150 Unit Title
399 B.C.
to death
330 B.C.
Alexander the
Great conquers
Persian Empire
c. 287 B.C.
Mathematician and
inventor Archimedes
is born
B.C. 300 B.C. 200 B.C.
B.C. 300 B.C. 200 B.C.
The temple of Delphi was very
important to ancient Greeks. Many
people believed the priestess here
could foretell the future.
Roger Wood/CORBIS
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Chapter Preview
Many Greeks studied science, philosophy, mathematics,
and the arts. When Alexander the Great conquered the Persian
Empire, he spread Greek culture and ideas throughout
southwest Asia and the Mediterranean world.
View the Chapter 5 video in the World History:
Journey Across Time Video Program.
The Culture of Ancient Greece
The Greeks made great strides in the arts. Greek poetry, art, and
drama are still part of our world today.
Greek Philosophy and History
The Greeks’ love of wisdom led to the study of history, politics,
biology, and logic.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great was only 25 years old when he conquered
the Persian Empire. As a result of his conquests, Greek art, ideas,
language, and architecture spread throughout southwest Asia and
North Africa.
The Spread of Greek Culture
Greek cities became centers of learning and culture. Greek scientists
developed advanced ideas about astronomy and mathematics.
Chapter Overview Visit
jat.glencoe.com for a preview
of Chapter 5.
Organizing Information Make the following foldable to help you organize
information about Greek culture and philosophy.
Reading and Writing
As you read the chapter,
list the developments
that occurred in ancient
Greece.Write the
developments under the
correct foldable
Step 1 Fold two sheets of paper
in half from top to bottom.
Step 3 Fit both
sheets of paper
together to make
a cube as shown.
Step 4 Turn the
cube and label the
foldable as shown.
Fold both
sheets to leave
inch tab
on top.
Culture of
The Spread
of Greek
the Great
Step 2 Place glue
or tape along both
inch tabs.
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Using Context Clues
When you have trouble understanding the words in a pas-
sage, it is very difficult to get the author’s message. You may
know part of a word’s definition or even how to pronounce it,
but you still may not understand its full meaning.
Look at the word inspiration in the following paragraph.
Use the highlighted words to help you understand its meaning.
Look at phrases
around the word
to find clues to
its meaning.
In this paragraph, the word
inspiration means some-
thing that influences or has
an effect on someone.
The key to Alexanders courage
may have been his childhood edu-
cation. Alexander kept a copy of
the Iliad under his pillow. Most
likely his inspiration was Homers
warrior-hero Achilles. In the end,
Alexanders reputation outstripped
even Achilles’, and today he is
called Alexander the Great.
—from page 177
When you don’t under-
stand a word or a
concept, reread the
sentence or paragraph.
Find other words that
will give you clues to its
150-153 CH5 CO-824133 2/27/04 11:52 PM Page 152
What Does It Mean?
Read the following paragraph about Aesop. Write down
all the words or phrases that help you fully understand the
meaning of the word fable.
About 550 B.C., a Greek slave
named Aesop (EE
SAHP) made
up his now famous fables. A
(FAYbuhl) is a short tale
that teaches a lesson. In most of
Aesop’s fables, animals talk and
act like people. These often
funny stories point out human
flaws as well as strengths. Each
fable ends with a message, or
—from page 158
Turn to any page in this
chapter. Close your eyes
and point to a word. It
can be any word, even
“a” or “the.” Now write
a paragraph explaining
how the rest of the
words in the sentence or
paragraph where that
word appears helped
you to determine its
Read to Write
As you read the chapter, create five
word webs. Put an important word
or idea in a center circle. Surround it
with circles containing words from
the text that help explain it.
Alinari/Art Resource, NY
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Ancient Greece
What’s the Connection?
You have read that under Pericles,
Athens became a center of beauty
and culture. During this Golden Age,
Greek thinkers, writers, and artists
contributed many new ideas to the
Focusing on the
The Greeks believed that gods and
goddesses controlled nature and
shaped their lives.
(page 155)
Greek poetry and fables taught Greek
(page 157)
Greek drama still shapes entertain-
ment today.
(page 160)
Greek art and architecture expressed
Greek ideas of beauty and harmony.
(page 162)
Locating Places
Mount Olympus (uhLIHMpuhs)
Delphi (DEHL FY)
Meeting People
Homer (HOH muhr)
Aesop (EE SAHP)
Sophocles (SAH fuhKLEEZ)
Euripides (yuRIHpuh DEEZ)
Building Your Vocabulary
myth (MIHTH)
oracle (AWRuh kuhl)
epic (EH pihk)
fable (FAYbuhl)
drama (DRAHmuh)
tragedy (TRAjuh dee)
comedy (KAHmuhdee)
Reading Strategy
Compare and Contrast Create a
Venn diagram showing similarities and
differences between an epic and a
Epic Both Fable
c. 700s B.C.
Homer writes the
Iliad and Odyssey
c. 550 B.C.
Aesop writes
a series of
700 B.C. 600 B.C. 500 B.C.
700 B.C. 600 B.C. 500 B.C.
154 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
c. 500s B.C.
Greek architects
begin using marble
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Greek Mythology
The Greeks believed that gods and
goddesses controlled nature and shaped their lives.
Reading Focus Have you ever wondered why crops
grow or why the sun rises and sets? To get the answer,
you would read a science book. Read to learn how the
Greeks used religion to explain nature.
Myths (MIHTHS) are traditional stories
about gods and heroes. Greek mythology
expressed the Greek people’s religious beliefs.
The Greeks believed in many gods and god-
desses. They believed gods and goddesses
affected people’s lives and shaped events.
That is why the most impressive buildings in
Greek cities were religious temples.
Greek Gods and Goddesses The Greeks
believed that the gods and goddesses
controlled nature. According to Greek
myth, the god Zeus ruled the sky and
threw lightning bolts, the goddess
Demeter made the crops grow, and the
god Poseidon caused earthquakes.
The 12 most important gods and
goddesses lived on Mount Olympus
(uh LIHM puhs), the highest mountain
in Greece. Among the 12 were Zeus,
who was the chief god; Athena, the
goddess of wisdom and crafts; Apollo,
the god of the sun and poetry; Ares, the
god of war; Aphrodite, the goddess of
love; and Poseidon, the god of the seas
and earthquakes.
The Greeks believed their gods and goddesses
were a large family—all related in some way.
1. Who was the twin sister of Apollo?
2. Explain How were Ares and Zeus related?
(cw from top)Bettman/CORBIS, The Art Archive/National Archaeological Museum Athens/Dagli Orti, The Art Archive/Achaeological Museum Tarquina/Dagli Orti, Lauros/Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library, Lauros/Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library,
The Art Archive/Archaeological Museum Venice/Dagli Orti, Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library, Peter Willi/Bridgeman Art Library, Wolfgang Kaehler/CORBIS
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But Greek gods and goddesses were not
thought to be all-powerful. According to
Greek myths, even though gods had special
powers, they looked like human beings and
acted like them. They married, had children,
quarreled, played tricks on each other, and
fought wars.
Because Greeks sought their gods’ favor,
they followed many rituals. Aritual is a set of
actions carried out in a fixed way. As part of
their rituals, the Greeks prayed to their gods
and also gave them gifts. In return, they
hoped that the gods would grant good
fortune to them. Many Greek festivals hon-
ored the gods and goddesses. Festivals dedi-
cated to Zeus were held at Olympia.
The Greeks also believed in an afterlife.
When people died, the Greeks believed their
spirits went to a gloomy world beneath the
earth ruled by a god named Hades.
What Was a Greek Oracle? The Greeks
believed that each person had a fate or des-
tiny. They believed that certain events were
going to happen no matter what they did.
They also believed in prophecy. A prophecy
is a prediction about the future. The Greeks
believed that the gods gave prophecies to
people to warn them about the future in
time to change it.
To find out about the future, many
Greeks visited an oracle (AWR uh kuhl).
This was a sacred shrine where a priest or
priestess spoke for a god or goddess. The
most famous was the oracle at the Temple
of Apollo at Delphi (DEHL FY). The oracle
chamber was deep inside the temple. The
room had an opening in the floor where vol-
canic smoke hissed from a crack in the earth.
A priestess sat on a tripod—a three-
legged stool—in the oracle chamber and lis-
tened to questions. The priests translated
her answers. State leaders or their messen-
gers traveled to Delphi to ask advice from
the oracle of Apollo.
The priestess in the oracle often gave
answers in riddles. When one king, named
Croesus (KREEsuhs), sent messengers to the
oracle at Delphi, they asked if the king
should go to war with the Persians. The ora-
cle replied that if Croesus attacked the
Persians, he would destroy a mighty empire.
Overjoyed to hear these words, Croesus
declared war on the Persians. The Persian
army crushed his army. The mighty empire
King Croesus had destroyed was his own!
