step 3
I thought about
my results.
I made a conclusion.
Step 4
I shared what I learned.
82 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Teacher Assessment of Inquiry Process
Name: __________________________________ Date: _______________
1 2 3 4
Initiating and Planning
poses a question that leads to exploration or
investigation
makes a prediction based on an observed pattern
makes a simple plan
selects and uses materials
Performing and Recording
carries out the plan/follows a simple procedure
uses appropriate tools
makes observations
records observations and measurements
identifies and uses a variety of sources of information
and ideas
follows safety procedures and rules
Analyzing and Interpreting
sequences or groups materials and objects
constructs and labels concrete-object graphs or
pictographs
proposes an answer to the initial question and draws
a simple conclusion
poses new questions that arise from what was
learned
Communicating and Teamwork
communicates while exploring and investigating
communicates using scientific terminology
communicates procedure and result
responds to ideas and actions of others and
acknowledges their ideas and contributions
Comments:
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd. Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 83
84 Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment © 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd.
Inquiry Process Rubric
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
talks about things that are
of interest
asks simple questions
about objects and events
that are observable
uses observations to ask
questions to investigate,
but questions are not
always realistic
uses observations and
prior knowledge to ask
questions to investigate
makes guesses about the
outcome of an inquiry
makes simple predictions
about the outcome of an
inquiry, but they may be
hoped-for outcomes
makes simple predictions
about the outcome of
an inquiry based on prior
observations
makes thoughtful
predictions about
the outcome of an
inquiry based on prior
observations and
knowledge
with prompting, offers
ideas for a procedure
contributes ideas for a
procedure, but they may
not be complete
provides ideas for a simple
procedure
provides clear, sequential
steps for a simple
procedure
with prompting, identifies
some materials which
could be used to carry out
the plan
identifies some materials
which could be used to
carry out the plan
selects and uses materials
to carry out the plan
selects and uses
appropriate materials to
carry out the plan and
explains reasons for
choice
carries out the plan/
follows a simple procedure
with prompting
carries out the plan/
follows most of a simple
procedure
carries out the plan/follows
a simple procedure
carries out the plan/
follows a simple procedure,
making adjustments as
necessary
with prompting, uses some
appropriate tools with
assistance
selects and uses common
tools
selects and uses some
appropriate tools
selects and uses all
appropriate tools
makes simple observations
using senses
makes some relevant
observations using senses
makes relevant
observations using
appropriate senses
makes relevant, detailed
observations using
appropriate senses
with prompting, records
observations and
measurements
records observations and
measurements which may
be incomplete
records observations and
measurements accurately
records observations and
measurements accurately
in a variety of ways
gets information from a
teacher-chosen source
identifies some relevant
information from familiar
sources
identifies relevant
information from sources
of the same type
identifies relevant
information from a variety
of sources
needs help to follow safety
procedures and rules
needs occasional
prompting to follow safety
procedures and rules
follows most safety
procedures and rules
follows all safety
procedures and rules and
explains why they are
needed
INITIATING AND PLANNING
PERFORMING AND RECORDING
Continued on next page...
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
sequences or groups
materials and objects
based on simple teacher-
chosen attributes
sequences or groups
materials and objects
based on a few simple
attributes
sequences or groups
materials and objects
based on multiple
attributes
accurately sequences
or groups materials and
objects based on multiple
attributes
with prompting, constructs
a concrete-object graph or
pictograph
constructs a concrete-
object graph or pictograph
but title and labels may be
missing or inappropriate
constructs a concrete-
object graph or pictograph
with appropriate title and
labels
constructs a concrete-
object graph or pictograph
with appropriate title and
labels to accurately reflect
results
describes what happened draws a simple conclusion
based on observations, but
may not link conclusion to
the initial question
draws a conclusion based
on observations which link
to the initial question
draws a conclusion based
on observations and states
if it supports or refutes
their prediction
with prompting, identifies
some new questions but
they may not be about this
inquiry
identifies some simple new
questions on the topic of
this inquiry
identifies some new
questions on the topic of
this inquiry that could be
investigated
identifies new questions
on the topic of this inquiry
and suggests how they
could be investigated
willingly asks for help and
accepts help from other
group members
makes suggestions to
group members as to what
should be done
communicates with group
members, sometimes with
problems
communicates and works
effectively with group
members
understands some
scientific terminology but
rarely uses it
understands simple
scientific terminology, but
does not always use it
correctly
usually uses scientific
terminology appropriately
consistently uses scientific
terminology appropriately
with prompting, describes
the result and some of the
procedures
