SHADOW FLICKER EFFECT
DECC CONSULTATION QUESTIONNAIRE
All information provided in this questionnaire will be treated as strictly confidential and
will not be passed to any third parties. Analysis based on the information provided will be
referred to in generic trends, and no site-specific or company-specific details will be
published.
The closing date for questionnaire submissions is:
WEDNESDAY 15th DECEMBER 2010
Please complete any sections of this questionnaire that are relevant to your area of
expertise or experience.
Q1: Has your company / organisation been involved in preparing any aspect of a shadow
flicker assessment for a proposed onshore wind energy development in the UK?
Q2: Has your company / organisation presented evidence relating to shadow flicker effect
at a Public Local Inquiry?
Q3: Is your company / organisation involved with 'Operation and Maintenance' of an
operational onshore wind farm / wind turbine?
Q4: Is your company / organisation involved in any other way with investigation of
shadow flicker effects relating to onshore wind energy developments?
Please continue to next page...
CONTACT DETAILS
Name
Organisation Name
Position / Job Title
Email Address
Telephone Number
Postal Address
Please continue to next page...
GENERAL ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
'10 x Rotor Diameter' rule-of-thumb
Companion Guide to PPS22 states:
"Shadow flicker can be mitigated by siting wind turbines at sufficient distance from
residences likely to be affected. Flicker effects have been proven to occur only within ten
rotor diameters of a turbine. Therefore if the turbine has 80m diameter blades, the
potential shadow flicker effect could be felt up to 800m from a turbine."
Q5: When assessing shadow flicker impact, do you:
Other
Q6: Do you assess shadow flicker effects:
Other
Q7: Do you assess shadow flicker effects on:
Road users?
Footpath users?
Bridleway users?
Non-residential properties (eg. offices, warehouses, etc)?
Other receptors? - please specify in 'Other'
Other
Q8: When preparing a planning application, what mitigation strategies for predicted
shadow flicker effects do you propose?
Careful site design to minimise / eliminate impact
Turbine shut-down strategy
Installation of blinds
Landscaping / vegetation screening
Other - please specify in 'Other'box
Other
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COMPUTER MODELS
Q9: What software package(s) do you use to assess shadow flicker?
Please specify
Q10: Do you find this software satisfactory for preparing a shadow flicker assessment that
is of an appropriate standard to support a planning application?
Q11: If 'No', please elaborate below:
Please elaborate
Q12: When preparing shadow flicker assessments, do you input field data or site-specific
environmental data into your model?
Q13: If 'Yes', please elaborate below:
Please elaborate
'Worst Case Scenario'
The 'Worst Case Scenario' assumes:
-
Continuous sunshine during daylight hours;
- Continually rotating turbine blades;
-
No vegetation or other obstacles are screening the receptor;
-
The wind turbine rotor plane is always perpendicular to the receptor and sun.
Q14: Do your shadow flicker assessments adhere to the 'Worst Case Scenario' detailed
above?
Q15: If 'No', please specify how they differ and your reason for adopting an alternative
approach.
Please specify
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OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE
Q16: Does your company own or manage any operational wind energy developments?
Q17: If 'Yes', please specify your company's role.
Other
PLEASE NOTE
As with all information provided in this questionnaire, data collected in the following section will be treated as
strictly confidential. Analysis based on the information provided will be referred to in generic trends, and no
site-specific or company-specific details will be published.
Q18: Have you received (or are you aware of) any complaints raised in relation to shadow
flicker effect at any of your operational wind energy developments?
Q19: If 'Yes', please provide: details of the project(s) including the wind farm in question;
details of the complaint(s) including document references; the circumstances triggering
the complaint; and details of how the complaint was resolved.
Please comment
Q20: What mitigation strategies for shadow flicker effects have been implemented on
your operational wind energy developments?
Careful site design to minimise / eliminate impact
Turbine shut-down strategy
Installation of blinds
Landscaping / vegetation screening
Other - please specify in 'Other' box
Other
Q21: How successful have these mitigation strategies been in practice? Please provide as
much detail as possible in the text box below.
Please comment
Q22: Have you observed shadow flicker effect occurring outside buildings, or in other
circumstances different from those set out in current guidance (which states "shadow
flicker only occurs inside buildings where the flicker appears through a narrow window
opening)?
Q23: If 'Yes', please elaborate below.
Please elaborate
Please continue to next page...
CURRENT GUIDANCE
'
'10 x Rotor Diameter' rule-of-thumb
Companion Guide to PPS22 states:
"Shadow flicker can be mitigated by siting wind turbines at sufficient distance from
residences likely to be affected. Flicker effects have been proven to occur only within ten
rotor diameters of a turbine. Therefore if the turbine has 80m diameter blades, the
potential shadow flicker effect could be felt up to 800m from a turbine."
Q24: Do you consider the '10 x Rotor Diameter' rule an appropriate assessment area for
shadow flicker reports?
Q25: Would an alternative calculation method for the assessment area be preferable to
the '10 x Rotor Diameter' rule?
Other
Shadow Flicker Effect outside properties
Companion Guide to PPS22 states:
"[Shadow Flicker Effect] only occurs inside buildings where the flicker appears through a
narrow window opening."
Q26: Should shadow flicker assessments be limited to the interior of residential buildings?
Q27: If 'No', should the following receptors be included in shadow flicker assessments?
Road users
Footpath users
Bridleway users
Non-residential properties (eg. offices, warehouses, etc)
Other receptors -
please specify in 'Other'box
Other
Q28: Please elaborate on your reason(s) for including additional receptors in shadow
flicker assessments.
Please elaborate
Quantitative Guidance
In recent years, regulations have emerged in other countries proposing a quantitative
approach to assessing shadow flicker. This approach sets a limit on the duration that a
receptor can be exposed to shadow flicker effect.
Q29: What is your opinion on the value of adopting quantitative guidance on shadow
flicker effect?
Please comment
Q30: Please include any other comments you have relating to amendments / omissions /
additions to current UK guidance.
Please comment
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Link to: 'Companion Guide to Planning Policy Statement 22 (PPS22) shadow flicker text
THANK YOU
Thank you for completing this form. Your assistance is greatly appreciated.
If you have any additional comments, please include them in the text box below.
Please comment
Q31: Would you be happy for a representative to contact you to discuss elements of this
questionnaire further?
Q32: What is your preferred method of contact?
Please continue to next page...
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