Why did the
Greeks have rituals and festivals for their gods
and goddesses?
156 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
This painting shows a Greek man at the oracle
at Delphi receiving a prophecy. Why were these
prophecies often confusing?
Mary Evans Picture Library
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Greek Poetry and Fables
Greek poetry and fables taught Greek
Reading Focus Do you have favorite stories? Are the
characters in the stories brave and clever? Read about
the characters of the best-loved stories in early Greece.
Greek poems and stories are the oldest
in the Western world. For hundreds of
years, Europeans and Americans have
used these early works as models for their
own poems and stories. Shakespeare, for
example, borrowed many Greek plots and
The earliest Greek stories were epics
(EH pihks). These long poems told about
heroic deeds. The first great epics of early
Greece were the Iliad and the Odyssey. The
poet Homer
(HOHmuhr) wrote these epics
during the 700s B.C. He based them on sto-
ries of a war between Greece and the city of
Troy, which once existed in what is today
northwestern Turkey.
In the Iliad, a prince of Troy kidnaps the
wife of the king of Sparta. The kidnapping
outrages the Greeks. The king of Mycenae
and the brother of the king of Sparta lead
the Greeks in an attack on Troy.
The battle for Troy drags on for
10 years. Finally, the Greeks come up with
a plan to take the city. They build a huge,
hollow, wooden horse. The best My-
cenaean warriors hide inside the horse.
The Trojan Horse
The Trojan Horse
After building the Trojan
horse, the Greeks returned
to their ships and pretended
to retreat. Despite warnings,
the Trojans brought the
horse within their city as
a war trophy. The Greeks
inside the horse opened the
city gates for their fellow
soldiers and captured the
What epic included the
story of the Trojan horse?
Clay carving of the
Trojan horse
James L. Stanfield/National Geographic Society Image Collection
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Alinari/Art Resource, NY
The Trojans, thinking the horse was a
gift from the Greeks, celebrate and roll the
giant horse into the city. That night, the
Greek warriors quietly climb from the
horse and capture the city.
The Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus,
another Greek hero. It describes his journey
home from the Trojan War. Odysseus faces
storms, witches, and giants before return-
ing to his wife. Because it took Odysseus 10
years to get home, we use the word odyssey
today to mean a long journey with many
Greeks believed the Iliad and the
Odyssey were more than stories. They
looked on the epics as real history. These
poems gave the Greeks an ideal past with
a cast of heroes. Generations of Greeks
read Homer’s works. One Athenian wrote,
“My father was anxious to see me develop
into a good man . . . [so] he compelled me
to memorize all of Homer.”
Homer’s stories taught courage and
honor. They also taught that it was impor-
tant to be loyal to your friends and to value
the relationship between husband and
wife. The stories showed heroes striving to
be the best they could be. Heroes fought to
protect their own honor and their family’s
honor. Homer’s heroes became role models
for Greek boys.
Who Was Aesop? About 550 B.C., a Greek
slave named Aesop (EESAHP) made up his
now famous fables. A fable (FAYbuhl) is a
short tale that teaches a lesson. In most of
Aesop’s fables, animals talk and act like
people. These often funny stories point out
human flaws as well as strengths. Each
fable ends with a message, or moral.
One of the best-known fables is “The
Tortoise and the Hare.” In this fable, a tor-
toise and a hare decide to race. More than
halfway into the race, the hare is way ahead.
He stops to rest and falls asleep. Meanwhile,
the tortoise keeps going at a slow but steady
pace and finally wins the race.
The moral of the story is “slow and
steady wins the race.” Some of the phrases
we hear today came from Aesop’s fables.
“Sour grapes,” “a wolf in sheep’s clothing,”
and “appearances often are deceiving” are
For about 200 years, Aesop’s fables
were a part of Greece’s oral tradition. This
means they were passed from person to
person by word of mouth long before they
were ever written down. Since then, count-
less writers have retold the stories in many
different languages.
What are the
characteristics of a fable?
158 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
According to legend, Aesop was freed from
slavery and became an adviser to Greek
What is a fable?
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c. 750
Homer’s epic poems—the Iliad and the
Odyssey—are famous, but until the 1900s,
historians believed that Homer never existed.
Historians now know Homer was a real person,
but they still debate whether he wrote his
poems alone or with the help of other poets.
Many historians have speculated, or made
educated guesses, about Homer’s personal life.
Some say that Homer came from Ionia and
seven cities claim to be his birthplace. Some
believe that he was blind. Others believe
that he wandered from town to town.
Legends tell of Homer’s strong
influence on his readers. For example, as a
young child, Alexander the Great is said to
have slept with a copy of the Iliad under his
Homer used the term aoidos for a poet. This word
means “singer,” which tells us that the poetry created
during Homer’s time was memorized and recited, not
written down. Usually, short, simple poems that were
easy to remember were told to an audience as
Homer created a different style of poetry that
influenced all Western literature that followed. His
epics are long and involve complex characters, dramatic
action, and interesting events. Because each section
of the Iliad and the Odyssey has these characteristics,
most historians today think that only one poet
could have created both epics. Whoever
Homer was, his two epics have
influenced readers for more than
3,000 years.
“I hate as I hate [Hades’]
own gate that man
who hides one thought
within him while he
speaks another.”
Homer, the Iliad
Review the characteristics of an epic. Then do
research to identify a modern epic.
Scala/Art Resource, NY
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Actors today include both
men and women—and even
children and animals. Special effects
and makeup have replaced handheld
masks. Music in modern theater is
sometimes just as important as the actors’
words. If you watched a Greek play, what might
it tell you about life in ancient Greece?
Ruins of a Greek theater
The Theater
A modern-day play
Greek Drama
Greek drama still shapes entertain-
ment today.
Reading Focus Think about your favorite movie.
How would you describe it? Is it a tragedy? Is it a
comedy? Read to find out how Greek plays still influ-
ence our entertainment.
What is drama (DRAHmuh)? Drama is a
story told by actors who pretend to be
characters in the story. In a drama, actors
speak, show emotion, and imitate the
actions of the characters they represent.
Today’s movies, plays, and television
shows are all examples of drama.
Tragedies and Comedies The Greeks per-
formed plays in outdoor theaters as part of
their religious festivals. They developed two
kinds of dramas—comedies and tragedies.
In a tragedy (TRA juh dee), a person
struggles to overcome difficulties but fails.
As a result, the story has an unhappy end-
ing. Early Greek tragedies presented people
in a struggle against their fate. Later Greek
tragedies showed how a person’s character
flaws caused him or her to fail.
Tragedies and comedies were staged at a
theater on the slopes of the Acropolis in Athens.
The plays included music and dance. Greek
actors wore costumes and held large masks.
The masks told the audience who the
actor was supposed to be—a king, a
soldier, or a god. All the actors were
men, even those playing female parts.
160 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
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In a comedy (KAH muh dee), the story
ends happily. Today we use the word comedy
to mean a story filled with humor. The word
actually means any drama that has a happy
Greek stories dealt with big questions,
such as:
What is the nature of good and evil?
What rights should people have?
What role do gods play in our lives?
The three best-known writers of Greek
tragedies were Aeschylus
(EHS kuh luhs),
Sophocles (SAH fuh KLEEZ), and Euripides
(yu RIH puh DEEZ). The best-known writer
of Greek comedies was Aristophanes (ar uh
Early Greek tragedies had only one actor
who gave speeches and a chorus that sang
songs describing the events. Aeschylus was
the first to introduce the idea of having two
actors. This let the writer tell a story involving
conflict between the two people. Aeschylus
also introduced costumes, props, and stage
decorations—all ideas we still use today.
One of Aeschylus’s best-known plays
is a group of three plays called the Oresteia
(ohr eh STY uh). Aeschylus wrote the
plays in 458 B.C. They describe what hap-
pens when the king of Mycenae returns
home from the Trojan War. The Oresteia
teaches that evil acts cause more evil acts
and suffering. In the end, however, reason
triumphs over evil. The moral of these
plays is that people should not seek
Sophocles, a general and a writer of plays,
developed drama even further. He used
three actors in his stories instead of one or
two. He also placed painted scenes behind
the stage as a backdrop to the action. Two of
Sophocles’ most famous plays are Oedipus
Rex (EH duh puhs REHKS) and Antigone
(an TIH guh nee) In Antigone, Sophocles
asks the question “Is it better to follow
orders or to do what is right?”
Euripides, a later playwright, tried to
take Greek drama beyond heroes and gods.
His characters were more down-to-earth.
Euripides’ plots show a great interest in
real-life situations. He questioned tradi-
tional thinking, especially about war. He
showed war as cruel and women and chil-
dren as its victims.