communicates basic
information about the
result and most of the
procedures
communicates most of
the information about the
result and procedures
accurately communicates
the information about the
result and procedures
listens to others and
learns from their
observations
listens to others and learns
from their observations,
and draws on their
language use
considers and responds
to the ideas of others
and learns from their
observations and
descriptions
considers and responds
to the ideas of others and
applies the observations
and descriptions to
their own ideas and
understandings
ANALYZING AND INTERPRETINGCOMMUNICATING AND TEAMWORK
Inquiry Process Rubric
(Continued)
© 2017 Scholastic Canada Ltd. Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 85
Additional Resources
About Habitats: Polar Regions, by Cathryn Sill (Peachtree Publishers, 2015)
Extreme Weather [Discovery Kids Series] (Parragon Books, 2013)
Eyewitness Explorer: Nature Ranger [Eyewitness Explorer Series] (DK Kids, 2015)
Make a Splash!: A Kid’s Guide to Protecting Our Oceans, Lakes, Rivers, &
Wetland, by Catherine Berger Kaye (Free Spirit Publishing, 2012)
National Geographic Kids: Polar Bears by Laura Marsh (National Geographic,
2013)
Polar Bears, by Mark Newman (Henry Holt and Co., 2010)
Raindrops Roll, by April Pulley Sayre (Beach Lane Books, 2015)
Why Does It Happen: Tornadoes, Hurricanes and Typhoons [Children’s
Weather Books] (Baby Professor, 2015)
Oil Spill! by Melvin Berger (HarperCollins, 1994)
The Lorax by Dr. Seuss (Random House Books for Young Readers, 1971)
Where Do Polar Bears Live? Sarah L. Thomson (HarperCollins, 2009)
Why Are the Ice Caps Melting?: The Dangers of Global Warming by Anne
Rockwell (HarperCollins, 2006)
Why Should I Save Water? by Jen Green (Barron’s Educational Series, 2005)
American Museum of Natural History Ology: Water
http://www.amnh.org/explore/ology/water
BBC Science Clips: Solids and Liquids
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/8_9/solid_liquids.shtml
EekOWorld: Air and Water
http://pbskids.org/eekoworld/index.html?load=air_water
Hippothesis: Evaporation
http://www.knowledgekids.ca/videos/hippothesis/evaporation-s0-e8
Hippothesis: Fog
www.knowledgekids.ca/videos/hippothesis/fog-s0-e3
Hippothesis: Why Do Icicles Melt
http://www.knowledgekids.ca/videos/hippothesis/icicles-s0-e15
Kids Geo: Condensation
www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0107-condensation.php
Kids Geo: Evaporation
www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0102-evaporation.php
Tree House Weather Kids: How Do We Measure the Wind
http://extension.illinois.edu/treehouse/airpressure.cfm?Slide=8
Non-fiction Books
Picture Books
Websites
for Students
86
TVO Kids: The Green Squad: Water for Everyone
http://www.tvokids.com/shows/greensquad
TVO Kids: Finding Stuff Out: Water
http://www.tvokids.com/shows/findingstuffout
TVO Kids: Project Ice
www.tvokids.com/videos/projectice
AAAS SciLinks: Water3—Melting and Freezing
http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/water-3-melting-and-freezing/
Canadian Geographic: How to reduce water pollution by conserving water at home
www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/so03/indepth/knowledgetoolbox.asp
Earth Rangers
www.earthrangers.org/bring-back-the-wild-curriculum-resources/
EeekWorld
http://pbskids.org/eekoworld//parentsteachers/lessons.html
eSchool Today: Water
http://eschooltoday.com/science/needs-of-living-organisms/living-things-
need-water-to-survive.html
How Stuff Works: How Food Preservation Works
http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/edible-innovations/food-
preservation.htm
How Stuff Works: Science Projects for Kids—Air Pressure
http://lifestyle.howstuffworks.com/crafts/other-arts-crafts/science-projects-
for-kids-air-pressure.htm
National Centre for Home Food Preservation
http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/nchfp/factsheets/food_pres_hist.html
National Geographic: Condensation
http://education.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/condensation/
National Geographic: Evaporation
http://education.nationalgeographic.org/media/learning-about-evaporation/
National Geographic: Frost
http://education.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/frost/
NL Turn Back the Tide: At Home
www.turnbackthetide.ca/at-home/water/water.shtml#.VrIQMvkrLIU
PBS Kids Plum Landing: Evaporation
http://pbskids.org/plumlanding/educators/activities/evaporation_station_ed.html
Weather Watchers
https://sites.google.com/site/weatherwatchers65/home/
Weather Wiz Kids
www.weatherwizkids.com/
Websites for Teachers
Unit 1: Air and Water in the Environment 87
Dear parents and caregivers,
We are about to start an exciting new unit in science where we will be exploring air
and water in the environment. Through a variety of hands-on explorations and
investigations, your child will be developing an understanding of concepts such as
changes in air conditions; moisture in the environment, in materials, and in living
things; and the effects of weather on objects and materials. As well, your child will
be challenged to consider ways of protecting and improving the quality of air and
water in the environment.
You can talk to your child at home about how your family prepares for changing
weather conditions and explain the water supply for your home (e.g., well or city
supply). You can also help your child to conduct a survey of your familys water
usage at home.
To ensure a wide range of experiences and make connections between this topic
and your child’s world, he/she may choose to bring one or more personal items to
school for exploration during in-class activities. These items will be returned home
once explorations are completed. To determine whether the item(s) is appropriate
please contact me, your child’s teacher.
Sincerely,
88
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