The works of Aristophanes are good
examples of comedies. They make fun of
leading politicians and scholars. They
encourage the audience to think as well as
to laugh. Many of Aristophanes’ plays
included jokes, just like popular television
comedies do today.
What two
types of drama did the Greeks create?
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 161
This artwork shows
actors preparing for
a play. When and
where were Greek
plays performed?
Comedy and
tragedy masks
(t)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (b)Mary Evans Picture Library
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Greek Art and Architecture
Greek art and architecture expressed
Greek ideas of beauty and harmony.
Reading Focus Do you consider any building in
your neighborhood a work of art? Read on to find
out about buildings that people have admired as art
for centuries.
Artists in ancient Greece believed in cer-
tain ideas and tried to show those ideas in
their work. These ideas have never gone
out of style. Greek artists wanted people to
see reason, moderation, balance, and har-
mony in their work. They hoped their art
would inspire people to base their lives on
these same ideas.
We know that the Greeks painted
murals, but none of them have survived.
However, we can still see examples of
Greek painting on Greek pottery. The pic-
tures on most Greek pottery are either red
on a black background or black on a red
background. Large vases often had scenes
from Greek myths. Small drinking cups
showed scenes from everyday life.
162 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
Treasure Room
Held the city's gold
Athenians came to honor
Athena every four years.
The statue of Athena,
covered in ivory and gold,
was about 43 feet high.
Today the Parthenon still
rises above Athens.
The Parthenon
The Parthenon
The Greeks used three
different styles of columns
in their buildings.
Standing at almost 230 feet long and 100 feet wide,
the Parthenon was the glory of ancient Athens. It was
built between 447 and 432
B.C. What was the purpose
of the Parthenon?
(tl)Joel W. Rogers/CORBIS, (tc)Dave Bartruff/CORBIS, (tr)Vanni Archive/CORBIS, (b)Charles O’Rear/CORBIS
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CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 163
In addition to making pottery, the
Greeks were skilled architects. Architecture
is the art of designing and building struc-
tures. In Greece, the most important archi-
tecture was the temple dedicated to a god or
goddess. The best-known example is the
Parthenon. Temples, such as the Parthenon,
had a walled room in their centers. Statues
of gods and goddesses and the gifts offered
to them were kept in these central rooms.
Large columns supported many Greek
buildings. The first Greek columns were
carved from wood. Then, in 500 B.C., the
Greeks began to use marble. Marble
columns were built in sections. Large
blocks of marble were chiseled from stone
quarries and brought by oxen-drawn
wagon to the building site. The sections
were stacked on top of each other. To keep
them from toppling, the column’s sections
were joined with wooden pegs. Today,
marble columns are common features of
churches and government buildings.
Some of the best-known buildings in our
nation’s capital, such as the White House
and the Capitol, have columns similar to
Greek columns.
Many Greek temples were decorated
with sculpture. Greek sculpture, like Greek
architecture, was used to express Greek
ideas. The favorite subject of Greek artists
was the human body. Greek sculptors did
not copy their subjects exactly, flaws and
all. Instead, they tried to show their ideal
version of perfection and beauty.
What was
the most important type of building in ancient
Reading Summary
Review the
The Greeks believed gods and
goddesses influenced their lives.
They believed oracles spoke for
the gods and goddesses.
The Greeks wrote long poems,
called epics, and short tales, called
fables, to pass on Greek values.
The Greeks created the ideas of
tragedy and comedy that are still
used in drama today.
Greek art forms, such as painting,
architecture, and sculpture,
expressed Greek ideas of beauty,
harmony, and moderation.
1. How and why did the Greeks
honor their gods?
2. What values did the epic poems
of Homer teach Greeks?
Critical Thinking
3. Contrast How do Greek
tragedies and comedies differ?
Summarizing Information
Draw a table to describe the
characteristics of Greek archi-
tecture and pottery.
Evaluate Do you think the
themes of Euripides’ plays
would be popular today?
Make Generalizations Why
did Greek artists include the
ideas of reason, moderation,
balance, and harmony in their
Expository Writing Greek lit-
erature tells us what the Greeks
thought was important. Choose
a modern book, movie, or televi-
sion show. Write a paragraph to
explain what it would tell others
about our society.
Context Clues
Explain how the words in the
following sentence would help
you find the meaning of the
word moral.
The moral of the story is ‘slow
and steady wins the race.’”
What Did You Learn?
Study Central™ Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
Greek Architecture
Greek Pottery
154-163 CH5 S1-824133 3/17/05 11:57 AM Page 163
Retold by Josephine Preston Peabody
Before You Read
The Scene: This story takes place on the Greek island of Crete in the
legendary time when both humans and gods lived in ancient Greece.
The Characters: Daedalus is the master architect for King Minos of Crete.
Icarus is the son of Daedalus.
The Plot: King Minos once liked and trusted his servant, the architect
Daedalus. The king’s favor, though, soon runs out and he locks Daedalus
and his son, Icarus, in a high tower. Daedalus secretly plans to escape.
Vocabulary Preview
mortal: human
veer: to shift or change direction
waver: to become unsteady
rash: done without thought or
reel: to turn or seem to turn around
and around
quench: to satisfy or put an end to
a need or desire
vainly: without success
Have you ever known someone
who ignored warnings and did
something dangerous? This is
the story of a young boy who
does not listen to his father and
suffers the consequences.
164-167 CH5 WL-824133 2/28/04 2:04 AM Page 164
Among all those mortals who grew so wise that they learned the
secrets of the gods, none was more cunning than Daedalus.
He once built, for King Minos of Crete, a wonderful Labyrinth of
winding ways so cunningly tangled up and twisted around that,
once inside, you could never find your way out again without a
magic clue. But the king’s favor veered with the wind, and one day
he had his master architect imprisoned in a tower. Daedalus
managed to escape from his cell; but it seemed impossible to leave
the island, since every ship that came or went was well guarded by
order of the king.
At length, watching the sea-gulls in the air—the only creatures
that were sure of liberty,—he thought of a plan for himself and his
young son Icarus,
who was captive with him.
Little by little, he gathered a store of feathers great and small.
He fastened these together with thread, moulded them in with wax,
and so fashioned two great wings like those of a bird. When they
were done, Daedalus fitted them to his own shoulders, and after
one or two efforts, he found that by waving his arms he could
winnow the air and cleave
it, as a swimmer does the sea.
He held himself aloft, wavered this way and that with
the wind, and at last, like a great fledgling,
learned to fly.
Daedalus (DEH duhl uhs): architect for King Minos
Icarus (IH kuh ruhs): son of Daedalus
winnow . . . and cleave: here, both mean “to separate
or divide”
fledgling: a young bird without feathers that cannot
yet fly
As You Read
Keep in mind that a myth is a special kind of story, usually
involving gods or goddesses. Greek myths, like this one, were
told and retold over many hundreds of years. Try to figure out
why the Greeks told this story. What lesson does it teach?
164-167 CH5 WL-824133 7/21/04 10:25 AM Page 165
Without delay, he fell to work on a pair of wings for the boy
Icarus, and taught him carefully how to use them, bidding him
beware of rash adventures among the stars. “Remember,” said the
father, “never fly very low or very high, for the fogs about the earth
would weigh you down, but the blaze of the sun will surely melt
your feathers apart if you go too near.
For Icarus, these cautions went in at one ear and out by the
other. Who could remember to be careful when he was to fly for the
first time? Are birds careful? Not they! And not an idea remained in
the boy’s head but the one joy of escape.
The day came, and the fair wind that was to set them free. The
father bird put on his wings, and, while the light urged them to be
gone, he waited to see that all was well with Icarus, for the two
could not fly hand in hand. Up they rose, the boy after his father.
The hateful ground of Crete sank beneath them; and the country
folk, who caught a glimpse of them when they were high above
the tree-tops, took it for a vision of the gods,—Apollo,
perhaps, with Cupid
after him.
At first there was a terror in the joy. The wide vacancy of
the air dazed them,—a glance downward made their brains
reel. But when a great wind filled their wings, and Icarus felt
himself sustained,
like a halcyon-bird
in the hollow of a
wave, like a child uplifted by his mother, he forgot
everything in the world but joy. He forgot Crete and
the other islands that he had passed over: he saw
but vaguely that winged thing in the distance
before him that was his father Daedalus.
Apollo: Greek god of the sun
Cupid: Greek god of love
sustained: to be kept from falling
halcyon-bird: also kingfisher, flies close
to the water to catch fish
164-167 CH5 WL-824133 2/28/04 2:10 AM Page 166
1. What does King Minos do to keep Daedalus and Icarus
from escaping from Crete?
2. How does the setting of the story influence the plot? Support
your ideas with details from the story.
3. Drawing Conclusions Do you think Daedalus is a concerned
father? Why or why not? Support your opinion with examples.
4. Evaluating Information Why does Icarus disobey his father’s
words of caution?
5. Read to Write Imagine you are Icarus. Would you
listen to your father’s advice? Write one or two paragraphs
explaining what you would have done and why.
Responding to the Reading
He longed for one draught
of flight to quench the thirst of
his captivity: he stretched out his arms to the sky and made
toward the highest heavens.
Alas for him! Warmer and warmer grew the air. Those
arms, that had seemed to uphold him, relaxed. His wings
wavered, drooped. He fluttered his young hands
vainly,—he was falling,—and in that terror he
remembered. The heat of the sun had melted the
wax from his wings; the feathers were falling,
one by one, like snowflakes; and there was
none to help.
He fell like a leaf tossed down the wind, down,
down, with one cry that overtook Daedalus far
away. When he returned, and sought high and
low for the poor boy, he saw nothing but the
bird-like feathers afloat on the water, and he
knew that Icarus was drowned.
The nearest island he named Icaria,
in memory of the child; but he, in heavy grief,
went to the temple of Apollo in Sicily, and there hung up
his wings as an offering. Never again did he attempt to fly.
draught: here, means “a taste”
164-167 CH5 WL-824133 2/28/04 2:12 AM Page 167
168 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
435 B.C.
writes history
of Persian Wars
399 B.C.
to death
500 B.C. 400 B.C. 300 B.C.
500 B.C. 400 B.C. 300 B.C.
335 B.C.
Aristotle opens
the Lyceum
in Athens
What’s the Connection?
Section 1 discussed early Greek
artists and writers. Many of them
made the years between 500 and
B.C. the Golden Age for Greece.
Greek thinkers and historians also
produced works that shape people’s
views of the world today.
Focusing on the
Greek philosophers developed ideas
that are still used today.
(page 169)
Greeks wrote the first real histories
in Western civilization.
(page 173)
Meeting People
Pythagoras (puhTHAguhruhs)
Socrates (SAHkruhTEEZ)
Aristotle (ARuhSTAH tuhl)
Herodotus (hihRAHduhtuhs)
Thucydides (thooSIHduhDEEZ)
Building Your Vocabulary
philosophy (fuhLAHsuhfee)
philosopher (fuhLAHsuhfuhr)
Sophist (SAHfihst)
Socratic method (suhKRAtihk)
Reading Strategy
Categorizing Information Use
diagrams like the one below to show
the basic philosophies of Socrates,
Plato, and Aristotle.
Scala/Art Resource, NY
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Greek Philosophers
Greek philosophers developed ideas
that are still used today.
Reading Focus Who are you? Why are you here?
Read to learn how the ancient Greeks tried to answer
similar “big” questions.
The word philosophy (fuhLAHsuhfee)
comes from the Greek word for “love of wis-
dom.” Greek philosophy led to the study of
history, political science, science, and mathe-
matics. Greek thinkers who believed the
human mind could understand everything
were called philosophers (fuhLAHsuhfuhrs).
Many philosophers were teachers. One
Greek philosopher, Pythagoras
(puh THA
guh ruhs), taught his pupils that the uni-
verse followed the same laws that governed
music and numbers. He believed that all
relationships in the world could be
expressed in numbers. As a result, he devel-
oped many new ideas about mathematics.
Most people know his name because of the
Pythagorean theorem that is still used in
geometry. It is a way to determine the
length of the sides of a triangle.
Who Were the Sophists? The Sophists
(SAH fihsts) were professional teachers in
ancient Greece. They traveled from city to
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 169
This artwork shows Greek philosophers involved in a
discussion. Where does the word philosophy come from?
Scala/Art Resource, NY
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170 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
Greek Philosophers
Greek Philosophers
Main Idea
Or Group
on Today
Sophists like Libanius
(above) thought that
people should use
knowledge to improve
themselves. They
believed that there
is no absolute
right or wrong.
He rejected the idea
of democracy as a
form of government.
Plato believed that
should rule society.
Aristotle taught the
idea of the “golden
mean.” He believed
observation and
comparison were
necessary to gain
The importance of
public speaking can
be seen in political
debates between
His methods
influenced the way
teachers interact
with their students.
He introduced the
idea that govern-
ment should be
fair and just.
His political ideas
still shape political
ideas today.
They developed the
art of public speak-
ing and debate.
He created the
Socratic method
of teaching.
He described his
vision of the ideal
in his work the
He wrote over 200
books on philoso-
phy and science. He
divided all govern-
ments into three
basic types.
He was a critic of
the Sophists. Socrates
believed that there
was an absolute
right and wrong.
Sophists Socrates Plato Aristotle
city and made a living by teaching others.
They believed students should use their
time to improve themselves. Many taught
their students how to win an argument and
make good political speeches.
Sophists did not believe that gods and
goddesses influenced people. They also
rejected the idea of absolute right or wrong.
They believed that what was right for one
person might be wrong for another.
The Ideas of Socrates One critic of the
Sophists was Socrates (SAH kruh TEEZ).
Socrates was an Athenian sculptor whose
true love was philosophy. Socrates left no
writings behind. What we know about
him we have learned from the writings of
his students.
Socrates believed that an absolute truth
existed and that all real knowledge was
within each person. He invented the
Socratic method (suh KRAtihk) of teaching
still used today. He asked pointed questions
to force his pupils to use their reason and to
see things for themselves.
Some Athenian leaders considered the
Socratic method a threat to their power. At
one time, Athens had a tradition of ques-
tioning leaders and speaking freely.
However, their defeat in the Peloponnesian
War changed the Athenians. They no longer
trusted open debate. In 399 B.C. the leaders
accused Socrates of teaching young
Athenians to rebel against the state. A jury
found Socrates guilty and sentenced him to
death. Socrates could have fled the city, but
(l)Mary Evans Picture Library, (cl)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (cr)Museo Capitolino, Rome/E.T. Archives, London/SuperStock, (r)Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY
168-173 Ch5 S2-824133 3/10/04 5:52 AM Page 170
he chose to remain. He argued that he had
lived under the city’s laws, so he had to
obey them. He then drank poison to carry
out the jury’s sentence.
The Ideas of Plato One of Socrates’ stu-
dents was Plato (PLAY toh). Unlike Socrates,
we are able to learn a lot about Plato from
his writings. One work Plato wrote is called
the Republic. It explains his ideas about gov-
ernment. Based on life in Athens, Plato
decided that democracy was not a good
system of government. He did not think
that rule by the people produced fair or sen-
sible policies. To him, people could not live
good lives unless they had a just and rea-
sonable government.
In the Republic, Plato described his ideal
government. He divided people into three
basic groups. At the top were philosopher-
kings, who ruled using logic and wisdom.
Warriors made up the second group. They
defended the state from attack.
The third group included the rest of the
people. They were driven by desire, not by
wisdom like the first group or courage like
the second. These people produced the
state’s food, clothing, and shelter. Plato also
believed that men and women should have
the same education and an equal chance to
have the same jobs.
Who Was Aristotle? Plato established a
school in Athens known as the Academy. His
best student was Aristotle (ARuhSTAH tuhl).
Aristotle wrote more than 200 books on
topics ranging from government to the
planets and stars.
In 335 B.C. Aristotle opened his own
school called the Lyceum. At the Lyceum,
Aristotle taught his pupils the “golden
mean.” This idea holds that a person should
do nothing in excess. For example, a person
should not eat too little or too much but just
enough to stay well.
Aristotle also helped to advance science.
He urged people to use their senses to make
observations, just as scientists today make
observations. Aristotle was the first person
to group observations according to their sim-
ilarities and differences. Then he made gen-
eralizations based on the groups of facts.
Like Plato, Aristotle wrote about gov-
ernment. He studied and compared the
governments of 158 different places to find
the best form of government. In his book
Politics, Aristotle divided the governments
into three types:
Government by one person, such as a
monarch (king or queen) or a tyrant
Government by a few people, which
might be an aristocracy or an
Government by many people, as in a
Aristotle noticed that governments run
by a few people were usually run by the
rich. He noticed that most democracies
were run by the poor. He thought the best
government was a mixture of the two.
Aristotle’s ideas shaped the way
Europeans and Americans thought about
government. The founders of the United
States Constitution tried to create a mixed
government that balanced the different
types Aristotle had identified.
How did
Aristotle’s idea of government differ from Plato’s?
Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com and click
on Chapter 5—Student Web Activity to learn
more about ancient Greece.
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 171
168-173 Ch5 S2-824133 3/10/04 5:53 AM Page 171
Aristotle spent 20 years at Plato’s Academy.
What present-day careers or subjects of study
require lifelong learning?
Plato c. 428–347
Aristotle 384–322
Plato was from a noble Greek family and had planned a career in
politics. However, he was so horrified by the death of his teacher,
Socrates, that he left politics and spent many years traveling and
writing. When Plato returned to Athens in 387
., he founded an
academy, where he taught using Socrates’ method of questioning. His
academy drew bright young students from Athens and other Greek
city-states. Plato looked for truth beyond the appearances of
everyday objects and reflected this philosophy in his writing and
teaching. He believed the human soul was the connection between
the appearance of things and ideas.
Plato and Aristotle—two of the greatest ancient Greek
philosophers—met as teacher and student at Plato’s Academy in
Athens. Aristotle left his home in Stagira and arrived on the Academy’s
doorstep when he was eighteen years old. He remained at Plato’s Academy for
20 years, until the death of his teacher. Unlike Plato, Aristotle did not come from
a noble family. His father was the court physician to the king of Macedonia. At an early
age, Aristotle’s father introduced him to the topics of medicine and biology, and these
became his main interests of study. Aristotle sought truth through a systematic, scientific
approach. He liked to jot down notes and details about different
topics—from weather to human behavior—and arrange them in
categories. He did not trust the senses’ ability to understand the
After Plato’s death, Aristotle traveled for about 12 years.
He also tutored the future Alexander the Great. Later in his life, he
returned to Athens and opened his own school, the Lyceum. He
made his school the center for research in every area of
knowledge known to the Greeks.
(t)SEF/Art Resource, NY, (b) Scala/Art Resource, NY
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Reading Summary
Review the
The ideas of Greek philosophers,
including Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle, still affect modern
thinking about education, gov-
ernment, and science.
Herodotus and Thucydides are
considered western civilization’s
first historians. They believed
that people could understand the
present by studying the past.
1. Who were the Sophists and
what were their beliefs?
2. Before Herodotus, how did
Greeks explain the past?
Critical Thinking
3. Organizing Information
Draw a diagram like the one
below. Use the diagram to
organize Plato’s ideas about an
ideal government.
Science Link How are
Aristotle’s teachings related to
the scientific method used by
scientists today?
Contrast What is different
about the works of Herodotus
and Thucydides?
Summarize Describe
Aristotle’s contributions to
Persuasive Writing Do you
agree with Plato’s vision of the
ideal state in the Republic?
Write an editorial expressing
your viewpoint.
What Did You Learn?
Study Central™ Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 173
Greek Historians
Greeks wrote the first real histories in
Western civilization.
Reading Focus Why is history important? Read on to
find out what Greek historians thought was important.
In most places in the ancient world, peo-
ple did not write history. Legends and
myths explained their past. Some civiliza-
tions kept long lists of rulers and the dates
they were in power, but no one tried to
explain the past by studying events. Then,
in 435 B.C., a Greek named Herodotus (hih
RAH duh tuhs) wrote the history of the
Persian Wars.
In his book, Herodotus tried to separate
fact from legend. He asked questions,
recorded answers, and checked the truthful-
ness of his sources. Although his history
includes some errors and uses gods and god-
desses to explain some events, Western histo-
rians consider him the “father of history.”
Many historians consider Thucydides
(thooSIH duhDEEZ) the greatest historian of
the ancient world. Thucydides fought in the
Peloponnesian War. After he lost a battle, he
was sent into exile. There he wrote his
History of the Peloponnesian War.
Unlike Herodotus, Thucydides saw war
and politics as the activities of human
beings, not gods. He also stressed the
importance of having accurate facts:
Either I was present myself at the
events which I have described or
else I heard of them from eye-
witnesses whose reports I have
checked with as much
thoroughness as possible.
Thucydides, History of the
Peloponnesian War
Identify How did
Thucydides view war and politics?
168-173 Ch5 S2-824133 3/17/05 11:58 AM Page 173
359 B.C.
Philip II becomes
king of Macedonia
331 B.C.
defeats Darius
at Gaugamela
323 B.C.
Alexander dies
360 B.C. 340 B.C.320 B.C.
360 B.C. 340 B.C.320 B.C.
174 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
What’s the Connection?
In Section 2, you learned that the
Greek philosopher Aristotle was also
a teacher. The king of Macedonia
admired Greek culture and hired
Aristotle to tutor his son, Alexander.
Years later, his son would take
control of the Greek world.
Focusing on the
Philip II of Macedonia united the
Greek states.
(page 175)
Alexander the Great conquered the
Persian Empire and spread Greek
culture throughout southwest Asia.
(page 176)
Locating Places
Macedonia (MA suhDOHneeuh)
Chaeronea (KEHR uhNEEuh)
Syria (SIHReeuh)
Alexandria (A lihgZANdreeuh)
Meeting People
Philip II
Alexander the Great
Building Your Vocabulary
legacy (LEHguhsee)
Hellenistic Era (HEHluhNIHStihk)
Reading Strategy
Sequencing Create a diagram like the
one below to track the achievements
of Alexander the Great.
174-179 Ch5 S3-824133 2/28/04 3:24 AM Page 174
Macedonia Attacks Greece
Philip II of Macedonia united the Greek
Reading Focus Have you ever wanted something
because your neighbor had it? Read to find what the king
of Macedonia wanted from his neighbors, the Greeks.
Macedonia (MA suh DOH nee uh) lay
north of Greece. The Macedonians raised
sheep and horses and grew crops in their
river valleys. They were a warrior people
who fought on horseback. The Greeks looked
down on them, but by 400 B.C., Macedonia
had become a powerful kingdom.
A Plan to Win Greece In 359 B.C. Philip II
rose to the throne in Macedonia. Philip had
lived in Greece as a young man. He admired
everything about the Greeks—their art,
their ideas, and their armies. Although
Macedonia was influenced by Greek ideas,
Philip wanted to make his kingdom strong
enough to defeat the mighty Persian
Empire. In order to achieve this goal, Philip
needed to unite the Greek city-states with
his own kingdom.
Philip trained a vast army of foot sol-
diers to fight like the Greeks. He took over
the city-states one by one. He took some
city-states by force and bribed the leaders of
others to surrender. Some united with his
kingdom voluntarily.
Demosthenes (
dih MAHS thuh NEEZ)
was a lawyer and one of Athens’s great
public speakers. He gave several powerful
speeches warning Athenians that Philip
was a threat to Greek freedom. He urged
Athens and other city-states to join together
to fight the Macedonians.
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 175
As King Philip II of Macedonia became
more powerful, he began to take part
in the affairs of Greece. Demosthenes real-
ized that Macedonia’s powerful army
would eventually be a threat to Greece.
He tried to warn the Greeks to take action.
“Remember only that Philip is our enemy, that
he has long been robbing and insulting us,
that wherever we have expected aid from oth-
ers we have found hostility, that the future
depends on ourselves, and that unless we are
willing to fight him there we shall perhaps be
forced to fight here....You need not speculate
[guess] about the future except to assure
yourselves that it will be disastrous unless you
face the facts and are willing to do your duty.”
—Demosthenes, “The First Philippic” in
Orations of Demosthenes
Which line of Demosthenes’ speech tells
what he thinks will happen if the Greeks
ignore Philip?
Demosthenes’ Warning
file photo
174-179 Ch5 S3-824133 3/10/04 6:01 AM Page 175
However, by the time the Greeks saw the
danger, it was too late. The Peloponnesian
War had left the Greeks weak and divided. In
many Greek city-states, the population had
declined after the Peloponnesian War.
Fighting had destroyed many farms and left
people with no way to earn a living. As a
result, thousands of young Greeks left Greece
to join the Persian army. Many who stayed
behind began fighting among themselves.
The city-states grew weaker.
Although the Athenians joined some
other Greek states to fight Philip’s army, they
could not stop the invasion. In 338 B.C. the
Macedonians crushed the Greek allies at the
Battle of Chaeronea (KEHR uhNEEuh) near
Thebes. Philip now controlled most of Greece.
Why did Philip II
invade Greece?
Alexander Builds an Empire
Alexander the Great conquered the
Persian Empire and spread Greek culture through-
out southwest Asia.
Reading Focus What will you be doing at age 20?
Read to learn what Philip’s son Alexander achieved.
Philip planned to conquer the Persian
Empire with the Greeks’ help. Before Philip
could carry out his plan, however, he was
murdered. As a result, the invasion of Asia
fell to his son.
Alexander was only 20 when he became
king of Macedonia. Philip had carefully
trained his son for leadership. While still a
boy, Alexander often went with his father to
the battlefront. At age 16 he rose to com-
mander in the Macedonian army. After his
500 km
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
500 mi.
334 B.C.
338 B.C.
331 B.C.
333 B.C.
Mediterranean Sea
Black Sea
Alexander’s Empire 323 B.C.
Alexander the Great’s empire
stretched across three continents.
1. Near what river was the Battle of
Gaugamela fought?
2. What modern countries make up
the eastern borders of the empire?
Find NGS online map resources @
Extent of empire
Alexander’s routes
of conquest
Major battle
The Region Today
174-179 Ch5 S3-875047 9/13/06 11:32 AM Page 176
father’s death, Alexander was ready to ful-
fill his father’s dream—the invasion of the
Persian Empire.
Alexander’s Conquests In the spring of
334 B.C., Alexander invaded Asia Minor with
about 37,000 Macedonian and Greek foot sol-
diers. He also took along 5,000 mounted
warriors. With Alexander at their head, the
cavalry destroyed the forces of the local
Persian satraps at the Battle of Granicus.
By the next year, Alexander had freed
the Greek cities in Asia Minor from Persian
rule and defeated a large Persian army at
Issus. He then turned south. By the winter
of 332 B.C., he had captured Syria (SIHR ee
uh) and Egypt. Then he built the city of
Alexandria (A lihg ZAN dreeuh) as a cen-
ter of business and trade. The city became
one of the most important cities in the
ancient world.
In 331 B.C. Alexander headed east and
defeated the Persians at Gaugamela, near
Babylon. After this victory, his army easily
overran the rest of the Persian Empire.
However, Alexander did not stop at Persia.
Over the next three years, he marched east
as far as modern Pakistan. In 326 B.C. he
crossed the Indus River and entered India.
There he fought a number of bloody battles.
Weary of continuous war, his soldiers
refused to go farther. Alexander agreed to
lead them home.
On the return march, the troops crossed
a desert in what is now southern Iran. Heat
and thirst killed thousands of soldiers. At
one point, a group of soldiers found a little
water and scooped it up in a helmet. Then
they offered the water to Alexander.
According to a Greek historian, Alexander,
“in full view of his troops, poured the water
on the ground. So extraordinary was the
effect of this action that the water wasted by
Alexander was as good as a drink for every
man in the army.”
In 323
B.C. Alexander returned to
Babylon. He wanted to plan an invasion of
southern Arabia but was very tired and weak
from wounds. He came down with a bad
fever. Ten days later he was dead at age 32.
Alexander’s Legacy Alexander was a
great military leader. He was brave and
even reckless. He often rode into battle
ahead of his men and risked his own life.
He inspired his armies to march into
unknown lands and risk their lives in dif-
ficult situations.
The key to Alexander’s courage may
have been his childhood education.
Alexander kept a copy of the Iliad under his
pillow. Most likely his inspiration was
Homer’s warrior-hero Achilles. In the end,
Alexander’s reputation outstripped even
Achilles’, and today he is called Alexander
the Great.
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 177
This carving of Alexander the Great on his horse
decorated the side of a tomb. Was Alexander
able to fulfill his plans of conquest? Explain.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
Robert Harding Picture Library
174-179 Ch5 S3-824133 7/14/04 11:49 PM Page 177
A legacy (LEH guh see) is what a person
leaves behind when he or she dies.
Alexander’s skill and daring created his
legacy. He helped extend Greek and
Macedonian rule over a vast area. At the
same time, he and his armies spread Greek
art, ideas, language, and architecture wher-
ever they went in southwest Asia and
northern Africa. Greeks, in turn, brought
new ideas back from Asia and Africa.
Alexander’s conquests marked the
beginning of the Hellenistic Era (HEH luh
NIHStihk). The word Hellenistic comes from
a Greek word meaning “like the Greeks.” It
refers to a time when the Greek language
and Greek ideas spread to the non-Greek
people of southwest Asia.
The Empire Breaks Apart Alexander the
Great planned to unite Macedonians,
Greeks, and Persians in his new empire. He
used Persians as officials and encouraged
his soldiers to marry Asian women. After
Alexander died, however, his generals
fought one another for power. As a result,
the empire that Alexander had created fell
apart. Four kingdoms took its place:
Macedonia, Pergamum (PUHR guhmuhm),
Egypt, and the Seleucid Empire (suh LOO
suhd). Look at the map on page 179 to see
where these kingdoms were located.
All government business in the
Hellenistic kingdoms was conducted in the
Greek language. Only those Asians and
Egyptians who spoke Greek could apply
Alexandria, Egypt
Alexandria, Egypt
Modern Alexandria
The lighthouse of Alexandria was one
of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient
World. A fire in its tall tower guided
ships into harbor. What was special
about Alexandria in 100
(l)Yan Arthus-Bertrand/CORBIS, (r)Archives Charmet/Bridgeman Art Library
174-179 Ch5 S3-824133 2/28/04 9:29 AM Page 178
Reading Summary
Review the
Following the Battle of
Chaeronea in 338
B.C., King Philip
of Macedonia ruled all of Greece.
Alexander the Great, King Philip’s
son, conquered an empire that
stretched to Africa in the south
and India in the east. After
Alexander’s death, his empire
split into several kingdoms.
1. How did Philip II of Macedonia
feel about the Greeks?
2. What ended Alexander’s con-
quest of India?
Critical Thinking
3. Analyze Why was Alexander a
good leader?
Summarize Draw a table to
summarize what you know
about each topic.
Predict How might history
have been different if
Alexander had lived longer?
Geography Skills How many
continents did Alexander’s
empire reach?
Context Clues
What do you think the word
assure means in this passage?
“. . . assure yourselves that it
will be disastrous unless you
face the facts and are willing
to do your duty.”
What words give clues to its
Philip of
the Great
Empire After
His Death
What Did You Learn?
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material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 179
for government posts. The kings
preferred to give the jobs to Greeks
and Macedonians. In this way,
Greeks managed to stay in control
of the governments.
By 100 B.C., the largest city in
the Mediterranean world was
Alexandria, which Alexander had
founded in Egypt. In addition, the
Hellenistic kings created many
new cities and military settlements.
These new Greek cities needed
architects, engineers, philosophers,
artisans, and artists. For this reason,
Hellenistic rulers encouraged Greeks
and Macedonians to settle in south-
west Asia. These colonists provided
new recruits for the army and a pool
of government officials and work-
ers. They helped spread Greek cul-
ture into Egypt and as far east as
modern-day Afghanistan and India.
What was
Alexander’s legacy?
500 km
Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
500 mi.
Mediterranean Sea
Black Sea
Red Sea
Hellenistic World 241 B.C.
Egyptian kingdom
Macedonian kingdom
Pergamum kingdom
Seleucid kingdom
Following Alexander’s death, his empire
separated into four kingdoms.
1. Which kingdom appears to have had
the most territory?
2. Which kingdoms were at least
partially located in Asia?
174-179 Ch5 S3-875047 9/13/06 11:44 AM Page 179
Alexander the Great:
Villain or Hero?
Was Alexander the Great really great?
Or was he an evil conqueror? Those who
see him as bloodthirsty and cruel give
this as evidence against Alexander. They
say he
destroyed Persepolis
attacked Tyre, killing 10,000 people
and enslaving 30,000
treated his slaves harshly
ordered the murder of several close
Many legends about Alexander have
been told. One historian found this
account to support the “villain theory.”
“The following is my favourite [story]
which is found all the way from Turkey to
Kazakhstan: Iskander [Alexander] was actu-
ally a devil and he had horns. But his hair
was long and wavy and the horns were
never seen. Only his barbers knew. But he
feared they could not keep the secret. So,
he killed them when they discovered. His
last barber pretended not to notice and
kept the secret. Eventually though he
could bear it no longer
and, as he could tell no
one, he ran to a well and
called down the well:
‘Iskander has horns!’ But
in the bottom of the well
were whispering reeds
[used in flutes] and they
echoed the story until it
went round the whole
—Michael Wood,
“In the Footsteps of
Alexander the Great”
Alexander the Great (at far left)
David Lees/CORBIS
180-181 Ch5 YD-824133 2/28/04 4:33 AM Page 180
Other historians consider Alexander
the Great to be a hero. They claim he
brought progress, order, and culture
to each new land he conquered. In
support of him, they say Alexander
tried to promote learning
visited all of his wounded men
after each battle
spared the lives of the queen and
princess of Persia
built new cities where others had
been destroyed.
Arrian, a Greek historian who lived
in the
. 100s, wrote about Alexander
this way:
“For my own part, I think there was at that
time no race of men, no city, nor even a single
individual to whom Alexander’s name and
fame had not penetrated. For this reason it
seems to me that a hero totally unlike any
other human being could not have been born
without the agency [help] of the deity [gods].
—Arrian, The Anabasis of Alexander
On two points all historians agree:
Alexander was a brilliant general and he
was a brave fighter. He once boasted to
his men:
“For there is no part of my body, in front
at any rate, remaining free from wounds;
nor is there any kind of weapon used either
for close combat or for hurling at the
enemy, the traces of which I do not bear on
my person. For I have been wounded with
the sword in close fight, I have been shot
with arrows, and I have been struck with
missiles projected from engines of war; and
though oftentimes I have been hit with
stones and bolts of wood for the sake of
your lives, your glory, and your wealth, I am
still leading you as conquerors over all the
land and sea, all rivers, mountains, and
plains. I have celebrated your weddings
with my own, and the children of many of
you will be akin to my children.
—Arrian, The Anabasis of Alexander
Checking for Understanding
Why do some people view
Alexander the Great as a villain?
2. Why do others view him as a
3. Was Alexander wicked or heroic?
Take the role of a historian.Write
a brief essay or persuasive
speech that explains how you
see Alexander the Great. Be sure
to use facts to support your
position. You can compare him
to other famous rulers to
strengthen your argument.
Alexander the Great
Sandro Vannini/CORBIS
180-181 Ch5 YD-824133 2/28/04 4:34 AM Page 181
What’s the Connection?
In Section 3, you read that
Alexander’s conquests helped to
spread Greek culture.The kings who
came after Alexander also tried to
attract the best and brightest Greeks
to Asia and Egypt. They hoped to re-
create the glory of Greece’s Golden
Age in their own kingdoms.
Focusing on the
Hellenistic cities became centers of
learning and culture.
(page 183)
Epicurus and Zeno showed the world
different ways to look at happiness.
(page 184)
Hellenistic scientists made major
discoveries in math and astronomy.
(page 185)
Locating Places
Rhodes (ROHDZ)
Syracuse (SIHRuhKYOOS)
Meeting People
Theocritus (theeAHkruhtuhs)
Aristarchus (AR uhSTAHRkuhs)
Euclid (YOOkluhd)
Archimedes (AHR kuhMEEdeez)
Building Your Vocabulary
(EHpihkyuREEuhNIH zuhm)
Stoicism (STOHuhSIH zuhm)
astronomer (uhSTRAHnuhmuhr)
plane geometry (jeeAHmuhtree)
solid geometry (jeeAHmuhtree)
Reading Strategy
Summarizing Information Create a
diagram to show the major Greek
contributions to Western civilization.
c. 300 B.C.
King Ptolemy I
invites Euclid
to Alexandria
291 B.C.
Menander, the
playwright, dies
212 B.C.
Archimedes killed
by Romans
350 B.C.275 B.C. 200 B.C.
350 B.C.275 B.C. 200 B.C.
182 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
182-186 CH5 S4-824133 3/10/04 6:06 AM Page 182
Araldo de Luca/CORBIS
Greek Culture Spreads
Hellenistic cities became centers of
learning and culture.
Reading Focus Imagine you are a leading citizen in a
new city. How would you make it the best city possible?
Read to find out how leaders in the Hellenistic Era
improved their cities.
During the Hellenistic Era, philosophers,
scientists, poets, and writers flocked to the
new Greek cities in southwest Asia and
Egypt, especially Alexandria. Many came to
take advantage of Alexandria’s library. Its
more than 500,000 scrolls were useful to stu-
dents of literature and language. Alexandria
also had a museum where researchers went
to do their work.
Architecture and Sculpture The Hellenistic
kingdoms were lands of opportunity for
Greek architects. New cities were being
founded, and old ones were being rebuilt.
The Hellenistic kings wanted to make these
cities like the cultural centers of Greece. They
paid handsome fees to line the streets with
baths, theaters, and temples.
Hellenistic kings and other wealthy citi-
zens hired Greek sculptors to fill their towns
and cities with thousands of statues. These
statues showed the same level of workman-
ship as the statues from Greece’s Golden Age.
Literature and Theater Hellenistic lead-
ers also admired talented writers. Kings
and leading citizens spent generous sums
of money supporting writers’ work. As a
result, the Hellenistic Age produced a large
body of literature. Sadly, very little of this
writing has survived.
One of the works we know about is an
epic poem by Appolonius (ApuhLOHnee
uhs) of Rhodes (ROHDZ). Called Argonautica,
it tells the legend of Jason and his band of
heroes. They sail the seas in search of a ram
with golden fleece. Another poet, Theocritus
(thee AH kruh tuhs), wrote short poems
about the beauty of nature.
Athens remained the center of Greek the-
ater. Playwrights in Athens created a new
kind of comedy. The stories had happy end-
ings and still make people laugh. However,
unlike the comedies of Greece’s Golden Age,
they did not poke fun at political leaders.
Instead the plays told stories about love and
relationships. One of the best known of the
new playwrights was Menander (muhNAN
duhr), who lived from 343 B.C. to 291 B.C.
How did the
Hellenistic kingdoms spread Greek culture?
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 183
The Poetry of
Theocritus is considered the creator of
pastoral poetry. Pastoral poetry deals
with rural life, especially the
lives of shepherds. It
often compares rural
and city life. In this
selection, he talks
about shepherding
as a way of life.
“Shepherd, your song is
sweeter than the water
that tumbles and splashes
down from the rocks.
If the Muses get the ewe
for their prize,
you’ll win the [baby] lamb.
But if they choose
the lamb, you’ll carry away the ewe.
—Theocritus, “First Idyll”
How does Theocritus describe the song of
the shepherd?
of shepherd
182-186 CH5 S4-824133 2/28/04 6:34 AM Page 183
Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY
Greek Medicine The ancient Greeks
believed that their gods had the power
to cure them of illnesses and injuries.
Greek temples were places of healing
as well as places of worship. In temples,
priests treated patients with herbs,
prayed, and made sacrifices to the
gods as part of the healing process.
In the 400s
B.C., the practice of
medicine began to change. Hippocrates
(hih PAH kruh TEEZ), a doctor and
pioneer of medical science, began to
separate medicine from religion. He
stressed that it was important to
examine the body and look at a
patient’s symptoms to find out why
someone was ill. He also taught that it
was important to
have a healthy diet.
Hippocrates is
well known for the
oath, or pledge, that
he asked his medical
students to recite.
His students had
to promise never
to harm and always
to care for their
patients. New doctors still take a
version of the Hippocratic Oath when
they graduate from medical school.
Connecting to the Past
1. How were illnesses and injuries treated
before Hippocrates?
2. How did Hippocrates change the way
medicine was practiced in ancient Greece?
Epicurus and Zeno showed the world
different ways to look at happiness.
Reading Focus What makes you happy? Read on to
learn about different Greek ideas about happiness.
During the Hellenistic Era, Athens con-
tinued to attract the most famous philoso-
phers in the Greek world. The two most
important philosophers were Epicurus
and Zeno.
Epicureans Epicurus founded a philoso-
phy we now know as Epicureanism (EH pih
kyu REE uh NIH zuhm). He taught his stu-
dents that happiness was the goal of life. He
believed that the way to be happy was to
seek out pleasure.
Today the word epicurean means the
love of physical pleasure, such as good food
or comfortable surroundings. However, to
Epicurus, pleasure meant spending time
with friends and learning not to worry
about things. Epicureans avoided worry by
staying out of politics and public service.
Who Were the Stoics? A Phoenician
named Zeno developed Stoicism (STOHuh
SIH zuhm). It became a very popular philoso-
phy in the Hellenistic world. When Zeno
came to Athens, he could not afford to rent a
lecture hall. So he taught at a building known
as the “painted porch” near the city market.
“Stoicism” comes from stoa, the Greek word
for “porch.”
For Stoics, happiness came from follow-
ing reason, not emotions, and doing your
duty. Today the word stoic is used to
describe someone who is not affected by joy
or grief. Unlike Epicureans, Stoics thought
people had a duty to serve their city.
What were the
differences between Epicureanism and Stoicism?
Greek doctor
treating patients
182-186 CH5 S4-824133 3/10/04 6:11 AM Page 184
Scientist Scientific “Firsts”
Archimedes Established the science of physics
Explained the lever and compound pulley
Hypatia Expanded knowledge of
mathematics and
Hippocrates Known as the “Father of Medicine”
First to write a medical code of good behavior
Hipparchus Created a system to explain how planets and stars move
Euclid Wrote a book that organized information about geometry
Eratosthenes Figured out that Earth is round
Aristarchus Established that Earth revolves around the sun
Pythagoras First to establish the
principles of geometry
Greek Scientists and Their Contributions
Greek Scientists and Their Contributions
Greek Science and Math
Hellenistic scientists made major
discoveries in math and astronomy.
Reading Focus Do you know how to find the area of
a square? If so, you are doing geometry. Read on to find
out about the person who created geometry and other
scientists from the Hellenistic Era.
Scientists, especially mathematicians
and astronomers, made major contributions
during the Hellenistic Era. Astronomers
(uhSTRAH nuhmuhrs) study stars, planets,
and other heavenly bodies. Aristarchus
(AR uh STAHR kuhs), an astronomer from
Samos, claimed that the sun was at the cen-
ter of the universe and that Earth circled the
sun. At the time, other astronomers rejected
Aristarchus’s ideas. They thought that
Earth was the center of the universe.
Another astronomer, Eratosthenes (EHR
uh TAHS thuh NEEZ), was in charge of
the library at Alexandria. Eratosthenes
concluded that Earth is round. He then
used his knowledge of geometry and
astronomy to measure Earth’s circumfer-
ence—the distance around Earth.
Eratosthenes put two sticks in the ground
far apart from each other. When the sun was
directly over one stick, the shadow was
shorter than the shadow at the other stick. By
measuring the shadows, he was able to calcu-
late the curve of Earth’s surface.
Using his measurements, Eratosthenes
estimated that the distance around Earth
equaled 24,675 miles (39,702 km). Amazingly,
his estimate was within 185 miles (298 km) of
the actual distance. Using similar methods,
he measured the distance to the sun and to
the moon. His measurements were quite
(YOOkluhd) is probably the most
famous Greek mathematician. His best-
known book Elements describes plane
geometry. Plane geometry (jee AH muh
tree) is the branch of mathematics that shows
The ancient Greeks made advances in science.
1. What were Archimedes’ achievements?
2. Identify Who wrote a code of behavior that
doctors still follow today?
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 185
North Wind Picture Archives
182-186 CH5 S4-824133 2/28/04 4:17 AM Page 185
Reading Summary
Review the
Hellenistic cities, such as
Alexandria, attracted some of the
Greek world’s best architects,
sculptors, and writers.
During the Hellenistic Era, new
philosophies, such as Stoicism
and Epicureanism, developed.
Hellenistic scientists, including
Aristarchus, Eratosthenes, Euclid,
and Archimedes, made important
advances in the fields of astron-
omy and mathematics.
1. Why did the city of Alexandria
attract scholars?
2. Describe the form of philoso-
phy developed by Zeno.
Critical Thinking
Draw a table like
the one below. Write several
facts about each scientist in
the correct column.
Compare and Contrast
How were the comedies of the
Hellenistic Era and those of
Greece’s Golden Age similar
and different?
Analyze How would knowl-
edge of geometry be helpful to
the Greeks?
Identify What did the
Epicureans believe about
Context Clues
Name two words in this sen-
tence that help define the
word playwright.
“Playwrights in Athens created
a new kind of comedy.”
What Did You Learn?
Study Central™ Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
186 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
how points, lines,
angles, and sur-
faces relate to one
another. Around
300 B.C., King
Ptolemy I (TAH
luh mee) of Egypt
asked Euclid if he
knew an easier
way to learn geom-
etry than by
reading Elements. Euclid answered that
“there is no royal way” to learn geometry.
The most famous scientist of the
Hellenistic Era was Archimedes (AHR kuh
MEEdeez) of Syracuse (SIHRuhKYOOS).He
worked on solid geometry (jee AH muh
tree)—the study of ball-like shapes called
spheres and tubelike shapes called cylinders.
He also figured out the value of pi. This num-
ber is used to measure the area
of circles and is usually represented by the
symbol π.
Archimedes was also an inventor. One
story about Archimedes tells how he
invented weapons. “Give me a lever and a
place to stand on,” Archimedes said to the
king of Syracuse, “and I will move the
The king of Syracuse was impressed.
He asked Archimedes to use his levers to
defend the city. So Archimedes designed
catapults—machines that hurled arrows,
spears, and rocks. When Romans attacked
Syracuse in 212 B.C., Archimedes’ catapults
drove them back. It took the Romans three
years to capture Syracuse. During the mas-
sacre that followed, Archimedes was
Who was the most
famous scientist of the Hellenistic Era? What did
he contribute?
Scala/Art Resource, NY
182-186 CH5 S4-824133 3/17/05 12:00 PM Page 186
Alexander the Great
The Spread of Greek Culture
Greek Philosophy and History
The Culture of Ancient Greece
Socratic method
Hellenistic Era
plane geometry
solid geometry
Focusing on the
The Greeks believed that gods and goddesses controlled nature and shaped
their lives.
(page 155)
Greek poetry and fables taught Greek values. (page 157)
Greek drama still shapes entertainment today. (page 160)
Greek art and architecture expressed Greek ideas of beauty and harmony.
(page 162)
Focusing on the
Greek philosophers developed ideas that are still used today. (page 169)
Greeks wrote the first real histories in Western civilization. (page 173)
Focusing on the
Philip II of Macedonia united the Greek states.
(page 175)
Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and
spread Greek culture throughout southwest Asia.
(page 176)
Focusing on the
Hellenistic cities became centers of learning and culture. (page 183)
Epicurus and Zeno showed the world different ways to look at happiness.
(page 184)
Hellenistic scientists made major discoveries in math and astronomy.
(page 185)
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 187
the Great
Study anywhere, anytime!
Download quizzes and flash cards
to your PDA from glencoe.com
187-189 CH5 CRA-875047 9/13/06 11:49 AM Page 187
Words in Context
Read this passage from page 158.
“My father was anxious to see me
develop into a good man . . . [so] he
compelled me to memorize all of
19. Based on how compelled is used in this
sentence, what do you think it means?
a. asked
b. taught
c. forced
d. dared
To review this skill,see pages 152–153.
10. Why are Greek historians so important?
Section 3 • Alexander the Great
11. Which leader united the Greek states?
12. What are the two main accomplishments
of Alexander the Great?
Section 4 • The Spread of Greek Culture
13. Why were Hellenistic cities important?
14. In what fields did Hellenistic scientists
make advances?
Critical Thinking
15. Understanding Cause and Effect How
did the Peloponnesian War weaken the
Greek states?
16. Analyze Why would knowing the circum-
ference of Earth have been helpful to the
17. Compare How was religion in ancient
Greece similar to religion in ancient
18. Analyze Why do you think the develop-
ment of written history is important?
Review Vocabulary
1. Write a brief paragraph that defines and
compares the following terms.
epic fable myth
Decide if each statement is True or False.
2. An oracle was a shrine Greeks visited
to receive prophecies.
3. Sophists were professional teachers.
4. The death of Socrates marks the begin-
ning of the Hellenistic Era.
5. Astronomers study stars, planets, and
other heavenly bodies.
6. Euclid developed plane geometry.
Review Main Ideas
Section 1 • The Culture of Ancient Greece
7. What did the Greeks believe about their
gods and goddesses?
8. What did Greek art and architecture
Section 2 • Greek Philosophy and History
9. How long did the ideas of Greek philoso-
phers last?
188 CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization
187-189 CH5 CRA-824133 2/28/04 4:25 AM Page 188
Geography Skills
Study the map below and answer the follow-
ing questions.
Location Analyze the location of the
Hellenistic kingdoms. What present-day
countries control territory that was con-
trolled by the Seleucid empire?
21. Human/Environment Interaction
Which kingdom do you think was the most
difficult to govern based on its geography?
Read to Write
22. Descriptive Writing Imagine you are a
journalist living in Alexandria, Egypt,
during the Hellenistic Era. Write an article
describing life in the city.
Using Your Review the develop-
ments in early Greece that you listed on
your foldable. Using numbers, rank each
development from the most valuable to the
least valuable. Explain the reason for your
highest and lowest ranking.
Linking Past and Present
24. Expository Writing The Nobel prize is
awarded yearly to people who have made
great achievements. Do research to find out
more about the award. Then choose one
Greek philosopher, writer, scientist, or leader
who you think deserves the Nobel prize.
Write a short speech to explain why. Present
your speech to the class.
Using Technology
25. Creating a Multimedia Presentation
Use the Internet and print resources, such
as newspapers and magazines, to research
Greek architecture. Then use the computer
or posterboard to design and construct
your own building using Greek designs.
The Greeks dedicated some of their build-
ings to gods and goddesses. Dedicate your
building to someone in history and design
it with that person in mind. Share your
research and design with the class.
500 km
Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
500 mi.
Mediterranean Sea
Black Sea
Red Sea
Hellenistic World
Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for
the Chapter Test, visit jat.glencoe.com
CHAPTER 5 Greek Civilization 189
In this account, Thucydides describes the
masses of people who entered Athens
around 430
B.C. seeking relief from the
“There were no houses for them, and, living
as they did during the hot season in badly
ventilated huts, they died like flies....For
the catastrophe was so overwhelming that
men, not knowing what would happen next
to them, became indifferent to every rule of
religion or law. All the funeral ceremonies
which used to be observed were now disor-
ganized, and they buried the dead as best
they could.
—Thucydides, History of the
Peloponnesian War
26. What hardships did newcomers to
Athens face during the time of the
27. What does Thucydides mean when
he says that men “became indifferent
to every rule of religion or law”?
Egyptian kingdom
Macedonian kingdom
Pergamum kingdom
Seleucid kingdom
187-189 CH5 CRA-824133 2/28/04 5:08 AM Page 189